Now showing items 41-60 of 6719

    • Camera traps and genetic identification of faecal samples for detection and monitoring of an Endangered ungulate.

      Geary, Matthew; Hartley, Matthew; Ball, Zoe; Wilkes, Sammie; Khean, Mao; Ball, Rachel J.; Peters, Catherine M.; Muir, Anna P.; University of Chester; Wildlife Conservation Society Cambodia, Kampong Pranak, Preah Vihear
      Almost all Indochinese ungulates are classified as globally threatened but efforts to assess and monitor population status have been hampered by their rarity, cryptic nature and uncertainty in accurate identification from sightings. An improved approach is urgently needed to gather information about threatened ungulate species in order to effectively conserve them as, a lack of reliable monitoring methods means that basic information such as population sizes, distribution and habitat associations is currently unknown. Here, we used a combination of camera trapping and genetic detection of the Endangered Eld’s deer, Rucervus eldii, to investigate the utility of these methods to infer intensity of site use within a protected Cambodian dry forest. We asked: 1) Are Eld's deer present in our study area?; 2) How is site use influenced by local habitat?; and 3) Do camera traps or genetic detection perform better in terms of detection and monitoring? Camera traps were deployed and faecal samples collected from Chhaeb Wildlife Sanctuary in Northern Cambodia during the 2017 dry season. Faecal samples were identified as Eld’s deer using newly developed species-specific mitochondrial DNA primers. Camera traps recorded 20 Eld’s deer observations across 3905 trap-nights and 44 out of 71 collected faecal samples, identified by fieldworkers as likely to belong to Eld’s deer, were positively identified to be so. Camera trap surveys and genetic detection demonstrated that Eld’s deer were present in Chhaeb Wildlife Sanctuary, although the number of detections relative to sampling effort was low in both methods (detected at 29% and 1% of sample sites, respectively). Occupancy models showed that water level and tree diameter both had positive relationships, whilst human and domestic or feral pig activity had a negative relationship, with the relative intensity of Eld’s deer site use. Overall, our data suggest that both of our methods can prove effective for monitoring Eld’s deer but that repeated sampling is necessary to account for their low detectability in this area. We suggest that faecal samples are collected during future camera trap monitoring visits to maximise efficiency, increase detectability, and provide the most information to support conservation.
    • SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and Spike protein mutational dynamics in a Swedish cohort during 2021, studied by Nanopore sequencing

      Mannsverk, Steinar; Bergholm, Julia; Palanisamy, Navaneethan; Ellström, Patrik; Kaden, René; Lindh, Johan; Lennerstrand, Johan; Uppsala University; University of Chester (BMC, 2022-10-18)
      Background: Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, new variants of significance to public health have emerged. Consequently, early detection of new mutations and variants through whole-genome sequencing remains crucial to assist health officials in employing appropriate public health measures. Methods: We utilized the ARTIC Network SARS-CoV-2 tiled amplicon approach and Nanopore sequencing to sequence 4,674 COVID-19 positive patient samples from Uppsala County, Sweden, between week 15 and 52 in 2021. Using this data, we mapped the circulating variants of concern (VOC) in the county over time and analysed the Spike (S) protein mutational dynamics in the Delta variant throughout 2021. Results: The distribution of the SARS-CoV-2 VOC matched the national VOC distribution in Sweden, in 2021. In the S protein of the Delta variant, we detected mutations attributable to variants under monitoring and variants of interest (e.g., E484Q, Q613H, Q677H, A222V and Y145H) and future VOC (e.g., T95I and Y144 deletion, which are signature mutations in the Omicron variant). We also frequently detected some less well-described S protein mutations in our Delta sequences, that might play a role in shaping future emerging variants. These include A262S, Q675K, I850L, Q1201H, V1228L and M1237I. Lastly, we observed that some of the Delta variant’s signature mutations were underrepresented in our study due to artifacts of the used bioinformatics tools, approach and sequencing method. We therefore discuss some pitfalls and considerations when sequencing SARS-CoV-2 genomes. Conclusions: Our results suggest that genomic surveillance in a small, representative cohort can be used to make predictions about the circulating variants nationally. Moreover, we show that detection of transient mutations in currently circulating variants can give valuable clues to signature mutations of future VOC. Here we suggest six such mutations, that we detected frequently in the Delta variant during 2021. Lastly, we report multiple systematic errors that occurred when following the ARTIC Network SARS-CoV-2 tiled amplicon approach using the V3 primers and Nanopore sequencing, which led to the masking of some of the important signature mutations in the Delta sequences.
    • Ageing well. Activity for healthy ageing, a review of interventions to improve health and wellbeing in older people.

