Now showing items 21-40 of 7051

    • Mobilizing Metaphors in Criminological Analysis: A Case Study of Emotions in the Penal Voluntary Sector

      Quinn, Kaitlyn; Buck, Gillian; Tomczak, Philippa; University of Missouri; University of Chester; University of Nottingham (Oxford University Press, 2024-05-04)
      Metaphors pervade media and political constructions of crime and justice, provoking responses and shaping actions. Scholarship in adjacent disciplines illustrates that emotion-metaphors offer unique insight into emotional and interpretive processes, valuably illuminating sense-making, problem solving and action. Yet, metaphors are rarely analysed within criminology, leaving an important opportunity for theorizing emotions and their implications largely unrealized. We explore the analytical and theoretical potential of emotion-metaphors for criminology, using empirical research conducted in the penal voluntary sectors of England and Scotland. Drawing on focus groups with volunteers and paid staff, we analyse the metaphors that non-profit practitioners mobilized to convey how their work felt: (1) absurd and unstable, (2) vulnerable and constrained, (3) devalued and discarded and (4) risky and all-consuming.
    • Exploring different stroke populations’ information needs: a cross-sectional study in England

      Harfoush, Allam; Chatterjee, Kausik; Deery, Elizabeth; Hamdallah, Hanady; University of Chester; Countess of Chester Hospital; Ulster University (BMC, 2024-05-06)
      Background: While tailored information might have the potential to motivate stroke survivors to make essential lifestyle changes and improve long-term outcomes, how this varies among different stroke populations is not yet fully understood. Method: From November 2022 to May 2023, stroke survivors in the UK, who were clinically stable, participated in a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants rated several information themes on a Likert scale from one to five, indicating the relevance of each information group to them. Data were analysed using Wilcoxon and chi-squared tests on SPSS. Descriptive statistics were employed for examining the preferred information delivery method, timing, personnel, and frequency. Results: Seventy survivors, with an average age of 67 ± 19 (61% males), were recruited. Survivors emphasised the importance of symptoms, risk factors, and recovery information during hospital stay, while medication and lifestyle change information were more significant in the community. Subgroup analysis revealed distinct patterns: First-time stroke survivors highlighted the importance of social and financial support (acute phase median Likert score 3, chronic phase median Likert score 4; p < 0.01), while those with prior strokes emphasised information on driving and working after stroke (acute phase median Likert score 4, chronic phase median Likert score 3; p < 0.05). Survivors recruited after six months of stroke prioritised knowledge of carer support in the community (acute phase median Likert score 3.5, chronic phase median Likert score 4; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Survivors’ information needs differ depending on factors such as the recovery phase, type of stroke, time since diagnosis, and the presence of a previous stroke. Considering these factors is essential when developing or providing information to stroke survivors.
    • Photovoice with care: A creative and accessible method for representing lived experiences

      Ryan, Natasha; Ryan, Kemi; Buck, Gillian; Reformed development CIC; University of Chester (HM Prison Service of England and Wales, 2024-05-03)
      Photovoice is a research method with great promise as a tool for people looking to tell stories about their lives and work toward change, it also has much to offer criminology, creating insightful material from the perspectives of those most intimately connected to the research topic. This article reflects on photovoice as a resource for lived experience practitioners, activists, and leaders. The work we reflect upon is a co-designed, participatory study of a community-led crime prevention organisation: ‘Reformed’. We (Natasha and Kemi) founded Reformed after being released from prison to multiple barriers and low expectations from criminal justice professionals.
    • The Sport and Exercise Psychology Practitioner’s Contribution to Service Delivery Outcomes

