Now showing items 21-40 of 4550

    • The effect of beetroot juice on intermittent shuttle running performance involving different numbers of directional changes

      Highton, Jamie; Francis, Ben (University of Chester, 2018-10-01)
      The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to submaximal shuttle running and performance during intermittent shuttle running involving different numbers of directional changes. Eight male recreational team sport athletes (age: 22.6 ± y, body mass: 79.4 ± 4.4 kg, stature: 179.4 ± 5.4 cm, predicted VO2max: 48.5 ± 4,1 ml·kg·-1·min·-1) completed submaximal shuttle running at 60% of their predetermined VO2peak and intermittent shuttle running to exhaustion over a 20 m course or a 10 m course involving more directional changes. Participants performed each protocol twice across four trials; once following the ingestion of NO3 - concentrated beetroot juice 2.5 h before exercise and once following the ingestion of NO3 - depleted beetroot juice. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and time to exhaustion during intermittent shuttle running were assessed. Increasing the number of directional changes increased the VO2 and HR response to submaximal shuttle running (p < 0.05). However, NO3 - did not affect blood pressure, the physiological responses to submaximal exercise or performance during intermittent shuttle running (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that increasing the number of directional changes during shuttle running elevates the physiological and metabolic demand, but that NO3 - does not impact upon the physiological responses or performance during submaximal and intermittent shuttle running.
    • An appraisal of judging criteria in relation to performance in elite male amateur boxing

      Thomson, Edd; Latham, James (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      This study intended to appraise the features of the judging criteria of elite amateur boxing and determine the impact such features have on unanimous and split contest outcomes. Appraising eight offensive actions and their outcomes, the technical demands of open-class boxing from 93 male boxers (age: 24.4 ± 3.3 y; height: 176.1 ± 10.5 cm; body mass: 65.8 ± 12.9 kg) during 87 bouts of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games and 2017 World Amateur Boxing Championships were notated using computerized software. A 3 (round) x 4 (outcome) repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc statistical analyses were adopted. Twenty-five performance parameters differed between unanimous winners and losers, but only four between split winners and losers. Unanimous winners landed more punches than unanimous losers in total (P = 0.002) and in round 1, 2 and 3 (all P = 0.000). They also landed a higher percent of very successful punches than unanimous losers in total (P = 0.001) and in round 1 (P = 0.005), 2 (P = 0.027) and 3 (P = 0.02). Unanimous losers threw a greater percentage of air punches than unanimous winners per bout (P = 0.000) and in round 1 (P = 0.006), 2 (0.000) and 3 (P = 0.002). Unanimous winners landed a greater percentage of straight, hook, and uppercut punches thrown with the lead hand (P = 0.007, 0.000 and 0.049 respectively) and straight punches thrown with the rear hand (P = 0.003) than unanimous losers. Split winners landed a greater percentage of total punches than split losers in round 1 (P = 0.006) and 3 (P = 0.047). Judges use several performance indicators to assess superiority between boxers, albeit the technical disparity between split winners and losers is marginal compared to unanimous winners versus losers. This study proposes that the number of punches landed, punch accuracy and technical and tactical superiority all have an important influence during unanimous outcomes, but when judges are split on choosing the winner of a contest, only punch accuracy separates the two boxers.
    • The influence of Isaiah in Matthew 1-4

