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dc.contributor.authorSmith, Dave*
dc.contributor.authorHale, Bruce*
dc.date.accessioned2009-06-16T15:23:37Z
dc.date.available2009-06-16T15:23:37Z
dc.date.issued2004-04
dc.identifier.citationBritish Journal of Sports Medicine, 2004, 38(2), pp. 177-181
dc.identifier.issn0306-3674en
dc.identifier.doi10.1136/bjsm.2002.003269
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10034/70634
dc.descriptionThis article is not available through ChesterRep
dc.description.abstractObjectives: To investigate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the bodybuilding dependence scale and to investigate differences in bodybuilding dependence between men and women and competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders. Methods: Seventy two male competitive bodybuilders, 63 female competitive bodybuilders, 87 male non-competitive bodybuilders, and 63 non-competitive female bodybuilders completed the bodybuilding dependence scale (BDS), the exercise dependence questionnaire (EDQ), and the muscle dysmorphia inventory (MDI). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the BDS supported a three factor model of bodybuilding dependence, consisting of social dependence, training dependence, and mastery dependence (Q = 3.16, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.04). Internal reliability of all three subscales was high (Cronbach’s = 0.92, 0.92, and 0.93 respectively). Significant (p<0.001) and moderate correlations were found between all BDS and MDI subscales, and between five of the eight EDQ subscales. A multivariate analysis of covariance, with univariate F tests and Tukey HSD tests, revealed that both male and female competitive bodybuilders scored significantly (p<0.05) higher on all three BDS subscales than the male and female non-competitive bodybuilders. However, there were no significant sex differences on any of the BDS subscales (p>0.05). Conclusion: The three factor BDS appears to be a reliable and valid measure of bodybuilding dependence. Symptoms of bodybuilding dependence are more prevalent in competitive bodybuilders than non-competitive ones, but there are no significant sex differences in bodybuilding dependence.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis article was submitted to the RAE2008 for the University of Chester - Allied Health Professions and Studies.
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherBMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Association of Sport and Exercise Medicine
dc.relation.urlhttp://bjsm.bmj.com/en
dc.subjectbodybuildingen
dc.subjectexercise dependenceen
dc.subjectmuscle dysmorphiaen
dc.titleValidity and factor structure of the bodybuilding dependence scaleen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentUniversity College Chester ; University of Maine
dc.identifier.journalBritish Journal of Sports Medicineen
html.description.abstractObjectives: To investigate the factor structure, validity, and reliability of the bodybuilding dependence scale and to investigate differences in bodybuilding dependence between men and women and competitive and non-competitive bodybuilders. Methods: Seventy two male competitive bodybuilders, 63 female competitive bodybuilders, 87 male non-competitive bodybuilders, and 63 non-competitive female bodybuilders completed the bodybuilding dependence scale (BDS), the exercise dependence questionnaire (EDQ), and the muscle dysmorphia inventory (MDI). Results: Confirmatory factor analysis of the BDS supported a three factor model of bodybuilding dependence, consisting of social dependence, training dependence, and mastery dependence (Q = 3.16, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.04). Internal reliability of all three subscales was high (Cronbach’s = 0.92, 0.92, and 0.93 respectively). Significant (p<0.001) and moderate correlations were found between all BDS and MDI subscales, and between five of the eight EDQ subscales. A multivariate analysis of covariance, with univariate F tests and Tukey HSD tests, revealed that both male and female competitive bodybuilders scored significantly (p<0.05) higher on all three BDS subscales than the male and female non-competitive bodybuilders. However, there were no significant sex differences on any of the BDS subscales (p>0.05). Conclusion: The three factor BDS appears to be a reliable and valid measure of bodybuilding dependence. Symptoms of bodybuilding dependence are more prevalent in competitive bodybuilders than non-competitive ones, but there are no significant sex differences in bodybuilding dependence.


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