• Evaluation of the use high resolution satellite imagery to map slope instability in a tropical environment: St. Thomas, Jamaica

      Miller, Servel; Leszczyńska, Małgorzata; University of Chester ; University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University Press Technika, 2014-05-31)
      Landslides are a major natural hazard in Jamaica, and have resulted in loss of life, major economic losses, social disruption and damage to public and private properties. There is a need to delineate areas that are prone to slope instability in order to mitigate their effects. The first and most important stage for the creation of a landslide risk maps is the collection of accurate landslide data in a timely manner. However the type of terrain makes landslide mapping particularly difficult. Aerial Photographs have proven to be an effective way of mapping landslides but acquiring new photographs to map recent landslides is very expensive. High resolution satellite imagery were evaluated for their effectiveness in delineating landslides. The landslides on a whole had no distinctive spectral property; hence no one classification technique could be used to identify them. This research developed integrative methods utilising a combination of: edge enhancement to delineate the scarps area; Wetness Index to identify back titling blocks and debris flow lobes where moisture is higher; shape classification (to distinguish from e.g. ground cleared for agriculture); and slope curvature to map scarps. The information from the image classification was combined in a GIS and automated to determine the probability of the presence and or absence of a landslides. Data derived was validated against detailed field mapping at a scale of 1:5000. For more recent landslides, the modelling proved to be effective, accurately identifying 91% of the landslide both in terms of the location and extent. For the older landslides Pre 2000) the mapping was less effective, with misclassification as high as 24% particularly for smaller landslides. However, the use of these imagery does have great potential as they prove useful for mapping new landslides quickly and efficiently after landslide disaster and are much cheaper and quicker to acquire.
    • Evaluation of the use high resolution satellite Imagery to map slope instability in a tropical environment: St. Thomas, Jamaica

      Miller, Servel; Leszczyńska, Małgorzata; University of Chester (VGTU Press, 2014-12-31)
      Landslides are a major natural hazard in Jamaica, and have resulted in loss of life, major economic losses, social disruption and damage to public and private properties. There is a need to delineate areas that are prone to slope instability in order to mitigate their effects. The first and most important stage for the creation of a landslide risk maps is the collection of accurate landslide data in a timely manner. However the type of terrain makes landslide mapping particularly difficult. Aerial Photographs have proven to be an effective way of mapping landslides but acquiring new photographs to map recent landslides is very expensive. High resolution satellite imagery were evaluated for their effectiveness in delineating landslides. The landslides on a whole had no distinctive spectral property; hence no one classification technique could be used to identify them. This research developed integrative methods utilising a combination of: edge enhancement to delineate the scarps area; Wetness Index to identify back titling blocks and debris flow lobes where moisture is higher; shape classification (to distinguish from e.g. ground cleared for agriculture); and slope curvature to map scarps. The information from the image classification was combined in a GIS and automated to determine the probability of the presence and or absence of a landslides. Data derived was validated against detailed field mapping at a scale of 1:5000. For more recent landslides, the modelling proved to be effective, accurately identifying 91% of the landslide both in terms of the location and extent. For the older landslides Pre 2000) the mapping was less effective, with misclassification as high as 24% particularly for smaller landslides. However, the use of these imagery does have great potential as they prove useful for mapping new landslides quickly and efficiently after landslide disaster and are much cheaper and quicker to acquire.
    • ‘Every partnership [… is] an emotional experience’: Towards a model of partnership support for addressing the emotional challenges of student-staff partnerships

      Healey, Ruth L; France, Derek; University of Chester
      The practice of student-staff partnerships is fundamentally about relationships. As new partnerships are formed, and existing power relations challenged, people experience a range of emotions. Despite their importance, there are few studies that have systematically researched the emotional challenges of student-staff partnership. Through a humanistic approach focused on analysing participants experiences of partnership we found that varying degrees of hope, pride, anxiety, and frustration, were experienced by both students and staff in a curriculum development partnership project. We argue that effective partnership practices should recognise and support the emotional wellbeing of student and staff partners. Drawing upon the effective characteristics of partnership support found in this research and the broader literature, we propose a flexible support model drawing on: 1) peer support, 2) mentoring, and 3) independent reflective writing. Partnership practice that actively supports the emotions involved in working in partnership may encourage more partnerships in the future.
    • Every Student use of iPads: A Vade Mecum for Students' Active Learning

