Now showing items 1-20 of 6962

    • Alzheimer Brain Imaging Dataset Augmentation Using Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Network

      Ilyas, Kulsum; Hussain, B. Zahid; Andleeb, Ifrah; Aslam, Asra; Kanwal, Nadia; Ansari, Mohammad Samar; Aligarh Muslim University; University of Leeds; Keele University; University of Chester (Springer, 2024-02-25)
      Deep learning models have evolved to be very efficient and robust for several computer vision applications. To harness the benefits of state-of-the-art deep networks in the realm of disease detection and prediction, it is imperative that high-quality datasets be made available for the models to train on. This work recognizes the dearth of training data (both in terms of quality and quantity of images) for using such networks for the detection of Alzheimer’s disease. It is proposed to employ a Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Network (WGAN) for generating synthetic images for augmentation of an existing Alzheimer brain image dataset. It is shown that the proposed approach is indeed successful in generating high-quality images for inclusion in the Alzheimer image dataset potentially making the dataset more suited for training high-end models.
    • FireNet-Tiny: Very-Low Parameter Count High Performance Fire Detection Model

      Oyebanji, Olalekan J.; Oliver, Stefy; Ogonna, Chukwuka E.; Aslam, Asra; Ansari, Mohammad Samar; University of Chester; University of Leeds (Springer, 2024-02-25)
      In daily life, fire threats result in significant costs on the ecological, social, and economic levels. It is essential to outfit the assets with fire prevention systems due to the sharp rise in the frequency of fire mishaps. To prevent such mishaps, several studies have been conducted to develop optimal and potent fire detection models. While the earliest methods were thermal/chemical in nature, image processing was later applied for identification of fire. More recent methods have taken advantage of the significant advancements in deep learning models for computer vision. However, in order to maintain a suitable inference time (leading towards real-time detection) and parameter count, the majority of deep learning models have to make trade-offs between their detection speed and detection performance (accuracy/recall/precision). The very lightweight convolution neural network we offer in this paper is specifically designed for the fire detection use case. The proposed model can be embedded in real-time fire monitoring equipment and could also prove potentially useful for future fire monitoring methods such as unmanned aerial vehicles (drones). By further diminishing the trainable parameter count of the model, the fire detection results obtained using the proposed FireNet-Tiny significantly outperform the prior low parameter count models. When tested against FireNet dataset, FireNet-Tiny, which only comprises 261,922 parameters, was shown to have an overall accuracy of 95.75%. In comparison, FireNet-v2 provided 94.95% accuracy with 318,460 parameters.
    • An Ultra-Energy-Efficient Reversible Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata 8:1 Multiplexer Circuit

      Alharbi, Mohammed; Edwards, Gerard; Stocker, Richard; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (MDPI, 2024-01-16)
      Energy efficiency considerations in terms of reduced power dissipation are a significant issue in the design of digital circuits for very large-scale integration (VLSI) systems. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is an emerging ultralow power dissipation approach, distinct from traditional, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, for building digital computing circuits. Developing fully reversible QCA circuits has the potential to significantly reduce energy dissipation. Multiplexers are fundamental elements in the construction of useful digital circuits. In this paper, a novel, multilayer, fully reversible QCA 8:1 multiplexer circuit with ultralow energy dissipation is introduced. The power dissipation of the proposed multiplexer is simulated using the QCADesigner-E version 2.2 tool, describing the microscopic physical mechanisms underlying the QCA operation. The results show that the proposed reversible QCA 8:1 multiplexer consumes 89% less energy than the most energy-efficient 8:1 multiplexer circuit previously presented in the literature
    • A critical autoethnographic study of the experience of the older secondary school teacher in England: a socio-political and emotional model of their Body without Organs