      Tod, David; Slade, Kate; Lafferty, Moira; Lancaster University; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2024)
      The purpose of this article is to review research related to the practitioner’s contribution to effective service delivery. Specifically, we answer five questions. First, what are sport and exercise psychology practitioners striving to achieve? Second, what is expertise in applied sport and exercise psychology? Third, what are characteristics of effective practitioners? Fourth, how can practitioners develop their expertise over time? Fifth, how do practitioners manage the athlete variables and contextual factors that influence service delivery? Offering answers to these questions allows us to identify practical implications to inform practitioner training and development and to suggest avenues to expand knowledge. Results from the review suggest that practitioners who help athletes effectively possess facilitative interpersonal skills, experience professional self-doubt, engage in judicious decision making, exercise organizational savviness, demonstrate multicultural humility, and willingly engage in skill development. Based on current knowledge, future research directions include examining the magnitude of practitioner attributes on service delivery outcomes. Applied implications for professional development include the use of deliberate practice to enhance skill learning, along with using supervision and feedback.
    • Correction: Wiśniewska et al. Heterospecific Fear and Avoidance Behaviour in Domestic Horses (Equus caballus). Animals 2021, 11, 3081

      Wiśniewska, Anna; Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela; Tkaczyk, Ewelina; Mierzicka, Martyna; Stanley, Christina R.; Górecka‐Bruzda, Aleksandra; University of Life Sciences in Lublin; University of Chester; Polish Academy of Sciences (MDPI, 2022-08-10)
      Correction to original article
    • Student-Led Live Broadcast Tour: An Elevated Learning Journey for Tourism Students

      Lai, Michael T. H.; Yeung, Emmy; Ching, Larry K. W.; Li, Betty M.; Saint Francis University; University of Chester; Hong Kong Metropolitan University (Springer, 2024-04-20)
      Drawing upon the concept of student-led live broadcasting tour (LBT), this study aims to construct and empirically test the Input-Process-Output (IPO) framework that links inputs, processes, and outputs within online tourism educational context. The sample involved students who are currently studying a tourism program in the Greater Bay Area, China. One group of students was invited as the audience with another group of students acting as tour guides to lead a live broadcasting tour. Upon completion of the tour, the audience group was invited to fll in the questionnaire survey. The data were gathered through the questionnaire survey from December 2022 to March 2023. The survey instruments were designed based on existing research and the IPO framework. The quantitative data were analysed by SPSS and SmartPLS. 5 hypotheses were developed based on the IPO framework. The results confrmed that students perceived student-led LBT positively in terms of input dimensions (intrinsic motivation and resources support), process dimension (learning climate) and output dimension (learning outcomes and satisfaction). This study gives implications to educators on how student-led LBT can be designed and implemented under the constraints of travel. The utilisation of technology ofers educators the possibility to enrich the learning experience of tourism students in a more afordable and efective way.
    • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and coexisting depression, anxiety and/or stress in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Shea, Sue; Lionis, Christos; Kite, Chris; Lagojda, Lukasz; Uthman, Olalekan; Dallaway, Alexander; Atkinson, Lou; Chaggar, Surinderjeet S.; Randeva, Harpal S.; Kyrou, Ioannis; et al. (Frontiers Media, 2024-04-16)
      Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease, affecting 25-30% of the general population globally. The condition is even more prevalent in individuals with obesity and is frequently linked to the metabolic syndrome. Given the known associations between the metabolic syndrome and common mental health issues, it is likely that such a relationship also exists between NAFLD and mental health problems. However, studies in this field remain limited. Accordingly, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore the prevalence of one or more common mental health conditions (i.e., depression, anxiety, and/or stress) in adults with NAFLD. Methods: PubMed, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, Ovid, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched in order to identify studies reporting the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and/or stress among adults with NAFLD. A random-effects model was utilized to calculate the pooled prevalence and confidence intervals for depression, anxiety and stress. Results: In total, 31 studies were eligible for inclusion, involving 2,126,593 adults with NAFLD. Meta-analyses yielded a pooled prevalence of 26.3% (95% CI: 19.2 to 34) for depression, 37.2% (95% CI: 21.6 to 54.3%) for anxiety, and 51.4% (95% CI: 5.5 to 95.8%) for stress among adults with NAFLD. Conclusion: The present findings suggest a high prevalence of mental health morbidity among adults with NAFLD. Given the related public health impact, this finding should prompt further research to investigate such associations and elucidate potential associations between NAFLD and mental health morbidity, exploring potential shared underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms. Systematic review registration:, identifier CRD42021288934.
    • Re-visiting the Leadership Gap: How to lead in a task-focused work system.