      Kinde, Todd M. (University of Chester, 2019-01-29)
      This study traces the four Isaianic references in Matthew 1-4 to identify their influence in the structure and theology of Matthew’s Gospel. Isaiah distinctively contributes to the parallel nature of the narratives in the structure of Matthew 1-12 and particularly to the structural unity of Matthew 1-4. Further, the Abrahamic background in Isaiah contributes to Matthew’s “Son of Abraham” motif. The second chapter identifies the placement of the Isaianic references in Matthew and offers an alternative view of Matthew’s macrostructure. Similarly, the integral unity of Matthew 1-4 is supported by parallel themes and plotlines. The strategic placement of Isaianic references supports this proposed structure. The study proceeds with a chapter devoted to each of the four Isaianic references in Matthew 1-4. The study’s intertextual methodology observes the reference’s text form, Isaianic context, reference in Jewish sources, placement in the Matthean chapter, Matthean context, and a summary of Isaiah’s structural and Christological influence. Two appendixes accompany the research: one identifies the Abrahamic background in Isaiah 1-12, and another reevaluates the premise of a new Moses typology in Matthew. Isaianic references influence the narrative parallelism in Matthew 1-4, highlighting the calling motif, and confirming the preaching ministry of John and Jesus. Theologically, the Isaianic references and allusions echo in Matthew 1-4 to inform Matthew’s Son of Abraham Christology. As the Son of Abraham, Jesus recapitulates Israel’s history, following the paradigm of the patriarch Abraham.
    • Nutrition and Golf performance

      Robinson, Michael (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      Nutrition in Golf is a relatively new area of research with only a small amount of published studies. Golf nutrition is distinct from other sports primarily due to the variable conditions faced by players over an extended period of time. Despite that only a low to moderate exercise intensity is maintained, players are required to make multiple maximal velocity swings requiring high level motor skill whilst cognitive functioning is challenged through decision making on every shot, often under intense pressure. Caffeine supplementation has been the most investigated topic with findings of improved performance in certain areas of the game such as driving and putting whilst fatigue appeared to be attenuated towards the end of a round. Dehydration has been shown to be prevalent even in the elite amateur game with a significant decline in a range of performance variables found with only mild-dehydration. Carbohydrate consumption has been shown to prevent the decline in blood glucose experienced over a round, however an optimal consumption protocol has not been established. Future research should further investigate nutritional techniques to offset the physical and mental challenges arising over a round of golf.
    • Digital marketing and young consumers: A framework for effective digital marketing communications

      Maheshwari, Vish; Morris, Bethan (University of Chester, 2019-01-22)
      Children in contemporary society are an important and lucrative consumer segment (Haryanto, Moutinho, & Coelho, 2016). They have both individual spending power, and significant influence over the purchase decisions of their parents and carers (Calvert, 2008). Brands have recognised the business benefits of engaging with consumers at an early age in order to develop profitable lifelong consumer relationships (Hamelin, Gbadamosi, & Peters, 2018) Developments in online communications, especially since the emergence of Web 2.0, has enabled businesses to build a presence in an interactive and co-creative online environment (Ryan, 2014). In the UK, consumer use of interactive technologies is pervasive. Smartphone penetration in the UK in 2016 was 81 per cent (Deloitte, 2016). The Consumerisation of ICT is particularly visible in children, born since 2000 who have grown up in the interactive era of Web 2.0 (Carter, Bennett Thatcher, Applefield, & McAlpine, 2011). 99 per cent of UK families have internet access in their home (ONS, 2016) and 83 per cent of 5 to 15 year olds have access to a mobile ICT device in their household. It is estimated that one third of all online users are below the age of 18 (Livingstone, Carr, & Byrne, 2016). Young consumers therefore have access multiple channels for communication and engagement with peers, family, and businesses. At a time when children have become proficient navigators of the online marketplace there is a real importance for marketers to understand how to communicate effectively with this segment (Thiachon, 2017). Children have been recognised as a distinguishable consumer segment since the mid-twentieth century. The study of children’s consumer socialisation emerged during the 1970s (Roedder John, 1999). In the years following, academic understanding of consumer socialisation has influenced government policy in areas of public health and child welfare, as well as influencing the self-regulation of marketing and advertising practice (Jordan, 2008). The body of existing research is predominantly focused on these areas rather than how marketers can effectively communicate with young consumers. Studies that do focus on marketing communications have done so by examining practices in relation to brand loyalty and trust (Haryanto, Manuela, & Moutinho, 2015 ; Haryanto, Moutinho, & Arnaldo, 2016). Although they provide recommendations that highlight the importance of these concepts in developing communications with young consumers, they do not identify the types of approaches to employ in order to achieve these relationships with consumers. As public policy concerns provided the impetus for research in this area, it is unsurprising that there is a concentration of research investigating the influence of marketing communications on young consumers within the context of public health. Children in this context are positioned passive and vulnerable members of society (Haefner, 1975; Roedder John, 1999; Calvert, 2008; Sramová & Pavelka, 2017). Although this approach is valid and provides valuable insights, academic understanding of young consumers would be limited if research was generated only from this perspective. This study will aim to address this gap in understanding, acknowledging that children have expanded their roles within the family as purchase influencers and independent purchase decision makers. The research will examine current Digital Marketing Communication (DMC) practices employed by brands whose products are aimed at young consumers. For the purposes of providing research focus, children are defined as individuals aged 17 and under.
    • The effect of glycomacropeptide-based foods upon blood phenylalanine control in adults and children with phenylketonuria

