Now showing items 1-20 of 5777

    • COVID-19: the impact of a global crisis on sustainable development teaching.

      Leal Filho, Walter; Price, Elizabeth; Wall, Tony; Shiel, Chris; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M; Mifsud, Mark; Brandli, Luciana; Farinha, Carla Sofia; Caeiro, Sandra; Salvia, Amanda Lange; orcid: 0000-0002-4549-7685; et al. (2021-01-06)
      The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global crisis, one which also influences the ways sustainability is being taught at universities. This paper undertakes an analysis of the extent to which COVID-19 as a whole and the lockdown it triggered in particular, which has led to the suspension of presence-based teaching in universities worldwide and influenced teaching on matters related to sustainable development. By means of a worldwide survey involving higher education institutions across all continents, the study has identified a number of patterns, trends and problems. The results from the study show that the epidemic has significantly affected teaching practices. The lockdowns have led to a surge in the use of on-line communication tools as a partial replacement to normal lessons. In addition, many faculty teaching sustainability in higher education have strong competencies in digital literacy. The sampled higher education educations have-as a whole-adequate infrastructure to continue to teach during the lockdowns. Finally, the majority of the sample revealed that they miss the interactions via direct face-to-face student engagement, which is deemed as necessary for the effective teaching of sustainability content. The implications of this paper are two-fold. Firstly, it describes how sustainability teaching on sustainable development has been affected by the lockdown. Secondly, it describes some of the solutions deployed to overcome the problem. Finally, the paper outlines the fact that the COVID-19 pandemic may serve the purpose of showing how university teaching on sustainability may be improved in the future, taking more advantage of modern information technologies. [Abstract copyright: © Springer Nature B.V. 2021.]
    • Comparison of Performance of Alternative Post Combustion Carbon Capture Processes for a Biogas Fueled Micro Gas Turbine

      Font-Palma, Carolina; Lychnos, George; Nikpey Somehsaraei, Homam; Willson, Paul; Assadi, Mohsen (American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2021-01-11)
      Abstract The urgent need to decrease greenhouse gases (GHG) has prompted countries such as the UK and Norway to commit to net zero emissions by 2050 and 2030, respectively. One of the sectors contributing to GHG emissions is agriculture, by approximately 10% in the EU in 2017. GHG reductions in the production side should involve avoidance at source, reduction of emissions and/or removal of those emissions, with the potential for negative emissions by carbon capture. This paper focuses on the utilisation of agricultural waste that can be converted into biogas, such as livestock and crops residues which represent around 37% of GHG emissions by agriculture in the EU. The biogas can be used to produce electricity and heat in a micro gas turbine (MGT). Then, the exhaust gases can be sent to a carbon capture plant. This offers the potential for integration of waste into energy for in-house use in farms and fosters a circular-bioeconomy, where the captured CO2 could be used in greenhouses to grow vegetables. This could even allow the integration of other renewable technologies, since the MGT offers flexible operation for rapid start-up and shut down or intermittency of other technologies such as solar or wind. Current carbon capture processes are very costly at the smaller scales typical of remote communities. The alternative A3C (advanced cryogenic carbon capture) process is much more economical at smaller scales. The A3C separates CO2 from process gas that flows counter-currently with a cold moving bed, where the CO2 desublimes on the surface of bed material as a thin layer of frost. This allows enhanced heat transfer and avoids heavy build-up of frost that reduces severely the heat transfer. The phase change separation process employed by A3C and the large thermal inertia of the separation medium gives good flexibility of capture for load changes and on-off despatch. This study integrates a combined heat and power MGT, Turbec T100, of 100 kWe output. This include developed models for the MGT using characteristics maps for the compressor and turbine and for the cryogenic carbon capture plant, using two software tools, IPSEpro and Aspen Plus, respectively.
    • (Custodial) spaces to grow? Adolescent development during custodial transitions