      Moran, Paul; Fenech, Elaine (University of Chester, 2023-05)
      This research explores the lives of ‘older’ secondary teachers as they inhabit an educational landscape that has changed significantly during their careers. It employs a postmodern critical autoethnographic methodology as a vehicle through which to examine their experiences, as professionals who now exist in a neoliberal, marketised model of education, where they have been commodified. The work focuses on how their experiences of education have moulded their values and identities and provides empirical evidence showing that maintaining these fundamentals is challenged and compromised in the educational landscape that they work in. There are imperatives for this study. The UK population is ageing, and people will be forced to work for longer in the future. However, professional challenges that older teachers face are driving them out of the profession prematurely. This is at a time of crisis in education, where there is a failure to recruit and retain teachers, so arresting the exodus of older teachers would partly address the significant, long-standing recruitment issue. The evidence demonstrates that older teachers experience a loss of voice and agency. They are subjected to performative regimes, that measure that which is readily measurable, in an education system that has a functionalist agenda, with an economic purpose. This regime quells their creative desires and limits their opportunities to collaborate and to share their significant knowledge and experience. Older teachers are not afforded the same promotion and developmental opportunities as younger teachers and are subject to ageist stereotypical assumptions about their continued ability to function at a high level in teaching. This is despite their will to continue to develop and seek new opportunities. The evidence demonstrates that they do not feel professionally valued, despite the wealth of experience that they have to offer, and the research reveals their voices and the significant emotional impact of this on them. Drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari (2013a, b) and my empirical evidence, I construct a socio-political model of the older teachers’ “Body without Organs”. This Vitruvian Teacher model incorporates aspects of their professional lives that sustain them, together with those that significantly challenge them. The critical narrative that emanates from the research gives rise to suggestions for sustaining these teachers in fulfilling careers.
    • Building the future workforce through indirect supervision

      Knight, Kate H.; Simpson, Angela; Hay, Jonathan; University of Chester (MA Healthcare, 2024-02-08)
    • Mini-museums as a nexus for storytelling and pedagogy

      Poole, Simon E.; Parkin, Harry; Southall, Helen; University of Chester (University of Chester, 2024-02-14)
      This research project aimed to explore the potential of storytelling pedagogies in educational settings, and to assess the feasibility of creating mini-museums in schools. Through the involvement of two primary schools in the Northwest of England, the project was able to collect primary data and refine plans for the introduction of artefacts and storytelling methods in other schools. The research assistants conducted interviews and used the 'Crazy 8' sketching technique to collect information about typical users, preferred type of product, preferences regarding colour schemes and visual design, typical contents, accessibility aspects, access and security issues, and other requirements specific to the school.
    • Young children’s conceptions of computing in an African setting

      Oyedoyin, Mayowa; Sanusi, Ismaila Temitayo; Ayanwale, Musa Adekunle; University of Chester; University of Eastern Finland; University of Johannesburg (Taylor & Francis, 2024-02-11)
    • Errors in diabetic insulin therapy and the vitality of proper precautions in Bangladesh: Real-life insights from the developing world

      Tulsan, Suresh K.; Laila, Rona; Patel, Harshkumar; Dave, Vyapti; Mary, Rabeya M.; Sham, Sunder; Anjali, FNU; Jaladi, Soumya; Kumar, Sanjay Kirshan; Singhania, Priya; et al. (Medknow, 2024-02-08)
      Background: Insulin therapy errors can have life-threatening consequences in patients with diabetes. Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes and insulin therapy in Bangladesh, it is crucial to identify and prevent these errors. This study uses case-based clinical experiences to thematically analyze insulin therapy errors and propose preventive measures. The study aims to provide valuable insights into the challenges faced in managing insulin therapy in a developing country setting and the importance of involving various stakeholders. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative research that used a case study approach to identify and analyze errors in insulin therapy in diabetic patients who had experienced adverse clinical consequences. The cases were thematically analyzed to generate insights into current global health problems resulting from erroneous insulin therapy. Results: The two case studies highlight potential risks of errors in insulin therapy, including poor glycemic control, complications, and death. The analysis also highlights the importance of careful monitoring, checks, and communication among health-care providers, patients, and pharmacists to prevent such errors. In addition, it emphasizes the need for education and awareness among patients and health-care providers to ensure safe and effective insulin therapy. Conclusion: Accurate insulin therapy is crucial for diabetes management and preventing adverse outcomes. Identified themes emphasize improved communication, education, and monitoring to minimize therapy errors. Insights from this study can inform policies and practices for better patient outcomes. Further research can identify the root causes and develop interventions to prevent errors, leading to improved quality of life for diabetics.
    • Optimal omegas – barriers and novel methods to narrow omega-3 gaps. A narrative review