      Whalley, W. Brian; France, Derek; Mauchline, Alice; Welsh, Katharine E.; Park, Julian R.; University of Sheffield, University of Chester, University of Reading (Cambridge Scholars, 2017-01-01)
      The iPad has evolved into a very capable computer with high processor power, enhanced screen resolution, and good battery life. However, this capability is still largely untapped in higher education by students or staff where there is still reliance on a Victorian higher educational system; that is, content delivery by lectures and assessment by examination. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are, mostly, a modernisation of such content delivery. However, active learning , coupled with increased availability of cloud services and iPads/smartphones, provides opportunities for students to use practical mobile devices anywhere. Such ubiquity allows tutors to promote active learning in any location, even in the lecture theatre. We examine some of the practicalities and pedagogy behind this trend and suggest ways in which students’ educational experiences are enhanced via active learning with iPads, whether cloud linked or not. Involved, active learning promotes digital information and literacy skills into the curriculum as well as integrates knowledge bases via an Internet of Everything. Moreover, employability skills can be incorporated into the learning experiences and the personalisation of iPads can accommodate the needs of students with mobility and specific difficulties. Tutors seem reluctant to use iPads in educational environments. We expect this to diminish as students become empowered to use smart-cloud technologies to promote their educational needs. The iPad and its kin can be thought of as a vade mecum, enhancing everyone’s learning in a fourth dimension and can fit into modern pedagogies.
    • The Evolution of Corryong/Nariel Creek since European Settlement: Implications for On-going Management Prioritisation

      Teo, Elisha A.; Marren, Philip M.; University of Melbourne (7th Australian Stream Management Conference / asn events, 2014)
      Geomorphological stability is a useful starting point to inform river management priorities, as it is critical to other river health parameters such as ecology and water quality. A key debate in channel stability is the relationship between climate and human activity. Corryong Creek is an ideal setting to study the interaction between climate and anthropogenic changes on channel evolution as it has experienced significant levels of both. Catastrophic floods have been induced by high rainfall, the floodplain has been completely cleared, the riparian zone is almost entirely invaded by willows, and every reach of the channel has experienced some form of channel modification. The impacts of both climatic and anthropogenic factors are visible in our channel change data, although at different spatiotemporal scales. Higher flows during La Niña resulted in channel widening while lower flows during El Niño resulted in channel narrowing. In addition, land clearing had caused the river to evolve into a higher-energy, straighter channel, while spatially variable and temporally irregular factors such as river engineering, willow density and stock trampling tended to intensify erosion on a reach scale. As our analysis shows that periodic increases in erosion during La Niña are expected, the local community needs to first accept and adapt to some level of channel erosion in order to avoid catastrophic damage during floods. As the second priority, since the reversibility of these factors are limited, erosion risk can be mitigated through strengthening willow management, limiting river engineering, practicing bushfire management, and fencing the riparian zone.
    • Excessive but not wasteful? Youth cultures of everyday waste (avoidance)

      Collins, Rebecca; University of Chester (SAGE, 2019-08-26)
      This article contributes to ongoing debates around the cultural production of waste by arguing for a clearer distinction between concepts of ‘waste’ and ‘excess’, and by suggesting the benefits of this distinction for tackling the perceived consumer-cultural waste ‘problem’. Drawing on recent qualitative research with UK adolescents I consider how a range of (youth/consumer) cultural drivers, social norms and moral imperatives shape young people’s everyday material consumption practices in ways that reflect (and produce) varied ways of (de/re-)valuing no-longer-wanted possessions. By exploring the cultural projects within which the young participants and their material possessions were engaged, and by identifying their aims in employing specific keeping and ridding practices, noteworthy differences between ‘waste’ and ‘excess’ materialise. I suggest that the drivers of the ‘excesses’ identified – characterised here in terms of ‘outgrowings’ and ‘hedging’ – highlight a set of distinctly cultural challenges to be met if the slippage of materials from ‘excess’ into ‘waste’ is to be averted. I contend that acknowledging these challenges, and these conceptual distinctions, may prove beneficial in attempts to address some of the societal challenges (e.g. material novelty as a driver of social status) related to the production of waste.
    • Extra-curricular education for sustainable development (ESD) interventions in UK universities

      Lipscombe, Bryan P.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline; Ribchester, Chris; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (Environmental Education Association of South Africa, 2007)
    • Fashion acolytes or environmental saviours? When will young people have had ‘enough’?