      Price, Jayne; orcid: 0000-0003-3719-1851; Turner, Jennifer (Informa UK Limited, 2021-01-11)
    • The Gravitational Pull of Identity: Professional Growth in Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychologists

      Tod, David; orcid: 0000-0003-1084-6686; McEwan, Hayley; orcid: 0000-0001-5316-8446; Chandler, Charlotte; orcid: 0000-0003-3324-8259; Eubank, Martin; orcid: 0000-0002-9696-0537; Lafferty, Moira; orcid: 0000-0002-3877-5800 (Informa UK Limited, 2020-10-07)
    • Burden of illness of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis in the US, UK, France, and Germany: study rationale and protocol of the PICTURE study.

      Ruiz-Casas, Leonardo; O'Hara, Sonia; orcid: 0000-0002-9119-8336; Mighiu, Claudia; Finnegan, Alan; Taylor, Alison; Ventura, Emily; Dhawan, Anil; Murray, Karen F; Schattenberg, Jorn; orcid: 0000-0002-4224-4703; Willemse, Jose; et al. (2021-01-07)
      : Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is an ultra-rare disease with a considerable burden on pediatric patients and their caregivers, impacting quality of life (QoL). The mortality rates highlight a significant need for efficacious treatments. Real-world data on associated costs and QoL are needed to gauge the potential impact of new pharmacological treatments. : Clinical and socio-economic burden of PFIC on patients/caregivers, health systems, and society will be assessed. Patient/caregiver- and physician-level retrospective cross-sectional data will be collected from the US, UK, France, and Germany, for PFIC types 1, 2, 3. A representative sample of physicians will provide clinical and resource utilization information using an electronic Case Report Form (eCRF). Patient/caregiver surveys will collect socio-economic and QoL data, enabling assessment of PFIC impact on QoL. Mean costs (direct medical/non-medical, indirect) will be calculated. The study materials were reviewed by medical professionals and patient representatives and received ethical approval from the University of Chester. : The study aims to reveal the unmet medical need, disease burden, resource utilization, and costs of PFIC, to raise awareness with policymakers and healthcare professionals, and provide support for the patient/caregiver community. As novel PFIC therapies recently emerged, this study will yield quantifiable data for health technology assessments.
    • An evaluation and critical analysis of the impact of the Aged Veterans Fund

      Di Lemma, Lisa; Howe, Sonia; Finnegan, Alan; University of Chester; Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust.
      There has been research on the numbers and needs of an ageing society yet, relatively little is known about the specific needs of older veterans, and the effectiveness of services specifically developed to meet these needs. In 2016 and 2017, the Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust funded invested £30 million to the Aged Veterans Fund (AVF) programme. This consisted of 19 portfolio projects to support health, wellbeing, and social care needs for older veterans (born before 1st January 1950) and their families. This report explores the impact of the AVF, with the intent of informing service providers, stakeholders and policy makers, of the lessons learned and the next steps required for the support of older veterans. A retrospective evaluation focused on both the impact of the processes adopted by the programmes, and the outcomes achieved, was commissioned. Qualitative analysis was performed on 78 eligible source documents, from which 10 recurrent themes were identified. Themes focused on the methodology and evaluations adopted by the projects, the number of beneficiaries reached, challenges encountered, associated costs and savings. In addition, the study identified projects outreach and sustainability, including staff, volunteers and clients perceptions of the services. Finally, there are results regarding the related health and wellbeing benefits, behaviour change and influences on the UK National Health Service (NHS) practice. The findings indicated that project promotion, partnership and collaboration was strong, which provides a foundation for the sustainability and outreach of some of the programmes. The AVF programmes were successfully rolled out via referrals, but this was not without challenges such as capacity, uptake, staffing and timelines issues. Two primary approaches were adopted. The first being a person-centred care approach, that takes into consideration the complex needs of the individual. The second was a skill-exchange model consisting of peers passing on their skills to beneficiaries. The results provided compelling evidence that the AVF initiatives were successful and were positively perceived by beneficiaries, staff and volunteers. Evidence was found on the impact of the fund on boosting resilience in the beneficiaries, by reducing social isolation and improving their health and wellbeing. Additionally, awareness was raised in the wider community, via the delivery of specific educational training to staff. In addition, AVF programmes influenced current health-care practice such as re-admission and discharge rates, via effective signposting and cross-referrals. The lessons learnt lead to recommendations and indicators for the next steps required to support older veterans and their families.
    • Impact Assessment of Holiday Provision in Cheshire West and Chester, Halton and Wirral – Summer 2020: Assessment of Provision and Coordination under Covid19