      Murphy, Liam; Turnbull, Helen; University of Chester (Pact4Youth Association, 2024-04-02)
      The organisational focus on workplace automation is fuelling the evolution of the labour market towards task focused work systems, and an emerging gig economy. This evolution creates new demands on organisational leaders to introduce flexible and agile management techniques, whilst maintaining a strategic focus on upskilling and reskilling their employees for a digitalised world. We revisit our previous GJSD paper, “Mind the leadership gap”, to further emphasise these aspects of the changing work environment and introduce 1. Their potential influence on organisational belonging, and 2. The resultant impact on leadership styles and skills. This paper presents a short synthesis of the complex challenges faced by leaders within such an operating environment. This is followed by four further proposals for the future research agenda along with two suggested research methods which enhance our previous call to action on the leadership gap.
    • Detecting Deception

      Wright, Clea; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2023-04-18)
      This chapter presents an overview of research on how we may be able to detect deception. Key ideas, findings, and challenges are outlined, and contexts in which the assessment of credibility may be relevant are considered. Four major approaches to detecting deception are discussed and evaluated; observing non-verbal behaviour, measuring physiological responses, measuring neural activity, and analysing verbal accounts. The focus is directed at approaches that have the greatest utility in an applied policing context and in investigative interviewing. The chapter also explores strategies to elicit cues to deception and maximise the differences between liars and truth-tellers, and dispels some common misconceptions.
    • The long term effects of uncoupling interventions as a therapy for dementia in humans

      Holt, Alan G.; Davies, Adrian M. (Elsevier, 2024-04-15)
      In this paper we use simulation methods to study a hypothetical uncoupling agent as a therapy for dementia. We simulate the proliferation of mitochondrial deletion mutants amongst a population of wild-type in human neurons. Mitochondria play a key role in ATP generation. Clonal expansion can lead to the wild-type being overwhelmed by deletions such that a diminished population can no longer fulfil a cell's energy requirement, eventually leading to its demise. The intention of uncoupling is to reduce the formation of deletion mutants by reducing mutation rate. However, a consequence of uncoupling is that the energy production efficacy is also reduced which in turn increases wild-type copy number in order to compensate for the energy deficit. The results of this paper showed that uncoupling reduced the severity of dementia, however, there was some increase in cognitive dysfunction pre-onset of dementia. The effectiveness of uncoupling was dependent upon the timing of intervention relative to the onset of dementia and would necessitate predicting its onset many years in advance. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2024 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.]
    • Decadal Analysis of ESBL-Escherichia coli Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Urine Samples from Nepal: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

      Rana Chhetri, Bibek; Thapa, Rajat; Banjara, Megha Raj; University of Chester; Angel Fertility Clinic, Kathmandu; Tribhuvan University (Nepal Health Research Council, 2024-03-22)
      This systematic review aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern of the extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) in urine samples in Nepal. Systematic literature review was conducted to locate all articles reporting ESBL-EC in urine samples published between January 2012 to December 2022. The Egger's weighted regression analysis was done to assess the publication bias. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled prevalence and corresponding 95% confidence interval due to significant between-study heterogeneity. The strength of correlation between multidrug resistance and ESBL production in E.coli strains was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The data were analyzed using R-language 4.2.2. software. The combined prevalence of E.coli in urine samples was found to be 14 % (95% CI, 11-18), while the overall pooled prevalence of ESBL E.coli and MDR E.coli were 30% (95% CI, 20-42) and 70% (95% CI, 38-90) respectively. A strong positive correlation of 0.99 (95% CI, 0.89-1.0) was found between ESBL production and MDR among E.coli isolates. Imipenem was the drug of choice against ESBL-E.coli in urine specimens. Our analyses showed the overall ESBL-EC and MDR-EC burden in Nepal is considerably high. Likewise, the study also infers an increasing trend of antibiotic resistance pattern of ESBL-EC in urine samples.
    • White paper on forensic child interviewing: research-based recommendations by the European Association of Psychology and Law