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Thomson, Roderick (University of Chester, 2018-09-03)
      Conventional treatment for phenylketonuria restricts dietary phenylalanine to ‘control’ plasma phenylalanine concentrations. Its widespread adoption has largely eradicated the severe neurocognitive defects that previously characterised phenylketonuria. However, interest in alternative treatments continues as deficits in intelligence and other health outcomes remain problematic, conventional treatment has limitations and adherence proves difficult. Glycomacropeptide-based foods (GMP) are a novel treatment that may improve the satiety and acceptability of dietary treatment and address suboptimal health outcomes. However, glycomacropeptide contains some phenylalanine, raising safety concerns regarding its effect on plasma phenylalanine in adults and particularly children who tolerate less phenylalanine. This narrative review attempted to resolve these concerns. Its findings suggest adults and children can maintain control on GMP but individualised titrations, adjusting the amount of GMP consumed whilst monitoring plasma phenylalanine, are necessary in children. Equivalent control is a supportive finding given GMPs many advantages but this must be viewed cautiously as only seven studies were located, predominantly employing bias-prone, heterogeneous designs. GMPs effect upon control thus requires clarification via a systematic review using evidence-based, transparent methods to synthesize the entire evidence base and consider the impact of design quality, bias and heterogeneity upon results.
    • ‘Building Space: Developing Reflection for Wellbeing’ Can a chaplain help healthcare professionals develop reflective practice for wellbeing for themselves and their team?

      Mowat, Harriet; Satterley, Andrew; Graham, Elaine; Pearce, Sacha J. T. (University of Chester, 2019-01-22)
      In this thesis I develop a new, wider and richer understanding of wellbeing, through developing a process of reflective practice, with healthcare professionals within their challenging work culture. As a healthcare chaplain, having witnessed poor staff morale, I conducted a critical examination of NHS wellbeing reports and strategies, which revealed an understanding of staff wellbeing that ironically follows simply a health model. Challenging this, I argue for a broader interpretation of wellbeing that, in addition to focusing on health, is more holistic, relational and contextual. I develop reflective practice to nurture this, the use of which extends in healthcare beyond education and professional development. In my action research, knowledge was generated through ethnographic participation and observation, over a year, reflecting as chaplain with eight teams of healthcare professionals. This used my simple and memorable HELP Wellbeing Reflection Cycle (building on Kolb’s (1984) model of experiential learning) that combines reflection on work and personal development. My project also responds to Rolfe’s call (2014) for greater use in healthcare of Schön’s (1980) “reflection-in-action”. Building on these works, I develop reflection for healthcare professionals to nurture their wellbeing. My encouragement of the participants to self-facilitate their own reflective groups, when familiar with this method of reflection, is also a contribution to reflective practice, healthcare and the chaplain’s role. Thematic data analysis emerged from the reflexive field notes of our shared experience as co-reflective practitioners. The themes include healthcare professionals making the human connection between themselves and with their patients. They also value the space to reflect together, realising their desire for team support and a shared goal, as well as job satisfaction in this demanding culture. These themes, I argue, are consistent with the broader definitions of wellbeing, giving them the opportunity to be both a healthcare professional and human. Further data analysis also reveals consistency with wider wellbeing interpretations (including personal wellbeing measurements and data from the Office for National Statistics (2014, 2015)). I develop the role of chaplain as the healthcare professionals’ co-reflector, sharing their reflective space as a pastoral encounter and a source for learning. This combines the images of “empty handed” (Swift, 2009) “welcoming guest” and “mutual hospitality” (Walton, M., 2012). I offer to national healthcare the wider understanding of wellbeing, and the value of creating provision for reflective space to nurture it, in the care of healthcare professionals. This research offers the potential for exciting further developments in a wider constituency both in and beyond healthcare.
    • Professional ‘lived’ experiences of middle managers in Further Education (FE) colleges in Wales: A study of the impact of major change

