Now showing items 21-40 of 5855

    • Clobazam add-on therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy

      Bresnahan, Rebecca; Martin-McGill, Kirsty J; Williamson, John; Michael, Benedict D; Marson, Anthony G (Wiley, 2019-10-22)
    • Sulthiame add-on therapy for epilepsy

      Bresnahan, Rebecca; Martin-McGill, Kirsty J; Milburn-McNulty, Philip; Powell, Graham; Sills, Graeme J; Marson, Anthony G (Wiley, 2019-08-27)
    • Drama as an Ecotone in the Ecosystem of Primary Education

      Owens, Allan; Adams, Jeff; Piasecka, Shelley; Einarsson, Anneli (University of Chester, 2020-01)
      This thesis investigates the tensions that emerge as drama is implemented in the teaching at a primary school. The thesis analyses drama practice in relation to a rationalistic and a holistic theoretical framework, and employs the epistemological view that subjectification and socialization are as important as the qualification dimension in education. A metaphorical model was developed, Schooling–Ecotone–Art, in order to deepen the understanding of drama as a subject in relation to the educational discourse. The ecotone, a notion deriving from ecology, symbolizes drama and serve as a tool to explore the tensions created at the borders of the adjacent habitats. The study describes the developing diversity within the drama practice in relation to the staff’s teaching and the pupils’ learning and meaning making. The empirical data are gathered by field studies at a primary school in Sweden, during one year. A project was made possible by a grant from the local municipality, through which the school was able to engage in a collaborative project with a local culture centre in which teachers and drama pedagogues worked together on a weekly basis. The doctoral study was initiated by an invitation from the school and the culture centre. Anchored in critical ethnography, the data include observations, interviews with staff and pupils, video recordings, questionnaires and email correspondence. The findings reveal different levels of tensions as drama is implemented in the teaching, which reflects the materiality of the discursive order and institutional power in education. Further, the study demonstrates the levels of progression as drama is practiced regularly, in which carnival play was a factor in the initial turbulent phase, and thus a major challenge for the staff. The study suggests that the phases in the progress demonstrate that drama comprises a unique and subject-specific content, which is needed in a holistic epistemology in primary education. Additionally, the progress describes how diversity emerges in the staff’s teaching as well as in the pupils’ creative work and that questions of interculturality are illuminated. The study concludes that there is a need to deconstruct a rationalistic epistemology, and develop a holistic epistemology, in order to achieve a sustainable education. The thesis contributes with deepened knowledge of drama as a unique habitat, and the possibilitiesfor diversity asthe tensions created in relation to adjacent habitats, schooling and art, are viewed as possibilities rather than obstacles to avoid. The material being presented for examination is my own work and has not been submitted for an award of this or another HEI except in minor particulars which are explicitly noted in the body of the thesis. Where research pertaining to the thesis was undertaken collaboratively, the nature and extent of my individual contribution has been made explicit.
    • Adult lifetime cost of hemophilia B management in the US: Payer and societal perspectives from a decision analytic model.