      Korkman, Julia; Otgaar, Henry; Geven, Linda M.; Bull, Ray; Cyr, Mireille; Hershkowitz, Irit; Mäkelä, Juha-Matti; Mattison, Michelle; Milne, Rebecca; Santtila, Pekka; et al. (Taylor & Francis, 2024-04-18)
      This white paper consists of evidence-based recommendations for conducting forensic interviews with children. The recommendations are jointly drafted by researchers in child interviewing active within the European Association of Psychology and Law and are focused on cases in which children are interviewed in forensic settings, in particular within investigations of child sexual and/or physical abuse. One particular purpose of the white paper is to assist the growing Barnahus movement in Europe to develop investigative practise that is science-based. The key recommendations entail the expertise required by interviewers, how interviews should be conducted and how interviewers should be trained. Interviewers are advised to use evidence-based interview protocols, engage in hypothesis-testing and record their interviews. The need to prepare the interview well and making efforts to familiarise the child with the interview situation and create rapport as well as acknowledging cultural factors and the possible need for interpretation is underscored, and a recommendation is made not to rely on dolls, body diagrams and the interpretation of drawings in the interviews. Online child interviewing is noted as showing promising results, but more research is warranted before conclusive recommendations can be made. Interviewers should receive specialised training and continuous feedback on their interviews.
    • Correction: Resolving nanoscopic structuring and interfacial THz dynamics in setting cements

      Song, Fu V.; Yang, Bin; Di Tommaso, Devis; Donnan, Robert S.; Chass, Gregory A.; Yada, Rickey Y.; Farrar, David H.; Tian, Kun V.; Queen Mary University of London; University of Chester; The University of British Columbia; McMaster University; Sapienza University of Rome (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022-10-04)
      Correction for ‘Resolving nanoscopic structuring and interfacial THz dynamics in setting cements’ by Fu V. Song et al., Mater. Adv., 2022, 3, 4982–4990,
    • An investigation of the effects of repurposed drugs on human neuroblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines

      Johnson, Eustace; Kharawatkar, Abhishek (University of Chester, 2023-06)
      Neuroblastoma is an aggressive and highly metastatic extracranial tumour of the sympathetic nervous system commonly seen in children, whereas, glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive and highly proliferative intracranial tumour of the central nervous system seen more in adults. The cellular heterogeneity and molecular pathogenesis of both of these tumours have limited the development of successful treatments. The combined effects of the lipid-lowering drug, bezafibrate (BEZ) and the contraceptive drug, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (combined as BaP) has shown promising anti-cancer effects on blood cancers like myeloid leukaemia, Burkitt’s lymphoma and chronic lymphoid leukaemia, and osteosarcoma, with elevated levels of reactive oxygen species and down-regulation of lipogenic enzymes implicated in the mechanisms of action for these drug treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of these combined drugs on neuronal cancers, using the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and U-87MG glioblastoma cell lines as model systems. BEZ treatment alone was shown to have a significant and BEZ concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on SH-SY5Y and U-87MG viable cell proliferation, whereas MPA treatment alone was shown to have very little effect on the cells. The combination of the drugs was shown to have a significant and drug concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on SH-SY5Y and U-87MG viable cell proliferation to a greater extent than BEZ treatment alone. These anti-cancerous effects were associated with increased cell death, and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both cell lines after 24 hours of treatment. Levels of the lipogenic enzymes, stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 and fatty acid synthase were seen to be significantly lower in SH-SY5Y and U-87MG cells than in blood cancer cell lines. Further, oleic acid supplementation rescued SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, but in serum not serum free conditions only. Oleic acid supplementation of U-87MG cells did not rescue their susceptibility to BaP treatment. Inclusion of valproic acid combined with BaP (termed VBaP) enhanced the effects of BaP treatment on SH-SY5Y and U-87MG cells, as well as U266 multiple myeloma cells. This is important, as higher concentrations of BEZ are nephrotoxic. The effects of VBaP on U-87MG cells also were explored in a 3D alginate culture system to mimic the microenvironment of the brain. In this situation, VBaP treatment still inhibited U-87MG cell growth and also was effective at inhibited established tumour spheroids. Hence, this thesis has examined whether drug repurposed drug treatments that have been established in blood cancers may also have application in neuronal cancers, and demonstrated that this is possible.
    • Disease Burden, Clinical Outcomes, and Quality of Life in People with Hemophilia A without Inhibitors in Europe: Analyses from CHESS II/CHESS PAEDs