      Fernandez, Rosa Maria; orcid: 0000-0002-0444-7999; email: r.fernandez@chester.ac.uk; Dunne, Seona; White, Holly; University of Chester
      This report is an evaluation of the activities undertaken by Edsential and Partners during the summer of 2020. Edsential and its consortium were one of ten providers awarded funding by the Department of Education to coordinate activities and food provision in England, receiving £1.8 million of the £9 million allocated for 2020. Compared to the summer of 2019, the area of the provision under the care of Edsential has significantly increased, including Cheshire West and Chester, Wirral and Halton. The provision was organised through Partnership Boards created for each local area, and this report not only provides an impact assessment of the holiday food and activity provision, but also an evaluation of the partnerships and their functioning. The context of the provision has been affected by the Covid19 pandemic, and as such, researchers have also analysed how Covid19 has affected families, particularly during lockdown restriction periods, and the provision of activities.
    • Combined bezafibrate, medroxyprogesterone acetate and valproic acid treatment inhibits osteosarcoma cell growth without adversely affecting normal mesenchymal stem cells

      Sheard, Jonathan J.; Southam, Andrew D.; MacKay, Hannah L.; Ellington, Max A.; Snow, Martyn D.; Khanim, Farhat L.; Bunce, Christopher M.; Johnson, William E.; orcid: 0000-0002-7247-9087 (Portland Press Ltd., 2021-01-05)
      Abstract Drug repurposing is a cost-effective means of targeting new therapies for cancer. We have examined the effects of the repurposed drugs, bezafibrate, medroxyprogesterone acetate and valproic acid on human osteosarcoma cells, i.e., SAOS2 and MG63 compared with their normal cell counterparts, i.e. mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Cell growth, viability and migration were measured by biochemical assay and live cell imaging, whilst levels of lipid-synthesising enzymes were measured by immunoblotting cell extracts. These drug treatments inhibited the growth and survival of SAOS2 and MG63 cells most effectively when used in combination (termed V-BAP). In contrast, V-BAP treated MSCs remained viable with only moderately reduced cell proliferation. V-BAP treatment also inhibited migratory cell phenotypes. MG63 and SAOS2 cells expressed much greater levels of fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 than MSCs, but these elevated enzyme levels significantly decreased in the V-BAP treated osteosarcoma cells prior to cell death. Hence, we have identified a repurposed drug combination that selectively inhibits the growth and survival of human osteosarcoma cells in association with altered lipid metabolism without adversely affecting their non-transformed cell counterparts.
    • Burden of illness of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis in the US, UK, France, and Germany: study rationale and protocol of the PICTURE study

      Ruiz-Casas, Leonardo; O’Hara, Sonia; orcid: 0000-0002-9119-8336; Mighiu, Claudia; Finnegan, Alan; Taylor, Alison; Ventura, Emily; Dhawan, Anil; Murray, Karen F; Schattenberg, Jorn; orcid: 0000-0002-4224-4703; Willemse, Jose; et al. (Informa UK Limited, 2021-01-07)
    • Real-world evidence on Kovaltry (81-8973) in children with moderate or severe hemophilia A in Europe: a nested cohort analysis

