Now showing items 1-20 of 4549

    • The low-risk perception of developing type 2 diabetes among women with a previous history of gestational diabetes: a qualitative study

      Sharma, Manisha; Purewal, Tejpal Singh; Fallows, Stephen; Kennedy, Lynne (Wiley, 2019-02-13)
    • Rapid Colorimetric Determination of Methylglyoxal Equivalents for Manuka Honey

      Kwok, T. H.; Kirkpatrick, G; Yusof, H. I. Mohd; Portokalakis, I; Nigam, P.S.; Owusu-Apenten, Richard Kwasi; University of Chester, University of Ulster (Sciencedomain international, 2016-06-14)
      Aims: Realization of a rapid colorimetric assay for monitoring levels of methylglyoxal and other dicarbonyl compounds from Manuka honey. Methods: N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) were adopted as reagents for methylglyoxal colorimetric analysis of honey at 288 or 525 nm, respectively. Results and Discussion: NAC and DNPH produced linear responses for methylglyoxal with:(i) regression coefficient (R2) equal to 0.99 or 0.97, (ii) molar absorptivity (measure of sensitivity) equal to 287±11 or 14189±498 M-1 cm-1, (iii) a minimum detectable concentration (MDC) of 0.18 mM vs 7.3 µM, (iv) upper linearity limit of linearity (ULL) equal to 4mM or 83 µM, and (v) a day-to-day precision of 16.0 and 18.3%, respectively. Low interferences occurred with reducing sugars, glyoxal or 3-deoxy-D-glucosone. For honey with a unique manuka factor (UMF) rating 5+ to UMF18+, the net concentration of dicarbonyl compounds ranged from 1069 mg-methylglyoxal equivalence per kg (mg MeGEq /kg) to 2208 (mg MeGEq /kg) using the NAC assay. For the DNPH assay, the apparent dicarbonyl concentration was 350 to 1009-mg MeGEq /kg honey. Measures of methylglyoxal equivalences were strongly correlated with the UMF rating for honeys (R2=0.98-0.99). Conclusion: The proposed colorimetric analysis of methylglyoxal equivalence in Manuka honey is feasible proposition. Further work is needed for method validation.
    • VRIA - A Framework for Immersive Analytics on the Web

      Butcher, Peter; John, Nigel; Ritsos, Panagiotis; University of Chester and Bangor University (ACM, 2019-05)
      We report on the design, implementation and evaluation of <VRIA>, a framework for building immersive analytics (IA) solutions inWeb-based Virtual Reality (VR), built upon WebVR, A-Frame, React and D3. The recent emergence of affordable VR interfaces have reignited the interest of researchers and developers in exploring new, immersive ways to visualize data. In particular, the use of open-standards web-based technologies for implementing VR in a browser facilitates the ubiquitous and platform-independent adoption of IA systems. Moreover, such technologies work in synergy with established visualization libraries, through the HTML document object model (DOM). We discuss high-level features of <VRIA> and present a preliminary user experience evaluation of one of our use-cases.
    • The perceived benefits of an arts project for health and wellbeing of older offenders

      Wilkinson, Dean J.; Caulfield, Laura S.; University of Chester; University of Wolverhampton (NCBI, 2017-03)
      The increasing ageing prison population is becoming a pressing issue throughout the criminal justice system. Alongside the rising population, are a host of health and wellbeing issues that contribute to older offenders needs whilst in prison. It has been recommended that meaningful activities can have positive effects on this population and therefore this paper uniquely reviews older offenders accounts of taking part in an arts based project, Good Vibrations, whilst imprisoned. The Good Vibrations project engages individuals in Gamelan music making with an end of project performance. This study used independent in-depth interviews to capture the voices of older offenders who took part in an art based prison project. The interview data was analysed using thematic analysis, which highlighted themes that were consistent with other populations who have taken part in a Good Vibrations project, along with specific age relating issues of mobility, motivation, identity and wellbeing.
    • “It's Just More Acceptable To Be White or Mixed Race and Gay Than Black and Gay”: The Perceptions and Experiences of Homophobia in St. Lucia

      couzens, Jimmy; Mahoney, Bere; Wilkinson, Dean J.; University of Worcester; University of Worcester; University of Chester (Frontiers in Psychology, 2017-06)
      Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals come from diverse cultural groups with differing ethnic and racial identities. However, most research on LGB people uses white western samples and studies of Afro-Caribbean diaspora often use Jamaican samples. Thus, the complexity of Afro-Caribbean LGB peoples' experiences of homophobia is largely unknown. The authors' analyses explore experiences of homophobia among LGB people in St. Lucia. Findings indicate issues of skin-shade orientated tolerance, regionalized disparities in levels of tolerance toward LGB people and regionalized passing (regionalized sexual identity shifting). Finally, the authors' findings indicate that skin shade identities and regional location influence the psychological health outcomes of homophobia experienced by LGB people in St. Lucia.
    • Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning

      Wilkinson, Dean J.; Caulfield, Laura S.; University of Chester; University of Wolverhampton (NCBI, 2017-08)
      Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p < .05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.
    • Exploring alternative terrain in the rehabilitation and treatment of offenders: findings from a prison-based music project

      Caulfield, Laura S; Wilkinson, Dean J.; Wilson, David; University of Wolverhampton; University of Chester; Birmingham City Univeristy (Taylor and Francis, 2016-07-05)
      The arts in prison settings have provided an alternative or complimentary component to rehabilitation. Despite increased interest, studies capturing the voice of offenders participating in projects and the long-term impact are limited. Data from semistructured interviews with 18 men who had taken part in a music-based project while incarcerated, including one group of five participants who were tracked for 18 months with supplemented data from correctional staff and official documentation, is presented. Participants of the art-based projects comment on changes they believe to have derived from participating in the project, particularly relating to emotions, self-esteem, self-confidence, communication and social skills. An exoffender sample of participants reported that participation in art projects provide experiences that promote beneficial skills that have been useful for post prison life.
    • From Surveillance to Intervention: Overview and Baseline Findings for the Active City of Liverpool Active Schools and SportsLinx (A-CLASS) Project.

      McWhannell, Nicola; email:; Foweather, Lawrence; orcid: 0000-0001-9851-5421; email:; Graves, Lee E F; orcid: 0000-0002-3323-313X; email:; Henaghan, Jayne L; email:; Ridgers, Nicola D; orcid: 0000-0001-5713-3515; email:; Stratton, Gareth; orcid: 0000-0001-5618-0803; email: (2018-03-23)
      This paper outlines the implementation of a programme of work that started with the development of a population-level children's health, fitness and lifestyle study in 1996 (SportsLinx) leading to selected interventions one of which is described in detail: the Active City of Liverpool, Active Schools and SportsLinx (A-CLASS) Project. The A-CLASS Project aimed to quantify the effectiveness of structured and unstructured physical activity (PA) programmes on children's PA, fitness, body composition, bone health, cardiac and vascular structures, fundamental movement skills, physical self-perception and self-esteem. The study was a four-arm parallel-group school-based cluster randomised controlled trial (clinical trials no. NCT02963805), and compared different exposure groups: a high intensity PA (HIPA) group, a fundamental movement skill (FMS) group, a PA signposting (PASS) group and a control group, in a two-schools-per-condition design. Baseline findings indicate that children's fundamental movement skill competence levels are low-to-moderate, yet these skills are inversely associated with percentage body fat. Outcomes of this project will make an important contribution to the design and implementation of children's PA promotion initiatives.
    • Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing of Complete Standalone Sodium-Ion Energy Storage Architectures

      Down, Michael P.; Martínez-Periñán, Emiliano; Foster, Christopher W.; Lorenzo, Encarnación; Smith, G. C.; Banks, Craig E.; orcid: 0000-0002-0756-9764 (Wiley, 2019-02-10)
    • Bordered Constructions of Self-Dual Codes from Group Rings and New Extremal Binary Self-Dual Codes

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Korban, Adrian; Tylyshchak, Alexander; Yildiz, Bahattin; University of Scranton; University of Chester; Sampoerna Academy; Uzhgorod State University; Northern Arizona University (Elsevier, 2019)
      We introduce a bordered construction over group rings for self-dual codes. We apply the constructions over the binary field and the ring $\F_2+u\F_2$, using groups of orders 9, 15, 21, 25, 27, 33 and 35 to find extremal binary self-dual codes of lengths 20, 32, 40, 44, 52, 56, 64, 68, 88 and best known binary self-dual codes of length 72. In particular we obtain 41 new binary extremal self-dual codes of length 68 from groups of orders 15 and 33 using neighboring and extensions. All the numerical results are tabulated throughout the paper.
    • Stigma: a linguistic analysis of the UK red-top tabloids press’s representation of schizophrenia