      Collins, Rebecca; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-10-01)
      In the global north, high rates of material consumption show few signs of abating, despite oft-repeated warnings of dire social and environmental consequences. Environmental educators have identified young people as a potentially effective group of change agents, capable of driving a transformative shift in how we consume. Yet this picture of the young environmental ‘saviour’ is at odds with many Western young people’s thirst for the ‘latest’ fashions and trends. This chapter explores how young people themselves make sense of this apparent contradiction. Exploring under-researched questions around young people’s conceptualisations of, and affective and embodied responses to, the notion of ‘enough’, it highlights the cultural and contextual factors which could prove decisive in positioning the notion of ‘enough’ centrally in a sustainability-compatible youth material culture.
    • Field-based pedagogies for developing learners' independence

      Fuller, Ian; France, Derek; Massey University, University of Chester (Edward Elgar, 2019-12-30)
      For fieldwork to be effective in fostering independent thinking it requires careful design and alignment within the degree programme (Fuller et al., 2006; Fuller, 2012). In this chapter we draw from our own research evidence and experience to provide examples that illustrate how fieldwork can be successfully embedded in the geography undergraduate curriculum from first to final year adopting specific pedagogies to develop, enhance, and refine students as independent learners throughout their undergraduate career.
    • Fieldwork Going Digital

      Fuller, Ian C.; France, Derek; Massey University, New Zealand; University of Chester, UK (Elsevier, 2014-12-01)
      This chapter provides examples of best practice in teaching physical geography and geomorphology fieldwork in a range of settings from New Zealand and Europe. Firstly we evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating active learning and synthesis opportunities in a tour of North Island geomorphology, using learner-generated video clips summarizing landscape features, processes and management issues. Secondly, we focus on deploying digital video in field experiments within process geomorphology, which introduce students to sophisticated technology and standard field-sampling procedures. Digital video increases engagement and enjoyment involved in data collection and improves understanding of methods employed. Thirdly, we discuss the use of Web 3.0 Technology in field teaching more broadly in physical geography. Here iPads were primarily used to take photographs, video, browse the web, enter raw data and as a tool to aid reflection, through tweets and short videos. The devices facilitated engagement and group interactions on residential fieldwork.This chapter provides examples of best practice in teaching physical geography and geomorphology fieldwork in a range of settings from New Zealand and Europe. Firstly we evaluate the effectiveness of incorporating active learning and synthesis opportunities in a tour of North Island geomorphology, using learner-generated video clips summarizing landscape features, processes and management issues. Secondly, we focus on deploying digital video in field experiments within process geomorphology, which introduce students to sophisticated technology and standard field-sampling procedures. Digital video increases engagement and enjoyment involved in data collection and improves understanding of methods employed. Thirdly, we discuss the use of Web 3.0 Technology in field teaching more broadly in physical geography. Here iPads were primarily used to take photographs, video, browse the web, enter raw data and as a tool to aid reflection, through tweets and short videos. The devices facilitated engagement and group interactions on residential fieldwork.
    • Fieldwork@40: fieldwork in geography higher education

      Haigh, Martin; France, Derek (Informa UK Limited, 2018-09-09)
    • Fieldwork@40: fieldwork in geography higher education

      France, Derek; Haigh, Martin; University of Chester; Oxford Brookes University (Taylor & Francis, 2018-09-09)
      Fieldwork is the most powerful learning invitation in the toolkit of Geographical Education. This review of papers in The Journal of Geography in Higher Education (JGHE) suggests seven modes in the development of fieldwork. These are arrayed as a kind of historical, perhaps evolutionary, sequence but most remain current in Geography fieldwork practice. At the far end (1960s) of the sequence are didactic modes that are teacher centred and use the field as an adjunct to the classroom, in the middle (1990s) are modes that involve active learning and focus on the development of students as investigators and at the near end (2010s) are those that centred on the field study area and its qualities, that involve concern about the ethics of student engagement and that employ blended learning technologies. The review charts the JGHE’s gradual shift away from its original, almost exclusively, UK-focus toward something rather more international and inclusive. Fieldwork is where Geographers learn “from doing” Geography to “do” Geography. Its special attributes include providing experiential, sometimes transformative, learning through the immersion of the learner in the field experience. In 40 years, JGHE has helped Geography Fieldwork move from the margins of the curriculum to its current place at its core.
    • Flood risk insurance, mitigation and commercial property valuation