      O’Hara, Jamie; Hirst, Ceri; orcid: 0000-0001-9094-2437; email: ceri.hirst@bayer.com; Cabre Marquez, Jose Francisco; Burke, Tom (BioMed Central, 2021-01-15)
      Abstract: Background: Untreated hemophilia A patients may experience recurrent bleeding events leading to debilitating joint damages. While RCT and pharmacokinetic data support the value of Kovaltry [an unmodified full-length recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) product], real world evidence in children is lacking. This report describes a descriptive and multivariate analysis of the effectiveness of Kovaltry in children with hemophilia A in the real-world setting, using data from medical chart abstraction and cross-sectional surveys of physicians, patients, and caregivers. Results: Male patients aged < 18 years with moderate or severe hemophilia A, residing in five European countries and treated with FVIII were studied. The co-primary endpoints were the annualized bleeding rate (ABR) and the annual FVIII utilization rate. Twenty nine patients treated with Kovaltry were included, of whom 93% had severe disease and 75% were on continuous prophylactic treatment. The mean ABR was 2.66 ± 2.06, with rates decreasing with age. The children received on average 2.45 infusions per week, consistent across age groups (median 3; range 1–3). There were no reports of inhibitor development or adverse events in the study (AEs), and all patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the treatment. An exploratory multivariate analysis suggests no significant difference in ABR or units utilized between Kovaltry and some extended half life products in children with severe hemophilia A, though characteristics of these patient cohorts were markedly different. Conclusion: This analysis demonstrates the effectiveness and safety of Kovaltry in a pan-European pediatric population with severe hemophilia A.
    • COVID-19 presenting as intussusception in infants: A case report with literature review

      Athamnah, Mohammad N.; Masade, Salim; Hamdallah, Hanady; orcid: 0000-0001-6314-0236; Banikhaled, Nasser; Shatnawi, Wafa; Elmughrabi, Marwa; Al Azzam, Hussein S.O. (Elsevier, 2021-01-12)
      The novel Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first presented in Wuhan, China. The virus was able to spread throughout the world, causing a global health crisis. The virus spread widely in Jordan after a wedding party held in northern Jordan. In most cases of COVID-19 infection, respiratory symptoms are predominant. However, in rare cases the disease may present with non-respiratory symptoms. The presentation of COVID-19 as a case of intussusception in children is a strange and rare phenomenon. We present here a case of a two-and-a-half month old male baby who was brought to hospital due to fever, frequent vomiting, dehydration and blood in stool. He was diagnosed as intussusception. The child was tested for corona due to the large societal spread of the virus and because he was near his mother, who was suffering from symptoms similar to corona or seasonal flu (she did not conduct a corona test). Patient was treated without surgery and recovered quickly. The COVID-19 infection was without respiratory symptoms, and there was no need for the child to remain in hospital after treatment of intussusception. The relationship between viruses, mesenteric lymphoid hyperplasia, and intussusception is a confirmed relation. ACE2 is the key receptor required for SARA-COV-2 to enter the host cells. ACE2 has been also found in the brush border of the intestinal mucosa, as well as it is a key inflammatory regulator in the intestine. This may suggest that SARSA-COV-2 could invade the respiratory tract as well as gastrointestinal tract or both. Few case reports documented the presentation of COVID-19 as intussusception in children. In the light of the wide-spread of corona virus, performing COVID-19 tests for children with intussusception can help linking the two entities. Development of gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 positive children should raise concern about the development of intussusception.
    • Are Prisoners More Psychopathic than Non-forensic Populations? Profiling Psychopathic Traits among Prisoners, Community Adults, University Students, and Adolescents

      Boduszek, Daniel; orcid: 0000-0001-5863-2906; Debowska, Agata; Sherretts, Nicole; Willmott, Dominic; Boulton, Mike; Kielkiewicz, Krzysztof; Popiolek, Katarzyna; Hyland, Philip (Informa UK Limited, 2019-09-12)
    • Refining the blank line‐up procedure: How should we instruct eyewitnesses?