      Bowen, Matt; Kinderman, Peter; Cooke, Anne; University of Chester; Liverpool University; Canterbury University (SAGE publications, 2019)
      Aims. Media representations of mental health problems may influence readers’ understanding of, and attitude towards, people who have received psychiatric diagnoses. Negative beliefs and attitudes may then lead to discriminatory behaviour, which is understood as stigma. This study explored the language used in popular national newspapers when writing about schizophrenia and considered how this may have contributed to the processes of stigmatisation towards people with this diagnosis. Methods. Using corpus linguistic methods, a sample of newspaper articles over a 24 month period that mentioned the word ‘schizophrenia’ was compared with a similar sample of articles about diabetes. This enabled a theory-driven exploration of linguistic characteristics to explore stigmatising messages, whilst supported by statistical tests (Log-Likelihood) to compare the data sets and identify words with a high relative frequency. Results. Analysis of the ‘schizophrenia’ data set identified that overtly stigmatising language (e.g. “schizo”) was relatively infrequent, but that there was frequent use of linguistic signatures of violence. Articles frequently used graphic language referring to: acts of violence, descriptions of violent acts, implements used in violence, identity labels and exemplars of well-known individuals who had committed violent acts. The word ‘schizophrenic’ was used with a high frequency (n=108) and most commonly to name individuals who had committed acts of violence. Discussion. The study suggests that whilst the press have largely avoided the use of words that press guidance has steered them away from (e.g. “schizo” and “psycho”) that they still use a range of graphic language to present people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia as frighteningly ‘other’ and as prone to violence. This repetition of negative stereotypical messages may well contribute to the processes of stigmatisation many people who experience psychosis have to contend.
    • Internal loads, but not external loads and fatigue, are similar in young and middle-aged resistance trained males during high volume squatting exercise.

      Fernandes, John; Lamb, Kevin; Twist, Craig; University of Chester (MDPI Basel, 2018-08-22)
      Little is known about the internal and external loads experienced during resistance exercise, or the subsequent fatigue-related response, across different age groups. This study compared the internal (heart rate, OMNI ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), session RPE) and external loads (peak velocity and power and volume load) during high volume squatting exercise (10 10 at 60% one-repetition maximum (1RM)) and the fatigue-related response (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), resting doublet force, peak power, and blood lactate) in young (n = 9; age 22.3 1.7 years) and middle-aged (n = 9; age 39.9 6.2 years) resistance-trained males. All internal load variables and peak velocity illustrated unclear differences between groups during exercise. Peak power and volume load were likely higher in the young group compared to their middle-aged counterparts. The unclear differences in MVC, VA and blood lactate between groups after exercise were accompanied by very likely greater decrements in resting doublet force and peak power at 20 and 80% 1RM in the middle-aged group compared to the young group. These data indicate that internal load is not different between young and middle-aged resistance-trained males, though certain external load measures and the fatigue response are.
    • An analysis of the three-dimensional kinetics and kinematics of maximal effort punches among amateur boxers.

      Stanley, Edward; Thomson, Edward; Smith, Grace; Lamb, Kevin; University of Chester (Routledge, 2018-09-27)
      The purpose of this study was to quantify the 3D kinetics and kinematics of six punch types among amateur boxers. Fifteen males (age: 24.9 ± 4.2 years; stature: 1.78 ± 0.1 m; body mass: 75.3 ± 13.4 kg; boxing experience: 6.3 ± 2.8 years) performed maximal effort punches against a suspended punch bag during which upper body kinematics were assessed via a 3D motion capture system, and ground reaction forces (GRF) of the lead and rear legs via two force plates. For all variables except elbowjoint angular velocity, analysis revealed significant (P < 0.05) differences between straight, hook and uppercut punches. The lead hook exhibited the greatest peak fist velocity (11.95 ± 1.84 m/s), the jab the shortest delivery time (405 ± 0.15 ms), the rear uppercut the greatest shoulder-joint angular velocity (1069.8 ± 104.5°/s), and the lead uppercut the greatest elbow angular velocity (651.0 ± 357.5°/s). Peak resultant GRF differed significantly (P < 0.05) between rear and lead legs for the jab punch only. Whilst these findings provide novel descriptive data for coaches and boxers, future research should examine if physical and physiological capabilities relate to the key biomechanical qualities associated with maximal punching performance.
    • A comparison of the FitroDyne and GymAware rotary encoders for quantifying peak and mean velocity during traditional multi-jointed exercises