      Rowland, Caroline; Moss, Danny; Walford, Robert (University of Chester, 2019-01-14)
      Merger organizational change has been prolific across Wales and has significantly affected all Further Education (FE) colleges. The main merger driver was to reduce operational costs, whilst in the pursuit of increased organizational and departmental efficiencies and effectiveness. An imperative to widening access to education, an increase in the quality of curriculum provision and a need to reduce duplication of curriculum programmes were also important considerations. It is these changes that have shaped college organizations and the college middle manager role, post-merger, with a resulting impact on middle managers professional ‘lived’ experiences. The author’s research examines the effect of merger on the middle manager role and the influence of the college context on the ‘lived’ experiences of middle managers managing curriculum departments. The review of the literature highlights key relationships between mainstream management and the college middle manager role, as well as the influences likely to have an impact on this role. The author has developed a conceptual model with key elements consisting of professional ‘lived’ experiences of middle managers and role construct and behaviour, management and leadership. This study is exploratory in nature and uses a social constructionist philosophical approach. A subjectivist epistemology was adopted for this study, with the researcher applying a thematic analysis and an investigation of multiple realities. Data for this research was collected from in-depth semi-structured interviewees, which gave interviewees the opportunity to highlight their specific day-to-day professional ‘lived’ work experiences. The research study outlines a number of conclusions, which accord with this study’s specific research objectives and recommendations. In the post-merger era, the middle manager role has become more complex and challenging. Conclusions indicate a broader role for the middle manager, and a role defined by the college’s professional context, which contributes to influencing the college middle manager role. This study contributes to the field of academic study, and to professional practice. It provides insights to understanding the role of middle managers in the FE sector and also offers recommendations for college strategy and policy. Finally, it highlights opportunities for further research in Wales and beyond.
    • Effects of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on exercise capacity in elderly heart transplant recipients: A systematic review

      Fallows, Stephen; Wipatin, Pattanakorn (University of Chester, 2018-08-30)
      Heart transplantation (HTx) not only reduces mortality of patients with end-stage heart failure (HF), but also improves the quality of life of these patients. However, heart transplant recipients (HTRs) experience a decrease in exercise capacity, which is associated with increased mortality of cardiovascular patients. This literature review provides not only the basic clinical application of HTx, such as recipient selection and surgical techniques, but also unique physiological abnormalities after surgery. Factors that are related to chronotropic incompetence, side effects of immunosuppressant medications, and deconditioning result in decreased exercise performance in HTRs. The benefits of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) are outlined in this literature review. Exercise training (ET), which consists of aerobic, resistance and flexibility exercises, is effective in improving peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and skeletal muscle performance in HTRs. There is evidence that the use of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve chronotropic responses to exercise and reduce the progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV), which limits long-term survival rates in HTRs. Finally, it should be noted that the normal ageing process may affect long-term outcomes of ET in HTRs.
    • Lifestyle behaviours associated with type 2 diabetes risk in Australian construction workers

      Markwell, Katherine; Botley, Sian (University of Chester, 2018-08-31)
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global problem with many unfavourable consequences. Obesity is the single largest predictor of T2DM. Additional modifiable risk factors include lifestyle behaviours such as poor diet and physical inactivity have also been identified to be key determinants of the disease, and are therefore key in delaying or preventing progression, as proven by many systematic reviews. The incidence of T2DM is increasing, despite efforts to reverse this trend, so barriers need to be identified and solutions proposed to aid individuals to achieve positive lifestyle behaviours. Habitual lifestyle behaviours can be determined by occupation and particular work stresses. The construction industry is a large working population in Australia whose health outcomes have not been fully explored in relation to T2DM risk. It is unknown if specific unfavourable lifestyle behaviours are adopted within this population which increase the risk of progression of this disease. This review will discuss the associated risk factors and how they can be modified to prevent progression of T2DM. A rationale will be proposed for further investigation of T2DM and its potential specific risk factors within the Australian construction industry.
    • Recovery of high mountain Alpine lakes after the eradication of introduced brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis using non-chemical methods