      Chowdary, Pratima; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Nissen, Francis; Ferri Grazzi, Enrico; Aizenas, Martynas; Moreno, Katya; Burke, Tom; Nolan, Beatrice; O'Hara, Jamie; Khair, Kate; et al. (Thieme, 2024-04-15)
      Introduction: Limited data relating to treatment burden, quality of life, and mental health burden of hemophilia A (HA) are currently available. Aim: To provide a comprehensive overview of unmet needs in people with HA (PwHA) using data generated from the Cost of Haemophilia in Europe: a Socioeconomic Survey-II (CHESS II) and CHESS in the pediatric population (CHESS PAEDs) studies. Methods: CHESS II and CHESS PAEDs are cross-sectional surveys of European males with HA or hemophilia B (HB) aged ≥18 and ≤17 years, respectively. Participants with FVIII inhibitors, mild HA, or HB were excluded from this analysis, plus those aged 18 to 19 years. Annualized bleeding rates (ABRs), target joints, and other patient-reported outcomes were evaluated. Results: Overall, 468 and 691 PwHA with available data for the outcomes of interest were stratified by hemophilia severity and treatment regimen in CHESS II and CHESS PAEDs, respectively. In these studies, 173 (37.0%) and 468 (67.7%) participants received FVIII prophylaxis, respectively; no participants received the FVIII mimetic emicizumab or gene therapy. ABRs of 2.38 to 4.88 were reported across disease severity and treatment subgroups in both studies. Target joints were present in 35.7 and 16.6% of participants in CHESS II and CHESS PAEDS; 43.8 and 23.0% had problem joints. Chronic pain was reported by a large proportion of PwHA (73.9% in CHESS II; 58.8% in CHESS PAEDs). Participants also reported low EQ-5D scores (compared with people without HA), anxiety, depression, and negative impacts on their lifestyles due to HA. Conclusions: These analyses suggest significant physical, social, and mental burdens of HA, irrespective of disease severity. Optimization of prophylactic treatment could help reduce the burden of HA on patients.
    • Comics in the Design Studio. On the use of graphic narrative as a tool to represent, narrate, and rethink architectural space

      Grennan, Simon; Lus Arana, Luis M.; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2024-04-18)
      This chapter looks at several works produced by architects and students in order to discuss and illustrate some uses of the comics medium as a tool both to visualise and explain, to develop stories and discourses, and start morphogenetic processes that lead to novel architectural form, or even rethink architectural space.
    • Tessier [other name Ross], Isabella Emily Louisa [pseud. Marie Duval, Ambrose Clarke] (1847–1890)

      Grennan, Simon; Sabin, Roger; Waite, Julian; University of Chester (Oxford University Press, 2023-11-09)
      Biography of Isabel Emilie de Tessier (Marie Duval and others).
    • Caring Work

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester (Oxford Hospitals Charity, 2023-09-30)
      12 'tablescapes' in colour tell a personal story of 12 Oxford Hospitals Trust staff working in the areas of Cleaning, Catering, Portering and Estates across the four Trust hospitals (John Radcliffe Hospital, Churchill Hospital, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre and Horton General Hospital, Oxford). Derived from individual and group conversations, these include stories of offering or receiving help from other staff, other carers or patients, reflections and realisations had in quiet moments, or at the busiest times of day and anecdotes of creative problem-solving or the use of humour as care. These stories demonstrate the ways in which the work of support staff in the Trust is the work of caring – for patients, the communities of staff and themselves. Together, they contributed to "Our National Health: Hospital Stories", responding to the national 'prompts and provocations' offered by Kwame Kwei Arma, in the creation of a new performance. The 12 drawings are permanently installed as 12 printed vinyl table-top in cafes across the four hospital sites.
    • Real-world clinical and psychosocial outcomes among people with mild or moderate haemophilia A treated on-demand in the Italian CHESS II cohort: a real-world data analysis