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University Of Chester (Active Cheshire, 2022-09-21)
      In the right setting, with the right support and the right opportunities, older people gain health, wellbeing, enjoyment and social engagement from physical activity. Social inclusion and physical activity are essential for ageing well. This report has reviewed 53 research papers (49 of them primary research) from the last five years that have studied the relationship between physical activity and its effectiveness in improving the health and wellbeing of older people. Not all of the positive outcomes can be measured as they are feelings of happiness, friendship, belonging and satisfaction with personal achievement; others can be measured in terms of cardiovascular fitness, body mass index (BMI), functional fitness and walking speed, balance and muscle strength. They are all important. It is essential to address the biopsychosocial aspects of our lives to promote ageing well for all. To be effective in supporting older people, the whole community must be engaged in supporting each other. Qualified instructors are essential, but employing the leadership and networking skills of older people themselves and offering a wide variety of group activities at central hubs and using outdoor, open-access facilities will provide more opportunities for engagement and support. Promoting social interaction as part of the offerings is essential, while promoting inclusivity and involving stakeholders in feedback, decisions and organisation is vital to success in promoting health, wellbeing and successful ageing through physical activity. Please see the recommendations at the end of the report for a summary of how the evidence can be applied.
    • The place of work-based learning in the development of leaders in a fast-changing world.

      Rowe, Lisa; Knight, Lisa; Irvine, Paul; Greenwood, Jo; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University; Lancaster University
      This developmental paper provides an overview of a collaborative research project to explore the lived experiences of senior leaders as they undergo a work-based learning programme with one of three universities in the North West of England. Qualitative data will be drawn from semi-structured surveys and interviews with leaders and thematically analysed to identify the experiences, key issues and challenges encountered. It is one of the first large scale studies of its kind, examining delivery of work-based leadership programmes across a range of industries and sectors in a post-pandemic context within the UK. The research is intended to provide a rich and descriptive picture of how both leaders and HEIs have adapted their practice during this period, identifying lessons learned, and making suggestions for future delivery of work-based leadership learning in an increasingly uncertain and challenging environment.
    • The Effect of Dietary Carbohydrate and Fat Manipulation on the Metabolome and Markers of Glucose and Insulin Metabolism: A Randomised Parallel Trial

      McCullough, Deaglan; Harrison, Tanja; Boddy, Lynne M.; Enright, Kevin J.; Amirabdollahian, Farzad; Schmidt, Michael A.; Doenges, Katrina; Quinn, Kevin; Reisdorph, Nicole; Mazidi, Mohsen; et al. (MDPI, 2022-09-07)
      High carbohydrate, lower fat (HCLF) diets are recommended to reduce cardiometabolic disease (CMD) but low carbohydrate high fat (LCHF) diets can be just as effective. The effect of LCHF on novel insulin resistance biomarkers and the metabolome has not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of an ad libitum 8-week LCHF diet compared with a HCLF diet on CMD markers, the metabolome, and insulin resistance markers. n = 16 adults were randomly assigned to either LCHF (n = 8, < 50 g CHO p/day) or HCLF diet (n = 8) for 8 weeks. At weeks 0, 4 and 8, participants provided fasted blood samples, measures of body composition, blood pressure and dietary intake. Samples were analysed for markers of cardiometabolic disease and underwent non-targeted metabolomic profiling. Both a LCHF and HCLF diet significantly (p < 0.01) improved fasting insulin, HOMA IR, rQUICKI and leptin/adiponectin ratio (p < 0.05) levels. Metabolomic profiling detected 3489 metabolites with 78 metabolites being differentially regulated, for example, an upregulation in lipid metabolites following the LCHF diet may indicate an increase in lipid transport and oxidation, improving insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, both diets may reduce type 2 diabetes risk albeit, a LCHF diet may enhance insulin sensitivity by increasing lipid oxidation.
    • Intra- and inter-operator variability of refractometric total proteins measurement of canine plasma