      Kucina, Talira; Sauer, James D.; Holt, Glenys A.; Brewer, Neil; Palmer, Matthew A.; orcid: 0000-0002-3467-3364 (Wiley, 2020-08-19)
    • Universal credit, Lone mothers and poverty: Some context and challenges for social work with children and families

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester
      Universal Credit is a streamlined benefits delivery system initially introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2008. Conditionality-based welfare policies are increasingly international in scale, and are now widely adopted by neoliberal governments on the basis that paid employment offers the most efficacious route out of poverty for citizen-subjects. Numerous studies suggest otherwise, and highlight their negative impact upon the social rights, lived experiences, and attempts to alleviate poverty for service users. This article analyses the reformed benefit system and wider workfare policies effect upon lone mothers, including as a consequence of engagement with an ever more stigmatizing benefit system, and associated risks posed by sanctions or precarious low-paid employment. It highlights some of the consequences for social work with children and families of Universal Credit: including ongoing tensions and challenges created for the profession by the punitive policies of the workfare-orientated centaur state.
    • Leading brand products and their supermarket economy line equivalents, is there a difference in nutritional content?

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Jackson, Emma; University of Chester
      Since the introduction of supermarket economy lines (SELs) in the early 1990s, their popularity has been established nationwide(1).However, these economical alternatives are commonly perceived to be of lower nutritional quality than their leading brand (LB)equivalents(2,3,4). The present study aimed to determine if there is a significant difference in nutritional content between the UKtop-selling LBs and their SEL equivalents. Additionally, the study aimed to investigate if on average, LBs or SELs provide better‘value for money’.The LBs of 38 most popular food categories were identified from UK market research, and equivalent SEL products were identifiedfrom each of the retailers with the top-five majority UK market share: Tesco, Sainsbury’s, Asda, Morrisons and Aldi. In each foodcategory, differences between LBs and SELs in: energy, fat, saturated fatty acid, carbohydrate, sugar,fibre, protein and salt content,per 100 g of food product were determined using a one-sample T-test. The nutritional quality of each product was also determined bya nutrient profiling system. Cost was analysed in relation to shopping baskets containing 33 equivalent products. Six shopping basketswere analysed, one containing LB products and one from each SEL retailer. The cost of each shopping basket was calculated usingpack price and price per 100 g or 100mL of food product.Data was collected for 219 products; 38 LBs and 181 SELs. 86 significant differences were identified in specific nutrients across thefood categories, but the direction of the differences was inconsistent. Based on pack price, the total LB shopping basket cost was£61·91 whereas average SEL basket cost £28·62, a difference of £33·29 or 54 % (P = 0·001). However, there was no difference betweenthe nutrient profile of LBs and SELs.Although significant differences were identified between nutrients in some food categories, overall, there appeared to be no differ-ence in nutritional content between LBs and SEL equivalents. This association is consistent with previous studies and is contrary tothe common perception that SELs are of lower nutritional quality than LBs(2,3,4,5,6). Pertinent to public health, the present studyfound that SEL breakfast cereals contained a significantly higher amount of salt than the LB (P = 0·035)(4,6). Additionally, althoughthe majority of food categories did not show a significant difference in energy content per 100 g of food product (29 of 38) LB pastahad significantly higher energy content per 100 g of food product than SEL equivalents (P = 0·017)(6).In conclusion, there appears to be no difference in nutritional content between the LB and SEL equivalents in 38 popular foodcategories, however, there appears to be twofold difference in price The cost analysis demonstrates that consumers can purchasethe same quantity of foodstuff for significantly less when opting for SEL products. Low income households may therefore be encour-aged to purchase SEL products to reduce weekly household expenditure and enable a greater proportion of the budget to be availablefor the purchase fresh produce such as fruit, vegetables and meat
    • Estimates of fibre intake and percentage of the population with intake below the dietary reference values (DRVs) in England (1991–2015)