      Li, Nanxin; Sawyer, Eileen K; Maruszczyk, Konrad; orcid: 0000-0002-0173-5020; Guzauskas, Greg; orcid: 0000-0002-9095-1672; Slomka, Marta T; Burke, Tom; Martin, Antony P; O'Hara, Jamie; Stevenson, Matt; Recht, Michael (2021-02-16)
      Hemophilia B (HB) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by bleeding-related complications which are managed by prophylactic or post-bleeding event ("on-demand") replacement of clotting factor IX (FIX). The standard of care for severe HB is life-long prophylaxis with standard half-life (SHL) or extended half-life (EHL) products given every 2-3 or 7-14 days, respectively. FIX treatment costs in the US have been investigated, but the lifetime costs of HB treatment have not been well characterized, particularly related to the impact of joint health deterioration and associated health resource utilization. We developed a decision-analytic model to explore outcomes, costs and underlying cost drivers associated with FIX treatment options over the lifetime of an adult with severe or moderately severe HB. With participation from clinicians, health technology assessment specialists and patient advocates, a Markov model was constructed to estimate bleeding events and costs associated with health states including 'bleed into joint', 'bleed not into joint', 'no bleed' and death. Sub-models of joint health were based on 0, 1, or ≥2 areas of chronic joint damage. US third-party payer and societal perspectives were considered with a lifetime horizon; sensitivity analyses tested the robustness of primary findings. Total adult lifetime costs per patient with severe and moderately severe HB were $21,086,607 for SHL FIX prophylaxis, $22,987,483 for EHL FIX prophylaxis, and $20,971,826 for on-demand FIX treatment. For FIX prophylaxis, the cost of FIX treatment account for >90% of the total HB treatment costs. This decision analytic model demonstrated significant economic burden associated with the current HB treatment paradigm.
    • An Exploration into the Impact of Social Networking Site (SNS) Use on Body Image and Eating Behavior of Physically Active Men

      Flannery, Orla; orcid: 0000-0002-4348-2156; Harris, Kerrie; Kenny, Ursula Anne (SAGE Publications, 2020-04-02)
      The rapid proliferation of social networking sites (SNSs) has transformed the way people now socialize and communicate. SNSs have been recognized to contribute to body image (BI) dissatisfaction and disordered eating behavior (EB). Few qualitative studies have explored this issue in men. The aim of the current study was to investigate male SNS use and possible impacts on BI and EB. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight men in the United Kingdom. Interviews aimed to examine men’s views on the potential impact of SNSs on BI and EB. Data were thematically analyzed. Findings suggested that SNSs may be a useful nutrition idea tool and motivational platform for men to improve their diet and exercise uptake. However, results also indicated that SNS use may contribute to BI dissatisfaction and increased risk of disorder. Future research may identify risk factors of SNS use, male BI concerns, and eating pathology across the lifespan.
    • The challenge of relational referents in early word extensions: Evidence from noun-noun compounds.

      Snape, Simon; Krott, Andrea (2021-02-15)
      Young children struggle more with mapping novel words onto relational referents (e.g., verbs) compared to non-relational referents (e.g., nouns). We present further evidence for this notion by investigating children's extensions of noun-noun compounds, which map onto combinations of non-relational referents, i.e., objects (e.g., baby and bottle for baby bottle), and relations (e.g., a bottle FOR babies). We tested two- to five-year-olds' and adults' generalisations of novel compounds composed of novel (e.g., kig donka) or familiar (e.g., star hat) nouns that were combined by one of two relations (e.g., donka that has a kig attached (=attachment relation) versus donka that stores a kig (=function relation)). Participants chose between a relational (shared relation) and a non-relational (same colour) match. Results showed a developmental shift from encoding non-relational aspects (colour) towards relations of compound referents, supporting the challenge of relational word referents. Also, attachment relations were more frequently encoded than function relations.
    • Evidence of a disability paradox in patient‐reported outcomes in haemophilia

      O’Hara, Jamie; Martin, Antony P.; Nugent, Diane; Witkop, Michelle; orcid: 0000-0003-0758-286X; Buckner, Tyler W.; Skinner, Mark W.; orcid: 0000-0002-0934-0680; O’Mahony, Brian; Mulhern, Brendan; Morgan, George; orcid: 0000-0003-2014-3415; Li, Nanxin; et al. (Wiley, 2021-02-17)
    • Adult lifetime cost of hemophilia B management in the US: Payer and societal perspectives from a decision analytic model

      Li, Nanxin; Sawyer, Eileen K.; Maruszczyk, Konrad; orcid: 0000-0002-0173-5020; Guzauskas, Greg; orcid: 0000-0002-9095-1672; Slomka, Marta T.; Burke, Tom; Martin, Antony P.; O’Hara, Jamie; Stevenson, Matt; Recht, Michael (Informa UK Limited, 2021-02-16)
    • Attachment theory: developments, debates and recent applications in social work, social care and education