      Lamond, Jessica; Bhattacharya-Mis, Namrata; Chan, Faith K. S.; Kreibich, Heidi; Montz, Burrell; Proverbs, David; Wilkinson, Sara; University of the West of England; University of Chester; University of Nottingham Ningbo China; GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences; East Carolina University; Birmingham City University; University of Technology Sydney (Emerald, 2019-04-02)
      To understand how Built Environment professionals approach the valuation of flood risk in commercial property markets and whether insurance promotes mitigation in different insurance and risk management regimes, draw common conclusions, and highlight opportunities to transfer learning. An illustrative case study approach involving literature search and 72 interviews with Built Environment professionals, across five countries in four continents. Common difficulties arise in availability, reliability and interpretation of risk information, and in evaluating the impact of mitigation. These factors, coupled with the heteregenous nature of commercial property, lack of transactional data, and remote investors, make valuation of risk particularly challenging in the sector. Insurance incentives for risk mitigation are somewhat effective where employed and could be further developed, however the influence of insurance is hampered by lack of insurance penetration and underinsurance. Further investigation of the means to improve uptake of insurance and to develop insurance incentives for mitigation is recommended. Flood risk is inconsistently reflected in commercial property values leading to lack of mitigation and vulnerability of investments to future flooding. Improvements are needed in: access to adequate risk information; professional skills in valuing risk; guidance on valuation of flood risk; and regulation to ensure adequate consideration of risk and mitigation options. The research addresses a global issue that threatens local, and regional economies through loss of utility, business profitability and commercial property value. It is unique in consulting professionals across international markets.
    • Flood risk to commercial property: Training and Education Needs of Built Environment Professionals

      Bhattacharya-Mis, Namrata; Lamond, Jessica; Chang, Faith; Kreibich, Heidi; Burrell, Montz; Wilkinson, Sara; Proverbs, David (Emerald, 2018-10-08)
      Improved management of commercial property at risk from flooding may result from well-targeted advice from built environment professionals, such as surveyors, valuers and project managers. However, research indicates that the role of these professionals in providing such advice is currently limited for a variety of reasons. This research aimed to investigate the (perceived and real) barriers and opportunities for providing such advice in a number of international locations. In particular the research sought greater understanding of the link between regulation and guidance; perceived roles and capacity; and training and education needs. In order to cover different international settings an illustrative case study approach was adopted within the selected countries (Australia, UK, US, China and Germany). This involved a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews of built environment (BE) professionals with experience of advising on commercial properties at risk of flooding. Due to the specific nature of these interviews, a purposive sampling approach was implemented, leading to a sample of 72 interviews across the five international locations. Perceived barriers were linked to regulatory issues, a shortage of suitably experienced professionals, a lack of formal guidance and insurance requirements. BE professionals defined their roles differently in each case study in relation to these factors and stressed the need for closer collaboration among the various disciplines and indeed the other key stakeholders (i.e. insurers, loss adjusters, contractors). A shortage of knowledgeable experts caused by a lack of formal training and education was a common challenge highlighted in all locations. The research is unique in providing an international perspective on issues affecting built environment professionals in providing robust and impartial advice on commercial property at risk of flooding. Whilst acknowledging the existence of local flood conditions, regulatory frameworks and insurance regimes, the results indicate some recurring themes, indicating a lack of general flood risk education and training across all five case study countries. Learning across case studies coupled with appropriate policy development could contribute towards improved skills development and more consistent integration of BE professionals within future flood risk management practice, policy and strategy.
    • Founding Father, PS Njie: A Moral Biography

      Perfect, David (Informa UK Limited, 2019-03-27)
    • Gender Variation in Asylum Experiences in the UK: The Role of Patriarchy and Coping Strategies

      Healey, Ruth L.; University of Chester (Research Centre for Identity and Migration Issues (RCIMI), 2010-09-01)
      Previous work suggests that female asylum seekers and refugees have more constraints on their actions than their male counterparts, as structural forces from the country of origin are reproduced in the host country. This paper explores the use of structuration theory in interpreting the impact of gender upon asylum seeker and refugee experiences in the UK. The experiences of, and coping strategies used by 8 male and 10 female asylum seekers and refugees from two different cities are analysed. Their experiences are examined in relation to different patriarchal forces. In comparison to the males, differences are apparent in the level and types of agency of the female asylum seekers and refugees. Within this study certain types of patriarchy are reproduced in British society particularly at the household level, whilst individuals are also influenced by institutional patriarchy within the wider society. The variation in experiences found here suggests the need for policy to recognise the heterogeneity of these groups, so as to provide the most appropriate support for individuals.
    • Gendered experiences of academic staff in relation to research activity and the REF2014