      Venier, F.; Jamont, W.; McLennan, Krista; Rosa, C.; Northwest Veterinary Specialists; University of Chester (AOSIS, 2022-11-07)
      Refractometric total proteins are commonly used in practice as a quick and inexpensive way to measure total protein concentration in bodily fluids. Little information is available about how the operator performing the measurement affects the results. The aim of our study was to determine the inter- and intra-operator variability of refractometric total proteins measured on canine plasma using a temperature-compensated handheld refractometer. A pooled sample of canine lithium-heparin plasma was created using leftover samples from dogs presented to our hospital. The sample was then divided into three aliquots. Total proteins of these aliquots were measured by veterinary nurses, interns, residents and specialists working at our hospital. Statistical analysis revealed excellent inter-operator (ICC 0.99, CI 95% 0.971–1.00) and intra-operator (ICC 0.997, CI 95% 0.990–0.999) variability. Having different operators measuring refractometric total plasma proteins in practice should not affect the results. This suggests different operators can be used when monitoring total plasma proteins of a patient over time and when designing a study that involves this test.
    • Association of factor expression levels with annual bleeding rate in people with haemophilia B

      Burke, Tom; email: tom.burke@hcdeconomics.com; Shaikh, Anum; Ali, Talaha M.; Li, Nanxin; Konkle, Barbara A.; Noone, Declan; O'Mahony, Brian; Pipe, Steven; O'Hara, Jamie (2022-11-04)
      Introduction: Gene therapy clinical trials measure steady‐state clotting factor expression levels (FELs) to evaluate the modulation of the bleeding phenotype, aiming to offer consistent protection against breakthrough bleeding events. The link between FELs and bleeding risk in people with haemophilia B (PwHB) is not well understood. Aim: We evaluated the association between FEL and ABR in PwHB. Methods: This cross‐sectional study extended the CHESS burden of illness studies in Europe and the United States. Recruitment of additional adult males with haemophilia B supplemented the existing CHESS sample size of PwHB and FELs. PwHB receiving prophylaxis were excluded, as fluctuating FELs may have confounded the analysis. Demographic and clinical characteristics were reported descriptively. Any recorded baseline FEL was reported by the haemophilia‐treating physicians according to the medical records. Generalised linear models with log link explored the association between changes in FEL and ABR. Results: The study included 407 PwHB and no inhibitors receiving on‐demand treatment. Mean age was 36.7 years; 56% from the EU, 44% from the United States. Mean baseline FEL was 9.95 IU/dl (SD, 10.47); mean ABR was 2.4 bleeds/year (SD, 2.64). After adjusting for covariates, the model showed that for every 1% increase in FEL the average ABR decreased by .08 (p < .001). Predicted number of bleeding events according to FEL showed a significant non‐linear relationship between FEL and ABR (p < .05). Conclusion: This analysis showed a significant relationship between FEL and ABR, where increases in FEL were associated with decreases in ABR among men with HB in Europe and the US.
    • Introduction: Beyond Inclusion and Exclusion

      Grady, Tim; Crouthamel, Jason; Geheran, Michael; Köhne, Julia; Grand Valley State University; Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, United States Military Academy; University of Chester; Humboldt-Universität (Berghahn, 2018-11-29)
      During the First World War, the Jewish population of Central Europe was politically, socially, and experientially diverse, to an extent that resists containment within a simple historical narrative. While antisemitism and Jewish disillusionment have dominated many previous studies of the topic, this collection aims to recapture the multifariousness of Central European Jewish life in the experiences of soldiers and civilians alike during the First World War. Here, scholars from multiple disciplines explore rare sources and employ innovative methods to illuminate four interconnected themes: minorities and the meaning of military service, Jewish-Gentile relations, cultural legacies of the war, and memory politics.
    • Determinants of Homelessness (SODH) in North West England in 2020

      Mabhala, M (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2022-10-25)
      Background Poverty creates social conditions that increase the likelihood of homelessness. These include exposure to traumatic life experiences; social disadvantages such as poor educational experiences; being raised in a broken family, care homes or foster care; physical, emotional, and sexual abuse; and neglect at an early age. These conditions reduce people's ability to negotiate through life challenges. Methods This cross-sectional study documents the clustering and frequency of adverse social conditions among 152 homeless people from four cities in North West England between January and August 2020. Results Two-step cluster analysis showed that having parents with a criminal record, care history, and child neglect/abuse history was predictive of homelessness. The cluster of indicator variables among homeless people included sexual abuse (χ2 (N = 152) = 220.684, p &amp;lt; 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.7), inappropriate sexual behaviour (χ2 (N = 152) = 207.737, p &amp;lt; 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.7), emotional neglect (χ2 (N = 152) = 181.671, p &amp;lt; 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.7), physical abuse by step-parent (χ2 (N = 152) = 195.882, p &amp;lt; 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.8), and physical neglect (χ2 (N = 152) = 205.632, p &amp;lt; 0.001, Cramer's V = 0.8). Conclusions Poverty and homelessness are intertwined because of the high prevalence of poverty among the homeless. Poverty sets up a chain of interactions between social conditions that increase the likelihood of unfavourable outcomes: homelessness is at the end of the interaction chain. Interventions supporting families to rise out of poverty may also reduce entry into homelessness. Key messages
    • Beyond Inclusion and Exclusion: Jewish Experiences of the First World War in Central Europe