      Derbyshire, Emma J.; Birch, Catherine S.; Bonwick, Graham A.; English, Ashley; Metcalfe, Phil; Li, Weili; Nutritional Insight Limited, London; AgriFood X Limited, York; HTC Group Limited, Cheshire; Efficiency Technologies Limited, Milton Keynes; University of Chester (Frontiers Media, 2024-02-02)
      Dietary intakes of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid are central to development and health across the life course. O3LC-PUFAs have been linked to neurological development, maternal and child health and the etiology of certain non-communicable diseases including age-related cognitive decline, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. However, dietary inadequacies exist in the United Kingdom and on a wider global scale. One predominant dietary source of O3LC-PUFAs is fish and fish oils. However, growing concerns about overfishing, oceanic contaminants such as dioxins and microplastics and the trend towards plant-based diets appear to be acting as cumulative barriers to O3LC-PUFAs from these food sources. Microalgae are an alternative provider of O3LC-PUFA-rich oils. The delivery of these into food systems is gaining interest. The present narrative review aims to discuss the present barriers to obtaining suitable levels of O3LC-PUFAs for health and wellbeing. It then discusses potential ways forward focusing on innovative delivery methods to utilize O3LC-PUFA-rich oils including the use of fortification strategies, bioengineered plants, microencapsulation, and microalgae.
    • Rhyl Caravan Parks

      Clarke, Stephen; University of Chester (Café Royal Books, 2015-06-04)
      Rhyl Caravan Parks was published by Café Royal Books in an edition of 150 in 2015, and was reprinted in 2020 in an edition of 250. It was edited by Craig Atkinson, founder of Café Royal Books. Rhyl Caravan Parks is one of Clarke’s four CRB publications dedicated to the topic of the seaside town of Rhyl, North Wales and is part of Clarke's larger project that documented family holidays in Rhyl. This photobook was published to coincide with Clarke’s exhibition End of the Season at the Grosvenor Museum, Chester. The black&white photographs record the caravan parks of Towyn situated west of Rhyl’s seaside resort. This CRB also marks Clarke's early exploration of his photographic archive that dates from the early 1980s.
    • Rhyl

      Clarke, Stephen; University of Chester (Café Royal Books, 2020-10-08)
      Rhyl was published by Café Royal Books in an edition of 250 in October 2020. It was edited by Craig Atkinson, founder of Café Royal Books. Rhyl is the last of Clarke’s four CRB publications dedicated to the topic of the seaside town in North Wales and was released to coincide with the reprinting of Clarke’s three other CRB books on Rhyl. Clarke's larger project focused on his paper archive of family holidays in North Wales. This photobook of black&white photographs shows Rhyl’s promenade and fairground.
    • Perspectives of Time

      Poole, Simon E.; University of Chester (Malmö Theatre Academy and Lund University, 2024-02-01)
      A poem in repsonse to the All Our Relations project funded by Malmö Theatre Academy and Lund University. The work was undertaken in Eastern Sweden over the course of several days working on eco-pedagogical approaches.
    • Urban poverty and the role of UK food aid organisations in enabling segregating and transitioning spaces of food access

      McEachern, Morven; Moraes, Caroline; Scullion, Lisa; Gibbons, Andrea; University of Chester
      This research examines the role of food aid providers, including their spatial engagement, in seeking to alleviate urban food poverty. Current levels of urban poverty across the UK have resulted in an unprecedented demand for food aid. Yet, urban poverty responsibility increasingly shifts away from policymakers to the third sector. Building on Castilhos and Dolbec’s (2018) notion of segregating space and original qualitative research with food aid organisations, we show how social supermarkets emerge as offering a type of transitional space between the segregating spaces of foodbanks and the market spaces of mainstream food retailers. This research contributes to existing literature by establishing the concept of transitional space, an additional type of space that facilitates movement between types of spaces and particularly transitions from the segregating spaces of emergency food aid to more secure spaces of food access. In so doing, this research extends Castilhos and Dolbec’s (2018) typology of spaces, enabling a more nuanced depiction of the spatiality of urban food poverty.
    • Editorial: Innovation, AI and the future of Education