      Harlow, Elizabeth; orcid: 0000-0001-5031-7485 (Informa UK Limited, 2019-12-16)
    • Dynamics of Shadow System of a Singular Gierer–Meinhardt System on an Evolving Domain

      Kavallaris, Nikos I.; orcid: 0000-0002-9743-8636; email: n.kavallaris@chester.ac.uk; Barreira, Raquel; Madzvamuse, Anotida; orcid: 0000-0002-9511-8903 (Springer US, 2020-12-18)
      Abstract: The main purpose of the current paper is to contribute towards the comprehension of the dynamics of the shadow system of a singular Gierer–Meinhardt model on an isotropically evolving domain. In the case where the inhibitor’s response to the activator’s growth is rather weak, then the shadow system of the Gierer–Meinhardt model is reduced to a single though non-local equation whose dynamics is thoroughly investigated throughout the manuscript. The main focus is on the derivation of blow-up results for this non-local equation, which can be interpreted as instability patterns of the shadow system. In particular, a diffusion-driven instability (DDI), or Turing instability, in the neighbourhood of a constant stationary solution, which then is destabilised via diffusion-driven blow-up, is observed. The latter indicates the formation of some unstable patterns, whilst some stability results of global-in-time solutions towards non-constant steady states guarantee the occurrence of some stable patterns. Most of the theoretical results are verified numerically, whilst the numerical approach is also used to exhibit the dynamics of the shadow system when analytical methods fail.
    • Quantifying the impact of tissue metabolism on solute transport in feto-placental microvascular networks

      Erlich, Alexander; orcid: 0000-0002-2294-1894; Nye, Gareth A.; orcid: 0000-0003-4508-0406; Brownbill, Paul; orcid: 0000-0002-8328-7072; Jensen, Oliver E.; orcid: 0000-0003-0172-6578; Chernyavsky, Igor L.; orcid: 0000-0003-0284-9318 (The Royal Society, 2019-08-16)
      The primary exchange units in the human placenta are terminal villi, in which fetal capillary networks are surrounded by a thin layer of villous tissue, separating fetal from maternal blood. To understand how the complex spatial structure of villi influences their function, we use an image-based theoretical model to study the effect of tissue metabolism on the transport of solutes from maternal blood into the fetal circulation. For solute that is taken up under first-order kinetics, we show that the transition between flow-limited and diffusion-limited transport depends on two new dimensionless parameters defined in terms of key geometric quantities, with strong solute uptake promoting flow-limited transport conditions. We present a simple algebraic approximation for solute uptake rate as a function of flow conditions, metabolic rate and villous geometry. For oxygen, accounting for nonlinear kinetics using physiological parameter values, our model predicts that villous metabolism does not significantly impact oxygen transfer to fetal blood, although the partitioning of fluxes between the villous tissue and the capillary network depends strongly on the flow regime.
    • In vitro and computational modelling of drug delivery across the outer blood–retinal barrier

      Davies, Alys E.; orcid: 0000-0002-3489-0182; Williams, Rachel L.; Lugano, Gaia; Pop, Serban R.; Kearns, Victoria R.; orcid: 0000-0003-1426-6048 (The Royal Society, 2020-02-14)
      The ability to produce rapid, cost-effective and human-relevant data has the potential to accelerate the development of new drug delivery systems. Intraocular drug delivery is an area undergoing rapid expansion, due to the increase in sight-threatening diseases linked to increasing age and lifestyle factors. The outer blood–retinal barrier (OBRB) is important in this area of drug delivery, as it separates the eye from the systemic blood flow. This study reports the development of complementary in vitro and in silico models to study drug transport from silicone oil across the OBRB. Monolayer cultures of a human retinal pigmented epithelium cell line, ARPE-19, were added to chambers and exposed to a controlled flow to simulate drug clearance across the OBRB. Movement of dextran molecules and release of ibuprofen from silicone oil in this model were measured. Corresponding simulations were developed using COMSOL Multiphysics computational fluid dynamics software and validated using independent in vitro datasets. Computational simulations were able to predict dextran movement and ibuprofen release, with all of the features of the experimental release profiles being observed in the simulated data. Simulated values for peak concentrations of permeated dextran and ibuprofen released from silicone oil were within 18% of the in vitro results. This model could be used as a predictive tool for drug transport across this important tissue.
    • The challenge of hospitality: marking remembrance as an Anglican in a multifaith parish