      Grady, Tim; Crouthamel, Jason; Geheran, Michael; Köhne, Julia; University of Chester; Grand Valley State University; Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, United States Military Academy; Humboldt-Universität (Berghahn, 2018-11-29)
      During the First World War, the Jewish population of Central Europe was politically, socially, and experientially diverse, to an extent that resists containment within a simple historical narrative. While antisemitism and Jewish disillusionment have dominated many previous studies of the topic, this collection aims to recapture the multifariousness of Central European Jewish life in the experiences of soldiers and civilians alike during the First World War. Here, scholars from multiple disciplines explore rare sources and employ innovative methods to illuminate four interconnected themes: minorities and the meaning of military service, Jewish-Gentile relations, cultural legacies of the war, and memory politics.
    • A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Research Examining the Characteristics of Effective Sport and Exercise Psychology Practitioners.

      Tod, David; Pullinger, Samuel; Lafferty, Moira E.; University of Chester; Lancaster University
      Research indicates sport psychology practitioners vary in their abilities to help athletes. Understanding the characteristics of helpful practitioners can inform applied sport psychology training. We reviewed qualitative research on stakeholders’ perceptions of the characteristics of practitioners. The electronic and manual search yielded 33 studies, with extracted data being subject to an abductive analysis. We also critically appraised the studies according to criteria listed by the Cochrane Collaboration. Results indicated that stakeholders perceived that helpful practitioners were able to (a) build rapport or interpersonal bonds with athletes, (b) develop real relationships based on openness and realistic perceptions, (c) inspire hope and suitable expectations, (d) promote engagement in the change process, and (e) operate well in the contexts where clients are located. The critical appraisal indicated that the studies provide an informed representation of stakeholders’ perceptions, but also where research may improve, such as considering the researcher-participant relationship. The review points to avenues of future research, such as experiments testing if the characteristics stakeholders believe describe helpful practitioners lead to better client outcomes. The current findings can also inform the training, supervision, and continued professional development of trainees and practitioners.
    • European Fascist Movements: An Introduction

      Grady, Tim; Clark, Roland; University of Chester; University of Liverpool
      This volume offers a fresh and original collection of primary sources on interwar European fascist movements. These sources reflect new approaches to fascism that emphasise the practical, transnational experience of fascism as a social movement, contextualising ideological statements within the historical moments they were produced. Divided into eighteen geographically based chapters, contributors draw together the history of different fascist and right-wing movements, selecting sources that reflect themes such as transnational ties, aesthetics, violence, female activism and the instrumentalisation of race, gender and religion. Each chapter provides a chronological, narrative account of movements interspersed with primary sources, from political speeches, police reports internal movement circulars and articles through to oral history, songs and music, photographs, artworks, poetry, and anti-fascist sources. The volume as a whole introduces readers to the diversity of fascist groups across the continent, demonstrating how fascist groups were constituted through social bonds, rather than around fixed ideologies, as such it captures the inexperience and ad-hoc character of early fascist groups. With an introduction that explains the volume’s theoretical approach and elaborates on the chronology of European fascism, European Fascist Movements is the perfect sourcebook for any student of Modern European history and politics.
    • Germany

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester
      This volume offers a fresh and original collection of primary sources on interwar European fascist movements. These sources reflect new approaches to fascism that emphasise the practical, transnational experience of fascism as a social movement, contextualising ideological statements within the historical moments they were produced. Divided into eighteen geographically based chapters, contributors draw together the history of different fascist and right-wing movements, selecting sources that reflect themes such as transnational ties, aesthetics, violence, female activism and the instrumentalisation of race, gender and religion. Each chapter provides a chronological, narrative account of movements interspersed with primary sources, from political speeches, police reports internal movement circulars and articles through to oral history, songs and music, photographs, artworks, poetry, and anti-fascist sources. The volume as a whole introduces readers to the diversity of fascist groups across the continent, demonstrating how fascist groups were constituted through social bonds, rather than around fixed ideologies, as such it captures the inexperience and ad-hoc character of early fascist groups. With an introduction that explains the volume’s theoretical approach and elaborates on the chronology of European fascism, European Fascist Movements is the perfect sourcebook for any student of Modern European history and politics.
    • Opportunities for improved space heating energy efficiency from fluid property modifications