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Farzad, Amirabdollahian; Buczkowski, Bartek; Davies, Ian; University of Chester
      In 1991, the Committee on Medical Aspects of Foods (COMA) defined dietary fibre as non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and set the DRV as the population average intake of 18 g/day 1 , determined using the Englyst method of analysis 2 . The latest publication of the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) 3 broadened the definition of dietary fibre beyond NSP to broader definition of Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) fibre, recommending the DRV to be 30 g/day based on AOAC method. The COMA 1991, DRV of 18 g/day of NSP corresponds to around 24 g/day of AOAC fibre 3 and therefore the new DRV of fibre would represent a higher recommendation (around 22·5 g fibre as per the Englyst method) for the average population. The purpose of this study was to investigate variation in fibre intake of English population by age and gender, in comparison with the COMA and SACN DRVs. Data on the core sample of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme from 2008–2012 was reanalysed. Children aged below 16 years were excluded in consideration of their different DRVs. The data on dietary fibre was extracted from fully productive individuals (i.e. participants who completed three/four diary days), as an average daily intake based on the NSP/Englyst fibre. Inferential statistics included the analysis of variance to discover if there were any significant variations in fibre intake of males and females in relation to their age groups. The statistical significance was set at 0·05. For all age groups, the average fibre intake is below the DRVs. The average daily fibre intake slightly increased with age for both genders until 64 years. When differences in energy intake were taken into account, the average daily fibre density (g/1000 kcal) still increased with the age of participants. Overall, less than a third of populations had an intake above the COMA DRV 1 . More than 90 % of the population had intake below the SACN DRV 3 , demonstrating a challenge for future policies to meet the nutritional guidelines, particularly amongst females and younger adults. The findings should be treated with caution considering the definition of AOAC fibre used as the basis for the SACN DRV includes non-digestible oligosaccharides, resistant starch and polydextrose, going beyond NSP/Englyst variables analysed.
    • Full fat cheese intake and cardiovascular health: a randomised control trial

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Butler, Thomas; Davies, Ian; University of Chester
      Milk and milk products contribute approximately 22 % of the nation's saturated fat (SFA) intake. Recently, the role of dairy and its SFA composition and link to cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been analysed( 1 ), suggesting a beneficial action of this food group on reducing cardiovascular risk in high-risk groups( 2 , 3 ). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 4 weeks full-fat cheese on circulating lipoprotein fractions, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in healthy adults. Participants were recruited in the city of Chester, UK. Those meeting entry criteria of: 18–65 years of age, not taking antihypercholesterolaemic or antihypertensive medication took part in the study. Participants were randomised to receive either 50 g of a full-fat Red Leicester (FFC) or placebo (virtually zero fat Cheddar cheese, ZFC) per day for 4 weeks. Anthropometry, blood pressure, brachial and aortic augmentation index (BAIX and AAIX, respectively), pulse-wave velocity (PWV) and a full lipid profile were determined at baseline and post-intervention. Participants were asked to keep a 3-day food diary prior to and for the last 3 days of the protocol. All procedures were approved by the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Life Sciences Research Ethics Committee at the University of Chester. Eighty-six (86) individuals completed the study (43 per group). No significant changes were observed in any measured parameter (Table 1). Both ZFC and FFC groups showed a significant increase in calcium intake during the course of the study (1002·1 ± 639·1 mg to 1815·0 ± 1340·1 mg and 1219·6 ± 1169·1 mg 1845·8 ± 1463·2 mg, P < 0·001, respectively) showing good adherence to the protocol. In conclusion, these results suggest that inclusion of 50 g full fat cheese into the diet of a healthy population does not impact negatively on traditional CVD risk markers. Future strategies to reduce SFA intake should focus on – and acknowledge the importance of the source – of SFA in the diet.
    • Effect of a single serving of pecan nuts on blood lipids and weight: a single blind randomised control trial