      Castaman, Giancarlo; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Sannino, Luigi; Tempre, Rosaria; Bendinelli, Sara; Blenkiron, Thomas; Burke, Tom; Ferri Grazzi, Enrico (Sciendo, 2024-04-22)
      Background: The burden of severe haemophilia A (HA) has been studied extensively owing to the higher bleeding frequency and associated treatment requirements, leaving a clear unmet need for research focused on the burden of mild and moderate HA. Aims: This study sought to characterise the clinical and psychosocial burden of mild and moderate HA in the Italian cohort of the CHESS II study. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of clinical and psychosocial outcomes in a cohort of male adults (≥18 years old) with mild or moderate HA who participated in the cross-sectional CHESS II study (October 2019-November 2020). Treatment patterns, acute and chronic clinical outcomes and mental health indicators were collected via physician-completed forms. Psychosocial outcomes related to impact of HA on social activities, exercise, opportunities, and lifestyle were collected via a participant self-complete questionnaire. All results were reported descriptively. Results: A total of 113 people with haemophilia A (PwHA) were included, 79 (70%) with moderate HA and 34 (30%) with mild HA, with mean age of 41.4 and 36.6 years, respectively. No one in the sample was receiving a prophylaxis at the time of data capture, with factor VIII use in the 12 months prior reported in 30% and 29% of moderate and mild PwHA, respectively. Ninety-one PwHA (81%) experienced ≥1 bleeding event in the preceding 12 months. People with moderate HA had higher mean annual bleed rate (2.9 vs. 1.1, respectively) and higher prevalence of chronic pain (74% vs. 35%), anxiety (20% vs. 12%), and/or depression (15% vs. 3%). Target joints were reported in 22% and 12% of moderate and mild PwHA, and problem joints in 51% and 12%, respectively. Of 113 participants, 44 (39%) completed the self-complete form (moderate HA, 57%; mild HA, 43%). Overall, 40% vs. 10% of those with moderate vs mild HA reported reducing or giving up social activities, 44% vs. 21% reducing or giving up exercise, 36% vs. 26% missing out on opportunities, and 48% vs. 26% reported HA impacted their lifestyle. Conclusion: Moderate PwHA from the Italian CHESS II cohort appeared to have greater clinical morbidity and lifestyle impact than mild PwHA. Psychosocial outcomes were also worse among moderate PwHA, but significant burden was also observed among mild PwHA. These findings, and the absence of prophylactic treatment in the sample examined, highlight that improving management for potentially undertreated mild/moderate PwHA may aid the avoidance long-term clinical morbidity and negative psychosocial impact.
    • Editorial: Drawing and knowledge

      McGuirk, Tom; University of Chester (Intellect, 2024)
      Editorial: Drawing is widely appreciated as a means of knowing, something testified to in a wide range of practices, fine art practices as well as practices such as architectural, botanical and other scientific drawing. This text recounts anxieties regarding the epistemic worth of drawing that persist from early modern art education and before. These relate to the embodied, situated and enactive nature of drawing. The text charts a distrust of the body as aid in the attainment of knowledge, as audible in Plato’s dialogues as it is in the disputes of the first Florentine academy. It delineates the deep-seated apprehension evident in theories of disegno as proposed by 16th century artists/theorists such as Giorgio Vasari and Federico Zuccaro who sought to elevate the status of drawing to an overarching principle, firmly ensconced within the theoretical domain. That strategy privileged drawing as a paragon while paradoxically distanced it from association with the taint of manual labour. The discussion identifies the same apprehension and distrust in the Duchampian disparagement of skill and retinal art – the retina too is a body part. These phenomena have been diagnosed elsewhere in terms of deskilling the artist, reflecting a wider societal division; the elevation of symbolic labour over productive labour, an all too familiar hierarchy. The text expounds recent research rooted in philosophy of mind and cognitive science, which offers a perspective that challenges these apprehensions, including Somaesthetics and Situated Cognition theory that assert the essential embodied, embedded, extended, and enactive dimensions of cognition – the 4E model.