      Williams, Andrew M.; Innerdale, Daniel T.; University of Chester (Sage, 2022-11-21)
      Unsteady behaviour of hydronic heating systems causes higher mean room temperatures than are required for comfort. Peak room temperatures depend on interactions between thermostats, heat emitters and the room. The importance of fluid properties on such unsteady heating is often misunderstood meaning potential energy savings are overlooked. This paper demonstrates the influence of fluid modifications and indicates a plausible magnitude of the energy saving opportunity. The results showed that fluid side heat transfer coefficient in isolation had negligible effect. Specific heat capacity of the fluid and flow rates were important, as they altered the amount of embedded energy in the heat emitter when thermostat was met. Reductions in mean heating power for steady demand conditions were between 0 and 7% for plausible changes to fluid properties, depending on heat emitter size, room insulation and external temperature. Reductions in individual cycle energy were between 5 and 25%. When considered in the context of intermittent finite duration heating events, those that contained a small number of thermostat cycles demonstrated energy savings that tended towards the reductions in individual cycle energy. Heating events with larger numbers of cycles showed energy savings tending towards the reduction in mean heating power.
    • What Business Managers Should Know About Quantum Computing?

      Leong, Kelvin; Sung, Anna; University of Chester (Organization for Research Development and Training, 2022-10-31)
      Business management requires rapid reactions to the changes of business environment effectively. Given quantum computing’s game-changing power will bring huge transformation, therefore managers should be aware of how to take the advantage of quantum computing and recognize its potential impacts to the business world. In fact, quantum computing will deliver exponential advantages for various problems, such as factoring very large numbers within very short time, therefore it has dramatic impacts on existing business issues, such as cybersecurity practice, business optimization, investment decision making, search from unstructured data, etc. However, although the topic is emerging, only very limited studies have been conducted with specific focus on the potential impacts of quantum computing on business management. Accordingly, this study was conducted to fill this knowledge gap. In this study, we began with analyzing quantum related investment markets, trends in scholarly publication and keyword search on the internet about quantum computing. In addition, we provided an introduction on what is quantum computing and discussed related quantum algorithms. Finally, we summarized four major potential applications of quantum computing in business management. Hopefully this paper can serve as a reference for researchers, industrial participators and policy makers engaged in future research or practical applications on related topics.
    • Prior associations affect bumblebees’ generalization performance in a tool-selection task

      Chow, Pizza Ka Yee; Lehtonen, Topi K.; Näreaho, Ville; Loukola, Olli J.; University of Chester; University of Oulu; Natural Resources Institute Finland (Cell Press, 2022-10-31)
      A small brain and short life allegedly limit cognitive abilities. Our view of invertebrate cognition may also be biased by the choice of experimental stimuli. Here, the stimuli (color) pairs in Match-To-Sample (MTS) tasks affected the performance of buff-tailed bumblebees (Bombus terrestris). We trained the bees to roll a tool, ball, to a goal that matched its color. Color-matching performance was slower with yellow-and-orange/red than with blue-and-yellow stimuli. When assessing the bees’ concept learning in a transfer test with a novel color, the bees trained with blue-and-yellow (novel color: orange/red) were highly successful, the bees trained with blue-and-orange/red (novel color: yellow) did not differ from random, and those trained with yellow-and-orange/red (novel color: blue) failed the test. These results highlight that stimulus salience can affect the conclusions on test subjects’ cognitive ability. Therefore, we encourage paying attention to stimulus salience (among other factors) when assessing invertebrate cognition.
    • European Fascist Movements: A Sourcebook