      Fernandes, John; Lamb, Kevin; Clark, Cain; Moran, Jason; Drury, Ben; Garcia-Ramos, Amador; Twist, Craig; University of Chester & Hartpury University (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 2018-11-01)
      The FitroDyne and GymAware rotary encoders are being increasingly used in resistance training to monitor movement velocity, but how closely their velocity outcomes agree is unknown. Consequently, this study aimed to determine the level of agreement between the FitroDyne and GymAware for the assessment of movement velocity in three resistance training exercises. Fifteen males performed three repetitions of bench press, back squat and bent-over-row exercises at 10% one repetition maximum increments (from 20 to 80%). For each repetition, the FitroDyne and GymAware recorded peak and mean barbell velocity (cm.s-1). Though strongly correlated (r = 0.79 to 1.00), peak velocity values for the GymAware were significantly lower than the FitroDyne for all exercises and loads. Importantly, the random errors between the devices, quantified via Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement, were unacceptable, ranging from ± 3.8 to 25.9 cm.s-1. Differences in mean velocity were smaller (and non-significant for most comparisons) and highly correlated (r = 0.86 to 1.00) between devices. Notwithstanding smaller random errors than for the peak values, mean values still reflected poor agreement (random errors between ± 2.1 to 12.0 cm.s-1). These findings suggest that the FitroDyne and GymAware cannot record peak or mean velocity with acceptable agreement, and should neither be employed interchangeably nor their data compared.
    • Antibacterial activity of Manuka honey and its components: An overview

      Johnston, M; McBride, M; Dahiya, D; Owusu-Apenten, Richard Kwasi; Nigam, P.S.; University of Chester, University of Ulster (AIMS Press, 2018-11-27)
      The importance of honey for medicinal purposes is well documented in some of the world’s oldest literature. Honey is well known and studied for its antimicrobial properties. The medicinal properties in honey originate from the floral source used by bees. Manuka honey is a dark monofloral honey rich in phenolic content, and currently it is gaining much attention for its antimicrobial activity. Researchers have found that honey is effective against a wide range of pathogens. The antibacterial potency of Manuka honey was found to be related to the Unique Manuka Factor (UMF) rating, which is correlated with the methylglyoxal and total phenols content. It is reported that different types of Manuka honey have differing effects and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant than Gram-positive bacteria. Bacterial resistance to honey as antimicrobial agent has yet to be identified, possibly due to the presence of a complex mixture of methylglyoxal and other components. Honey is also reported to alter a bacterium’s shape and size through septal ring alteration, which affects cell morphology and growth. Research has shown that Manuka honey of different UMF values has medicinal properties of interest and it can be beneficial when used as a combination treatment with other antimicrobial agents
    • Gestural repertoire size is associated with social proximity measures in wild chimpanzees.

      Roberts, Anna I; orcid: 0000-0003-1185-7897; Chakrabarti, Anwesha; Roberts, Sam G B (2019-02-01)
      Studying the communication systems of primates can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human language. Some theories propose that language evolved to help meet the demands of managing complex social relationships. Examining the associations between sociality and communication in the great apes can help to identify the specific selection pressures that may have been important for language evolution. In particular, gestural communication is believed to be important because it is a relatively recent trait seen only in primates and particularly in the great apes. However, the extent to which more complex gestural communication plays a role in managing social relationships, as compared to less complex gestural communication, is not well understood. Using social network analysis, we examined the association between complex gesturing (indexed as repertoire size) and complexity of social relationships indexed as proximity (the duration of time spent within 10 m, per hour spent in same party) in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Repertoire size (the total number of gesture types a focal subject produced toward other individuals) and dyadic repertoire size (the number of gesture types produced toward the dyad partner, per hour spent within 10 meters) were positively associated with proximity at the level of the group (centrality in the proximity network) and the dyad (proximity duration between dyads), respectively. Further, the repertoire size of visual and auditory short-range gestures was positively associated with proximity, while the repertoire size of tactile gesture was negatively associated with proximity. Overall these results suggest that gestural repertoire size has important implications for maintaining social relationships in wild chimpanzees and more broadly that gestural communication may have played an important role in language evolution. [Abstract copyright: © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.]
    • Perspectives on New Gambia

      Perfect, Dr David (Informa UK Limited, 2019-02-05)
    • “Some are gay, some are straight, no one actually cares as long as you’re there to play hockey”: Women’s field hockey players’ engagement with sexual identity discourses