      Poole, Simon E.; University of Chester (RECAP, University of Chester, 01-02-2024)
      A co-authored piece with ChatGPT 3.5 for Editorial on Innovation, this piece discusses with AI, the future of Education given AIs meteoric rise and inevitable use. Focusing politically on the challenges that education might face in terms of innovation. This piece was heavily edited to create a more seamless discussion.
    • Quality Assurance of Edsential’s Trinity College London’s level 4 certificate for music educators programme of study

      Poole, Simon E.; University of Chester (RECAP, University of Chester, 2023-08-28)
      A Quality Assurance report for Cheshire West and Chester's music traded services, operating under the CIC Edsential. This was a new programme of music educator study. Under the auspices of Trinity Colleges level 4 programme.
    • A longitudinal study of an embodied-self-concept and its potential impact upon adjustment and acceptance in chronic non-specific lower back pain in female adults

      Reeves, Andrew; Mintz, Rita; Patel, Kim (University of Chester, 2023-07-18)
      Aim: Analgesia and surgical interventions have little impact in reducing the unpleasantness and intensity of chronic non-specific low(er) back pain (CLBP) and access to Pain Management Programmes is limited with inconsistent results. Individuals need to learn to live with their pain and this study explores how one's self-concept (in relationship with/to their body i.e., an embodied-self-concept) and pain might influence an individual’s perceived ability to accept/adjust to their CLBP and if this changes over time. Receiving support may influence adjustment/acceptance of CLBP, and this study seeks understanding of what those with CLBP want/need when their pain is self-managed outside of specialist pain services as these are currently unknown. Acceptance of CLBP is associated with improved life quality and a new dynamic model of change in CP which can accommodate the changing embodied-self and allow for movement between CP-acceptance/adjustment, non-acceptance/non-adjustment and anti-acceptance/non-adjustment over time is required to inform psychological practice. Methodology: A longitudinal multiple-case-series over 19 months using mixed-methods triangulation convergence/corroboration of three female participants explored the (potentially) changing embodied-self, from the pre-pain self to the present. Each meeting at approximately 9-monthly intervals consisted of semi-structured interviews and two measures: one explored CP-acceptance (Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire: CPAQ) the other, dissonance between self-aspects (Possible Selves Measure in Chronic Pain: PSM-CP). Findings: Changes in the embodied-self-concept and related behaviours (e.g., task-persistence) were motivated by participants’ self-concept goals in growthfull and not-for-growth directions, thus self-acceptance and CP-acceptance are inextricably linked. The participants’ painful body part was placed ‘outside’ of the self as a separate entity demanding care and attention. The participants were often fearful and experienced shame, blame and two experienced suicidal ideation. However, counselling was not advocated by GPs and was not a consideration by participants. Conclusion: Counsellors in private practice and primary care with the necessary skills and knowledge are well placed to work with CP. Cultural and societal shifts in a non-dualistic understanding of CP and its treatment/management may make counselling a more acceptable adjunct. A new model of change in CP has been developed highlighting the role of psychological agility, choice junctions and self-re-evaluation as key components to/in change in both growthfull and non-growthfull directions. The wholesale adoption of the Buddhist-informed definition of CP-acceptance has been challenged.
    • Codes over a ring of order 32 with two Gray maps

      Dougherty, Steven T.; Gildea, Joe; Korban, Adrian; Korban, Adrian; Roberts, Adam (Elsevier, 2024-02-09)
      We describe a ring of order 32 and prove that it is a local Frobenius ring. We study codes over this ring and we give two distinct non-equivalent linear orthogonality-preserving Gray maps to the binary space. Self-dual codes are studied over this ring as well as the binary self-dual codes that are the Gray images of those codes. Specifically, we show that the image of a self-dual code over this ring is a binary self-dual code with an automorphism consisting of 2n transpositions for the first map and n transpositions for the second map. We relate the shadows of binary codes to additive codes over the ring. As Gray images of codes over the ring, binary self-dual [ 70 , 35 , 12 ] codes with 91 distinct weight enumerators are constructed for the first time in the literature.
    • Exploring Footedness, Throwing Arm, and Handedness as Predictors of Eyedness Using Cluster Analysis and Machine Learning: Implications for the Origins of Behavioural Asymmetries