      Tiberti, Rocco; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Brighenti, Stefano; Iacobuzio, Rocco; Liautaud, Kevin; Rolla, Matteo; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Bassano, Bruno; University of Pavia; Gran Paradiso National Park; University of Trento; Fondazione Edmund Mach; Swansea University; University of Chester (Springer, 2018-10-31)
      Fish stocking is a serious threat to originally fishless mountain lakes. We used non-chemical eradication methods (i.e. gillnetting and electrofishing) in four high mountain lakes in the Gran Paradiso National Park (Western Italian Alps) to eradicate alien brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Data of amphibians, macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, chlorophyll-a, nutrient concentrations, and water transparency were used as indicators of the recovery process. All treated lakes were returned to their original fishless condition in spite of their different sizes and habitat complexity, without permanent negative side-effects for native species. Several ecological indicators showed that many impacts of introduced fish can be reversed over a short time period following eradication. The present study adds to a still growing body of specialized literature on the recovery of habitats after the eradication of alien species and provides further evidence that physical eradication methods are effective and can be part of a more general strategy for the conservation of high mountain lake biota.
    • One strategy doesn’t fit all: determinants of urban adaptation in mammals

      Santini, Luca; González‐Suárez, Manuela; Russo, Danilo; Gonzalez‐Voyer, Alejandro; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Ancillotto, Leonardo; Radboud University; University of Reading; University of Napoli; Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-12-20)
      Urbanisation exposes wildlife to new challenging conditions and environmental pressures. Somemammalian species have adapted to these novel environments, but it remains unclear which char-acteristics allow them to persist. To address this question, we identified 190 mammals regularlyrecorded in urban settlements worldwide, and used phylogenetic path analysis to test hypothesesregarding which behavioural, ecological and life history traits favour adaptation to urban environ-ments for different mammalian groups. Our results show that all urban mammals produce largerlitters; whereas other traits such as body size, behavioural plasticity and diet diversity were impor-tant for some but not all taxonomic groups. This variation highlights the idiosyncrasies of theurban adaptation process and likely reflects the diversity of ecological niches and roles mammalscan play. Our study contributes towards a better understanding of mammal association tohumans, which will ultimately allow the design of wildlife-friendly urban environments and con-tribute to mitigate human-wildlife conflicts.
    • Curcumin restores glutathione-S-transferase activity for LNCaP prostate cancer cells

      Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Dubey, Vaibhav; University of Chester; University of Ulster (Hikari, 2014-02-01)
      Prostate cancer is a leading cause of death in males aged fifty and over. Glutathione transferase (GST) activity is depressed in prostate cancer cells. The aim of this study was to assess GST reactivation in LNCaP prostate cancer cells treated with curcumin or 5-azacitidine (5-Aza) which is a known hypomethylation agent. GST activity was determined using monochlorobimane (MCB). Cell viability was assessed with resazurin (Vision blue TM) or 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-di-phenyltetrazolium-bromide (MTT). From the results, treatment with >5 μM of curcumin or 5-Aza for 3 or 6 days depressed LNCaP cell viability. The concentrations of curcumin leading to 50% reduction of LNCaP cell viability (IC50) was 10-25 μM or 2-3 μM for 3 days or 6 days of treatment, respectively. The IC50 with 5-Aza was 17-23 μM (3 days) or 50-52 μM (6 days). Combination treatment using curcumin and 5-Aza showed complimentary interactions affecting cell viability. Low levels of curcumin or 5-Aza had no effect on GST activity. By contrast, cytotoxic doses of curcumin or 5-Aza increased GST activity by 450-750 % (3days) or 161-2800 % (6days). In conclusion, GST reactivation was feasible but only when LNCaP prostate cancer cells were treated with cytotoxic doses of curcumin or 5-azacytidne.
    • Characterising beach intertidal bar systems using multi‐annual LiDAR data