      Davies, Chantal; Healey, Ruth L.; Cliffe, Anthony D.; University of Chester (2016-06)
      This report is based on research commissioned by the institutional Research and Knowledge Transfer Office between June 2015 and June 2016. This research has focused on generating qualitative and quantitative data as to the potential reasons why there appears to be a gender disparity in research productivity within the commissioning institution. In particular, the number of women self-selecting for representation in the REF2014 was comparatively low. This research was led by Dr Chantal Davies (as part of her broader remit in relation to the Forum for Research into Equality and Diversity) with Dr Ruth Healey as co-researcher and Anthony Cliffe as research assistant. A Steering Group made up of representatives from across the institution oversaw the process.
    • GeogEd: A New Research Group Founded on the Reciprocal Relationship between Geography Education and the Geographies of Education

      West, Harry; Hill, Jennifer; Finn, Matt; Healey, Ruth L.; Marvell, Alan; Tebbett, Natalie; University of the West of England; University of Gloucestershire; University of Exeter; University of Chester; University of Gloucestershire; Loughborough University
      In 2019 the Higher Education Research Group (HERG) formally became the Geography and Education Research Group (GeogEd). What may appear as a simple change in name masks a renewed understanding of the synergies between geography education (at all levels) and the geographies of education. In this paper we contextualise that change through the relationships between the two interrelated fields. We suggest that these fields are integrally linked, iteratively and reciprocally, and that research across both is vital for a truly holistic understanding of each. We reflect on the discussions and process of forming the new Geography and Education Research Group, which we trust is sensitive to the historic remit of HERG while being inclusive to those working in geography and education beyond HE. We conclude by looking ahead to a renewed, inclusive and progressive Research Group, aspiring to be more diverse and enabling fruitful discussions across the geography and education nexus.
    • Geographical Information Systems (GIS) applied to landslide hazard zonation in the North Wales coalfield

      Miller, Servel; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (National Museum Wales, 2015-05-01)
      In areas with a history of slope instability problems, landslide hazard zonation is increasingly becoming an integral tool in the effective management of this hazard (Chauhan et al., 2010; Leventhal and Kotze, 2008; Fells et al., 2008; Moreiras, 2005). Landslide hazard zonation provides the scientific basis for the implementation of land-use, emergency management and loss reduction measures in landslide-prone areas (Haubin et al., 2005). Although such techniques are commonly used worldwide in the management of slope instability, their use has been limited in the UK to a number of localised studies; e.g. South Wales coalfield (Halcrow and Partners, 1989) and Derbyshire Peak District (Thurston, 1997). It has been recognised that there are numerous relict landslides throughout the UK, which are being reactivated due to climatic factors (Arnell and Reynard 1996; Collison, 2000; and Environmental Agency, 2010) as well as land-use changes (Norbury, 2002; Smith, 2002). As indicated by Glade (2003, p3) ‘Land-use change has been recognized throughout the world as one of the most important factors influencing the occurrence of rainfall-triggered landslides’. Hazard mapping and susceptibility modelling (zonation) in landslide-prone areas should be a vital component of land-use planning, particularly where development continues to spread onto slopes deemed unstable. This paper outlines the development of a landslide susceptibility zonation model for areas of solid geology in the North Wales Coalfield and Halkyn Mountain. The model has been validated and has the potential to be utilised in land-use planning at a local and regional level
    • Geography and Virtual Reality

      Bos, Daniel; University of Chester (Wiley, 2021-08-16)
      Whilst virtual reality (VR) has a long history, recent technological advancements, increased accessibility and affordability have seen its usage become widespread within western consumer society. Despite the relevance of VR to Geography, these more recent developments have escaped scholarly attention. This paper takes a critical perspective on the development of VR and its varied applications, and how emerging theoretical debates within cultural and digital geography can critically attend to the social and cultural implications of VR technologies. The paper begins by considering how VR spaces are imagined and communicated to publics in ways that promote popular understandings of, and desires for, virtual spaces. Next, the paper critically addresses the cultural politics of VR content, particularly drawing attention to the socio-spatial differences evoked through VR. The paper goes on to argue for the need to consider VR through the concept of interface as a way of critically attending to the broader techno-socio relations and the embodied spatial encounters they produce. Finally, some methodological implications for thinking with and through VR are outlined.