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Butler, Thomas; Confue, Charlotte; Guild, Joanne; University of Chester
      Nuts are a common component of many traditional cardioprotective diets primarily due to their ability to lower blood lipids and reduce cardiovascular risk(1, 2). Studies consistently show nut intake is associated with favourable changes in energy balance(3). However there is a paucity of data examining the acute changes following nut consumption. We sought to examine the effect of a single serving of pecan nuts on plasma lipids and bodyweight. Participants were sampled from the University of Chester, UK. Individuals (n = 54) were screened for eligibility to participate. Those meeting entry criteria (n = 25) of being either male or female aged 30 years or more and with no previous history of CVD were randomised to either a control (CON) or pecan nut group (PECAN). Participants in the PECAN group received a single 50 g serving of pecan nuts. Capillary blood was taken for analysis of triacylglycerol, total-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (TAG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C and non-HDL-C, respectively), and anthropometric measurements were performed. All measurements were repeated after 3 days. Participants were instructed to record all food and drink consumed, and not to change their habitual eating habits. Procedures were approved by the Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Clinical Sciences Research Ethics Committee, University of Chester. No significant effect on TC, HDL-C or TAG was observed during the study (Fig. 1A–C). LDL-C decreased by 0.09 ± 0.37 mmol/L and increased by 0.16 ± 0.40 mmol/L in CON and PECAN groups, respectively. Non-HDL-C showed a similar pattern with the CON group showing a decrease and PECAN group displaying an increase (−0.18 ± 0.36 mmol/L vs. 0.16 ± 0.40 mmol/L, respectively). Bodyweight significantly (P = 0.025) decreased in the PECAN group when compared to the CON group (−0.58 ± 0.56 kg vs. −0.05 ± 0.55 kg, respectively). In conclusion, a single serving of pecan nuts had no significant impact on lipid markers of cardiovascular risk. Bodyweight was significantly reduced consistent with recent literature showing a favourable relationship with nut intake and energy balance(3).
    • Acute and chronic effects of beetroot supplementation on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in humans

      Mushtaq, Sohail; Turner, Emma; University of Chester
      Dietary supplementation of beetroot juice, containing nitrate- a potent vasodilation agent, has been shown to be vasoprotective( 1 ), and dose dependent decreases in blood pressure (BP) have been previously demonstrated(2,3). To our knowledge there has been only one study investigating the effect of beetroot supplementation in humans on arterial stiffness, measured using pulsewave velocity (PWV) and, although there was no effect of supplementation on PWV, there was a significant reduction due to beetroot supplementation in acute diastolic BP (3hrs, P = 0·023)( 4 ). A double-blind, randomised, cross-over intervention trial was carried out in a cohort of 12 healthy male participants (mean age (SEM) = 43 (2·1) yrs, BMI = 27·8 (1·1) kg.m2) who underwent both beetroot juice and placebo supplementation for 14 days. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of 6·45 mmol of nitrate in a concentrated 70 ml beetroot drink (James White Ltd, Ipswich, UK) on systolic and diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP) and arterial stiffness (PWV, aortic augmentation index (Aix), brachial Aix) in humans. BP and arterial stiffness measurements weretaken using PWV (Arteriograph, TensioMed,Hungary). Measurements were taken intriplicate at baseline, 3 hours post-supplementation (either beetroot juice orplacebo) and post-intervention (day 15). This was followed by a 7-day washoutperiod before participants were transferred to the alternate supplement. Table 1 shows that there was no significant acute or short term effect of beetroot juice supplementation on the parameters measured when compared to placebo. However, there was a significant decrease in systolic BP (P = 0·009), diastolic BP (P = 0·035), MAP (P = 0·017), aortic and brachial AIX (P = 0·042 and 0·041 respectively), 3hours post beetroot supplementation. These results confirm previous findings( 4 ) that beetroot supplementation does not have an acute or short term effect on arterial stiffness measures. However, acute effects on arterial stiffness and BP within the beetroot juice supplementation group were observed. Further large scale studies on dietary nitrate supplementation and cardiovascular health are required to further assess efficacy.