      Rodway, Paul; Rodway, Curtis; Schepman, Astrid; University of Chester (MDPI, 2024-02-02)
      Behavioural asymmetries displayed by individuals, such as hand preference and foot preference, tend to be lateralized in the same direction (left or right). This may be because their co-ordination conveys functional benefits for a variety of motor behaviours. To explore the potential functional relationship between key motor asymmetries, we examined whether footedness, handedness, or throwing arm was the strongest predictor of eyedness. Behavioural asymmetries were measured by self-report in 578 left-handed and 612 right-handed individuals. Cluster analysis of the asymmetries revealed four handedness groups: consistent right-handers, left-eyed right-handers, consistent left-handers, and inconsistent left-handers (who were left-handed but right-lateralized for footedness, throwing and eyedness). Supervised machine learning models showed the importance of footedness, in addition to handedness, in determining eyedness. In right-handers, handedness was the best predictor of eyedness, followed closely by footedness, and for left-handers it was footedness. Overall, predictors were more informative in predicting eyedness for individuals with consistent lateral preferences. Implications of the findings in relation to the origins and genetics of handedness and sports training are discussed. Findings are related to fighting theories of handedness and to bipedalism, which evolved after manual dexterity, and which may have led to some humans being right-lateralized for ballistic movements and left-lateralized for hand dexterity.
    • Don Cupitt: theological pioneer?

      Graham, Elaine; Smith, Graeme; University of Chester; Sarum College (SAGE Publications, 2024-01-31)
      This final article in a three-part series exploring the contemporary significance of the theologian and philosopher of religion Don Cupitt examines the extent to which he might be considered a ‘theological pioneer’. There are three possible areas of innovation: Cupitt’s work on non-realism, his adoption of postmodern philosophy and his advocacy of a religion of everyday speech. In each of these, Cupitt carried out ground-breaking work, but it is less clear whether his ideas have exercised a significant and lasting influence. While the Sea of Faith television series (1984) generated a substantial popular following, his work has not been widely adopted or developed by successive generations of theologians or scholars of religion.
    • Software Exploitation and Software Protection Measures Enhancing Software Protection via Inter-Process Control Flow Integrity

      Speakman, Lee; Eze, Thaddeus; John, Nigel; Oyinloye, Toyosi A. (University of Chester, 2023-08)
      Computer technologies hinge on the effective functionality of the software component. Unfortunately, software code may have flaws that cause them to be vulnerable and exploitable by attackers. Software exploitation could involve a hijack of the application and deviation of the flow of its execution. Whenever this occurs, the integrity of the software and the underlying system could be compromised. For this reason, there is a need to continually develop resilient software protection tools and techniques. This report details an in-depth study of software exploitation and software protection measures. Efforts in the research were geared towards finding new protection tools for vulnerable software. The main focus of the study is on the problem of Control Flow Hijacks (CFH) against vulnerable software, particularly for software that was built and executed on the RISC-V architecture. Threat models that were addressed are buffer overflow, stack overflow, return-to-libc, and Return Oriented Programming (ROP). Whilst the primary focus for developing the new protection was on RISC-V-based binaries, programs that were built on the more widespread x86 architecture were also explored comparatively in the course of this study. The concept of Control Flow Integrity (CFI) was explored in the study and a proof-of-concept for mitigating ROP attacks that result in Denial of Service is presented. The concept of CFI involves the enforcement of the intended flow of execution of a vulnerable program. The novel protection is based on the CFI concept combined with Inter-process signalling (named Inter-Process Control Flow Integrity (IP-CFI)). This technique is orthogonal to well-practised software maintenance such as patching/updates and is complementary to it providing integrity regardless of exploitation path/vector. In evaluating the tool, it was applied to vulnerable programs and found to promptly identify deviations in vulnerable programs when ROP attacks lead to DoS with an average runtime overhead of 0.95%. The system on which the software is embedded is also protected as a result of the watchdog in the IP-CFI where this kind of attack would have progressed unnoticed. Unlike previous CFI models, IP-CFI extends protection outside the vulnerable program by setting up a mutual collaboration between the protected program and a newly written monitoring program. Products derived in this study are software tools in the form of various Linux scripts that can be used to automate several functionalities, two RISC-V ROP gadget finders (RETGadgets & JALRGadget), and the software protection tool IP-CFI. In this report, software is also referred to as binary, executable, application, program or process.