      Grady, Tim; Clark, Roland; University of Chester; University of Liverpool
      This volume offers a fresh and original collection of primary sources on interwar European fascist movements. These sources reflect new approaches to fascism that emphasise the practical, transnational experience of fascism as a social movement, contextualising ideological statements within the historical moments they were produced. Divided into eighteen geographically based chapters, contributors draw together the history of different fascist and right-wing movements, selecting sources that reflect themes such as transnational ties, aesthetics, violence, female activism and the instrumentalisation of race, gender and religion. Each chapter provides a chronological, narrative account of movements interspersed with primary sources, from political speeches, police reports internal movement circulars and articles through to oral history, songs and music, photographs, artworks, poetry, and anti-fascist sources. The volume as a whole introduces readers to the diversity of fascist groups across the continent, demonstrating how fascist groups were constituted through social bonds, rather than around fixed ideologies, as such it captures the inexperience and ad-hoc character of early fascist groups. With an introduction that explains the volume’s theoretical approach and elaborates on the chronology of European fascism, European Fascist Movements is the perfect sourcebook for any student of Modern European history and politics.
    • The Impact of Pharmacokinetic-Guided Prophylaxis on Clinical Outcomes and Healthcare Resource Utilization in Hemophilia A Patients: Real-World Evidence from the CHESS II Study.

      Ferri Grazzi, Enrico; Sun, Shawn X.; Burke, Tom; O'Hara, Jamie (2022-09-19)
      Background: Using a pharmacokinetic (PK)-guided approach to personalize the dose and frequency of prophylactic treatment can help achieve and maintain targeted factor VIII (FVIII) trough levels in patients with hemophilia A. Objective: Investigate clinical and healthcare resource use outcomes in patients with hemophilia A treated with or without PK-guided prophylaxis using data from the Cost of Haemophilia in Europe: A Socioeconomic Survey (CHESS) II database. Methods: CHESS II was a cross-sectional, retrospective, burden-of-illness study incorporating data from eight European countries. Patients were eligible for this analysis if they were male, ≥18 years of age, and diagnosed with congenital hemophilia A of any severity. The clinical endpoints included annualized bleeding rate (ABR), presence and number of problem/target joints, and occurrence of joint surgeries. Healthcare resource utilization endpoints included the number of hematologist consultations and bleed-related hospitalizations or emergency department admissions. Data from November 2018 to October 2020 were included and were stratified according to treatment regimen and use of PK-guided dosing. Results: Altogether, 281 patients on prophylaxis had available FVIII trough level data. Mean (SD) age was 35.7 (13.8) years. A specific FVIII trough level was targeted in 120 (42.7%) patients and 47 (39.2%) received PK-guided dosing. Patients receiving PK-guided dosing had a mean (SD) ABR of 2.8 (2.1) and target joint number of 0.5 (0.7), compared with 3.9 (2.7) and 0.9 (1.4), respectively, for patients receiving non-PK-guided treatment. The mean (SD) number of hematologist consultations was 7.1 (5.3) for patients receiving PK-guided dosing versus 10.7 (5.7) for those who were not. A higher proportion of patients in the non-PK-guided group required hospitalization during their lifetime compared with the PK-guided group.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This analysis of real-world data suggests that PK-guided dosing for prophylaxis has a beneficial impact on clinical and healthcare resource utilization outcomes in patients with hemophilia A.
    • “What’s a computer?” Intuition Meets the Science Law in a Complete Fall Lyrics Corpus

      Davies, Matt; University of Chester
      This chapter outlines experiments with the Wmatrix software programme in identifying significant semantic categories and thematic patterns in a corpus of the complete Fall lyrics, from their inception in 1977 to the death of frontman Mark E Smith in 2018. The 84,703 words is edited down to 60,720 words to remove repetition, and researcher intuition is balanced against the results generated by the software. The findings, for instance, that the words 'man' and 'head' and the semantic category 'Anatomy and Physiology' are deemed highly significant, open up pathways for further investigation into one of the most prolific and dense lyrical outputs in modern popular music history.
    • Experiences of ethnic minority personnel in the armed forces: A systematic review

      Salem, Kate; Randles, Rebecca; Sapre, Bhairavi; Finnegan, Alan (University of Toronto Press Inc. (UTPress), 2022-10-17)
      LAY SUMMARY An armed forces consisting of personnel from diverse and ethnic minority backgrounds offers considerable benefits, not just in terms of reflecting society but for improving the effectiveness of military operations. Many ethnic minority individuals serve for long periods, during which they experience personal growth and benefit from military service. However, little research has explored the impact these experiences might have on ethnic minority communities within the Armed Forces, who report higher levels of being bullying, harassment, and discrimination. Given the lack of empirical research into armed forces ethnic minority personnel, this systematic review aimed to provide insight into and understanding of existing international research, relevant reports, and policy. The review was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and included articles written in English since 2010. The review identified three themes — cultural identity, health status and health utilization, and trauma and discrimination — and indicated that ethnic minority personnel experience greater disadvantage than their native counterparts, both during and after service.