      Miles, Andrew; orcid: 0000-0002-4655-9729; Ilic, Suzana; Whyatt, Duncan; James, Michael R.; orcid: 0000-0002-9177-2588 (Wiley, 2019-02-05)
    • The Effects of cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid on the Proliferation of A431 Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Griffiths, Samantha K. (University of Chester, 2018-08-31)
      Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a family of 28 positional and geometrical isomers of linoleic acid (LA), found predominantly in the meat of ruminant animals. The health benefits of CLA have been widely researched, with specific interest into its anti-obesity and anti-carcinogenic properties. Conclusions from in-vivo studies have suggested that, with further research, CLA supplementation may be used in conjunction with current treatments for breast cancer and rectal cancer. In-vitro research into the anticarcinogenic effects of CLA has revealed that different CLA isomers affect cancer cells through several different pathways. The anti-proliferative effects of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA have been demonstrated in-vitro, specifically on colon cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Ultimately, it has been concluded that the antiproliferative effects of CLA isomers are dependent upon the type and malignancy of the cancer cells targeted. After reviewing the literature, it is clear that there is a gap in the research. To our knowledge, no study has ever tested the effects of CLA on the proliferation of epidermoid carcinoma cells, specifically the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer. This research could add to the growing body of evidence surrounding the effects of specific CLA isomers on different types of cancer in-vitro.

      Johnson, Matthew; orcid: 0000-0002-9987-7050; Danvers, Emily; orcid: 0000-0002-0170-5331; Hinton-Smith, Tamsin; Atkinson, Kate; Bowden, Gareth; Foster, John; Garner, Kristina; Garrud, Paul; Greaves, Sarah; Harris, Patricia; Hejmadi, Momna; Hill, David; Hughes, Gwen; Jackson, Louise; O’Sullivan, Angela; ÓTuama, Séamus; orcid: 0000-0001-9315-9640; Perez Brown, Pilar; Philipson, Pete; Ravenscroft, Simon; Rhys, Mirain; Ritchie, Tom; Talbot, Jon; Walker, David; Watson, Jon; Williams, Myfanwy; Williams, Sharon (Informa UK Limited, 2019-02-04)
    • How the Other Three-Quarters Lived: The Cabin in Famine Literature

      Fegan, Melissa; University of Chester (Peter Lang, 2019-01-23)
      In the 1841 census three-quarters of houses in Ireland were placed in the lowest two classes, one-roomed mud cabins and slightly larger mud cottages. What Harriet Martineau describes as ‘Irish cabin life’ was a matter of fascination for visitors to Ireland before and after the Famine, and the cabin became a key site of ethnographic exploration. Curious or philanthropic observers were either shocked by the poverty and wretchedness they saw, or puzzled or even offended by the seeming happiness and healthiness of cabin-dwellers. During the Famine, the cabin was a scene for tragedy and horror: the place from which the people were evicted, from which they emigrated, in which they were quarantined, where they were found dying or dead, where they were buried. The roofless cabin later eloquently attested to their suffering and absence, and has become one of the most significant visual icons in the commemoration of the Famine. This chapter examines the representation of the cabin in literature from the time of the Famine to the present day, in the works of authors such as William Carleton, Anthony Trollope, Margaret Brew, Carol Birch, Anne Enright, and Tana French, considering the ways in which social hierarchy and communal relations are mediated through its space in texts set during the Famine, and its spectral significance in modern and contemporary literature as a concrete or symbolic inheritance, a time-machine, a haunted house, a place to desecrate or take refuge in, and a crime scene.
    • Effect of Methotrexate and Tea Polyphenols on the Viability and Oxidative Stress in MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells

      Owusu-Apenten, Richard K.; Kelly, Theresa; University of Ulster (SCIENCEDOMAIN International, 2015-03-24)
      Aim: To determine the effect of tea polyphenols and methotrexate on viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a naturally resistant breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Methodology: MDA-MB-231 cells were selected as a model for methotrexate resistant breast cancer. Drug tests were performed over 72 hours at concentrations 0-100 µM. Pre-treatments were with quercetin (QE) or epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) for 5 hours followed by methotrexate. Cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay or resazurin fluorescence assay. ROS was determined using the 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. Intracellular GSH was measured using the monochlorobimane assay. Results: Methotrexate was cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 cells with IC50 of 35±4 µM. The IC50 value was 68±9.4 µM with QE and 83±16 µM for EGCG. The pre-treatment with QE and EGCG lowered the IC50 for methotrexate by 28% (P =0.009) and 16% (P=0.2027). Intracellular ROS concentrations increased after treatment with methotrexate, QE or EGCG singly and ROS decreased with combination treatment compared with the response for methotrexate only. There were no significant changes in intracellular GSH. Conclusion: Pretreatment with tea polyphenols partially sensitized breast cancer cells towards methotrexate and decreases intracellular ROS. More research is needed to optimize the sensitizing effect of tea phenols on the breast cancer cell response to methotrexate.
    • Determination of Iron (III) Reducing Antioxidant Capacity for Manuka Honey and Comparison with ABTS and Other Methods

      Yusof, Hasif I. M.; Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Nigam, Poonam S.; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre; Ulster University; University of Chester (SCIENCEDOMAIN International, 2018-06-11)
      Aims: Applying multiple assays with trolox as the sole reference compound is a recent AOAC proposal to improve the reliability of total antioxidant capacity determinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate, iron (III) reducing antioxidant capacity (iRAC) for Manuka honey samples and comparisons with ABTS and other well-known assays. Study Design: In-vitro, laboratory-based study. Place and Duration of Study: School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Life and Health Sciences, Ulster University, Cromore Road, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, UK; September 2015-May 2016. Methodology: Manuka honey rated Unique Manuka Factor (UMF) 5+, 10+, 15+, 18+ and a nonrated (NR) sample were analysed using five assays for total antioxidant capacity namely, iRAC, ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, and Folin assays. Values for total antioxidant capacity were normalized as Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant capacity (TEAC) for comparison within and between assays. Results: The TAC were correlated for all methods (R2 = 0.83-0.99) and also correlated with the total phenols content. Actual TEAC value for a given honey ranged by 21-70-fold depending on the assay method with the following general order of increase; DPPH < FRAP (pH 3.6) < iRAC (pH 7.0) <ABTS (pH7) < Folin (pH ~11). The trends in TAC values are discussed alongside of TEAC values for 50 food items and some challenges for comparing different antioxidant methods are highlighted. Conclusion: Total antioxidant capacity of Manuka honey changes in a regular manner probably affected by assay pH. The findings are important for attempts to standardize antioxidant methods as currently applied to foods, beverages and dietary supplements. Further research is recommended to examine the effect of normalizing antioxidant methods for solvent composition and pH.
    • ‘Soldiering by consent’ and military-civil relations: Military transition into the public space of policing

      Murray, Emma; Taylor, Paul; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2019)
      Growth in the Armed Forces undertaking public policing is occurring in the United Kingdom and elsewhere and as such a complex security landscape emerges, both practically and conceptually. The aim here is to pose questions of the manifest and latent issues in the assemblage of multiple actors in public policing. It aks to reader to consider the implications of military actors transitioning from defence duties ordinarily associated with military work, to policing activities in public spaces. Taking the London 2012 Olympic Games as our point of reference, this article argues that to understand military presence, their role must be considered in the broader context of military and policing functions, the ‘war on terror’, accountability, and future priorities for public policing. We must be careful not to assign the presence of the military into pre-existing understandings of how mega-events should be secured – the military patrolling the streets of London represents more. Instead, as their presence comes to be legitimate in certain geopolitical contexts, critical questions must be asked especially as public and private arrangements are continually reworked in the domestic fight against terrorism.