Effects of appetite status and percieved satiation on portion size estimation in men
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AbstractPeople are generally unable to accurately estimate appropriate portion sizes of foods and drinks. Underestimation of food portion sizes, particularly in energy dense foods, can lead to energy over consumption. This study investigates the effects of appetite status and perceived satiation (PS) on estimation of food/drink portion sizes and accuracy of estimation based on portion size guidance schemes. In addition, the study also explores how accuracy of portion size estimates may fluctuate with food/beverage energy density. Twenty-seven male volunteers estimated portion sizes of eight foods/drinks with high, medium, low and very low energy densities in a within-subjects crossover design with four conditions: (F) fullness; (H) hunger; (FPS) fullness with PS cue; (HPS) hunger with PS cue. The independent variables were fullness, hunger, PS cue and energy density. The dependant variable was perceived portion size measured using questionnaires. Estimated portion size for all foods/drinks was significantly smaller when subjects were hungry compared with when they were full (p<0.01). Accuracy of estimation decreased under hungry conditions for all foods/drinks with respect to health professional standards (DOM UK and ADA). This was also true with reference to government standards (FSA and FDA), except for the banana. Irrespective of appetite status, portion size estimates for all foods and drinks were significantly smaller than actual portion sizes based on all four standards (p<0.001), except for the banana. Portion estimates for the banana were significantly larger (p<0.05), significantly smaller (p<0.001) or exact (p>0.05), depending on the standard used for comparison. The PS cue had no significant effect on estimation of food/drink portion sizes or accuracy of estimation according to any of the four standards. Percentage error of portion size estimates increased with increasing energy density (r= 0.36, n = 32, p<0.05), although the relationship failed to reach significance in the absence of drinks (r = 0.40, n = 24, p=0.05). Portion size estimates were greater and more accurate when subjects were full compared with when they were hungry. However, irrespective of appetite status, portion size estimates were significantly smaller than actual amounts displayed, based on standards from portion size guidance schemes. PS had no effect on estimation of portion size or accuracy of estimation. Foods of high energy densities and caloric drinks are estimated less accurately than foods of lower energy densities. In order to resolve discrepancies between consumers' perceptions of portion sizes and recommendations from governments/health professionals, creation of a portion size guidance scheme with consistent information on appropriate portion sizes is essential.
PublisherUniversity of Chester
TypeThesis or dissertation
SponsorsFunded by a grant by the Faculty of Applied & Health Sciences at the University of Chester to Dr Eva Almiron-Roig.
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