      McEvilly, Nollaig; Whitehouse, Lauren E (University of Chester, 2019-02-13)
      This research investigates the discourses that have impacted recreational women’s hockey players’ perspectives and experiences surrounding sexual identity. Furthermore, the participants’ engagement with sexual identity discourses and through what discursive practices and disciplinary techniques sexual identities became dominant or alternative is examined. The experiences of and towards non-heterosexual sportspeople is a developing area of research, though little research focuses on recreational level sport that is not identified as a ‘gay sport space’. This study contributes to sexuality and sport research by investigating a recreational women’s team which is not restricted to the ‘gay sport space’ label to develop understandings of the dynamics and complexities that sexual identity discourses have on both heterosexual and non-heterosexual sportspeople. A poststructural, Foucaultian theoretical framework underpins this study with the utilisation of Foucault’s work on discourses, techniques of power and the technologies of the self. Data is generated from semi-structured interviews with seven hockey players, who discuss their experiences regarding sexual identity at Castle Ladies Hockey Club. By analysing the participants’ talk through discourse analysis, discourses of acceptance and inclusivity towards non-heterosexual identities are found. Firstly, non-heterosexual identities are regarded as ‘normal’, secondly, the focus was on if the player was a good team player rather than sexual identity, and thirdly, there was an increased acceptance of sexual fluidity leading to decreased tolerance towards homophobia. This research highlights that players engage with multiple discourses associated with sexual identity, often complexly. This raises questions surrounding the dominance of heteronormativity, as non-heterosexual identities are not presented as marginal.
    • The effect of stroke type, stage of competition and final race position on pacing strategy in 200m swimming performance

      Thomson, Edd; Ward, Daniel (University of Chester, 2018-09-28)
      The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of stroke types, final race position and stage of competition on pacing strategy in elite women’s 200m swimming performance, and to appraise medallist’s stroke rate (SR) and stroke length (SL). Elite women’s 200m backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, and freestyle performances (n = 576) formed twenty-four groups based on stroke type, final race position (medallists/non-medallists) and stage of competition (heats/semifinal/final). A mixed design with independent groups (stroke type/final race position) and repeated measures (stage of competition) was used. Official race and 50m split times were converted to velocities and normalised to average to show pacing strategy. Medallists SR and SL (n = 68) were quantified using a bespoke software. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U tests (post hoc) appraised significant differences between stroke types, multiple Mann-Whitney U tests appraised significant differences in final race position. Finally, Friedman test and multiple Wilcoxon tests (post hoc) appraised significant differences between both stages of competition and 50m splits. Generally, split times showed significant differences between splits (p<0.05, ES = 0.41-0.88) and normalised velocity showed significant differences between stroke type (p<0.05, ES = 0.33-1.10). Whereas, normalised velocity reported no significant differences regardless of final race position or stage of competition (p>0.05). Medallists SR and SL showed significant differences between splits (p<0.05, ES = 0.10-0.51) and stroke type (p<0.05, ES = 0.35-0.82). It was concluded that pacing strategies were dependent on stroke used with ‘fast start-even’ (backstroke/freestyle) and ‘positive’ (breaststroke/butterfly) reported, however, pacing remained consistent regardless of final race position or stage of competition. The differences were underpinned by stroke mechanics and changes in SR and SL.
    • The effect of beetroot juice on intermittent shuttle running performance involving different numbers of directional changes

      Highton, Jamie; Francis, Ben (University of Chester, 2018-10-01)
      The aim of the study was to assess the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3-) supplementation on blood pressure and the physiological responses to submaximal shuttle running and performance during intermittent shuttle running involving different numbers of directional changes. Eight male recreational team sport athletes (age: 22.6 ± y, body mass: 79.4 ± 4.4 kg, stature: 179.4 ± 5.4 cm, predicted VO2max: 48.5 ± 4,1 ml·kg·-1·min·-1) completed submaximal shuttle running at 60% of their predetermined VO2peak and intermittent shuttle running to exhaustion over a 20 m course or a 10 m course involving more directional changes. Participants performed each protocol twice across four trials; once following the ingestion of NO3 - concentrated beetroot juice 2.5 h before exercise and once following the ingestion of NO3 - depleted beetroot juice. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate and time to exhaustion during intermittent shuttle running were assessed. Increasing the number of directional changes increased the VO2 and HR response to submaximal shuttle running (p < 0.05). However, NO3 - did not affect blood pressure, the physiological responses to submaximal exercise or performance during intermittent shuttle running (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that increasing the number of directional changes during shuttle running elevates the physiological and metabolic demand, but that NO3 - does not impact upon the physiological responses or performance during submaximal and intermittent shuttle running.