      Lees-Smith, Anthony; orcid: 0000-0002-4322-3998 (Informa UK Limited, 2021-02-14)
    • Event-related and readiness potentials when preparing to approach and avoid alcohol cues following cue avoidance training in heavy drinkers

      Di Lemma, Lisa C. G.; email: l.dilemma@chester.ac.uk; Stancak, Andrej; Soto, Vicente; Fallon, Nick; Field, Matt (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2020-02-26)
      Abstract: Rationale: Cue avoidance training (CAT) reduces alcohol consumption in the laboratory. However, the neural mechanisms that underlie the effects of this intervention are poorly understood. Objectives: The present study investigated the effects of a single session of CAT on event-related and readiness potentials during preparation of approach and avoidance movements to alcohol cues. Methods: Heavy drinking young adults (N = 60) were randomly assigned to complete either CAT or control training. After training, we recorded participants’ event-related and motor readiness potentials as they were preparing to respond. Results: In the CAT group, N200 amplitude was higher when preparing to approach rather than avoid alcohol pictures. In the control group, N200 amplitudes did not differ for approach and avoidance to alcohol pictures. Regarding the late positive potential (LPP), in the CAT group, the negativity of this was blunted when preparing to avoid alcohol pictures relative to when preparing to avoid control pictures. In the control group, the negativity of the LPP was blunted when preparing to approach alcohol pictures relative to when preparing to approach control pictures. There were no effects on motor readiness potentials. Behavioural effects indicated short-lived effects of training on reaction times during the training block that did not persist when participants were given time to prepare their motor response before executing it during the EEG testing block. Conclusions: After a single session of CAT, the enhanced N200 when approaching alcohol cues may indicate the engagement of executive control to overcome the associations learned during training. These findings clarify the neural mechanisms that may underlie the effects of CAT on drinking behaviour.
    • The Scarecrow Christ

      Middleton, Paul (Amsterdam University Press, 2020-01-31)
      Paul Middleton deals with the contested homosexual martyr Matthew Shepard. Matthew Shepard, a gay twenty-one year old political science student at the University of Wyoming, was robbed and brutally beaten by two other men on the night of Tuesday, 6 October 1998. The men tied him to a fence after the attack, while he was bleeding profusely in freezing temperatures. He died a few days later, on 12 October 1998, and was called a martyr in Time Magazine, just a week after his death. Middleton examines the popular martyr-making process in respect of Matthew Shepard, arguing that both the making of the martyr and the reaction it provoked reflect American ‘culture wars’, because martyrology is conflict literature, foremost about the conflict between the story-tellers and their opponents. Ironically, both LGBT activists and right-wing religious groups have in some ways sought to undermine Shepard’s martyr status by focusing on his life rather than his death. Such efforts, as Middleton argues, had a limited effect because in martyrologies any interest in the lives of their heroes is incidental, merely setting up the scene for a significant death.
    • Textiles: 1400-1700

      Wilson, Katherine Anne; University of Chester
      A summary of Textiles 1400-1700.
    • Mai 68, une approche transatlantique

      OBERGÖKER, Timo; HENNUY, Jean-Frédéric; University of Chester
      The book is the result of a workshop held in 2018 at the German Association of French Studies in Osnabrück. It raises questions around May 68 as an international event, particularly at the Francophone periphery, in Montréal, in the Canadian Maritimes, in Belgium.