• Changes to the dispersive characteristics of soils along an evolutionary slope sequence in the Vera badlands, southeast Spain: Implications for site stabilisation

      Faulkner, Hazel; Alexander, Roy; Wilson, B. R.; University of Middlesex : University of Chester : University of New England, Australia (Elsevier, 2003-01-01)
    • Channel pattern of proglacial rivers: topographic forcing due to glacier retreat

      Marren, Philip M.; Toomath, Shamus C.; University of Melbourne (Wiley, 2014-02-14)
      Glacier retreat leads to changes in channel pattern during deglaciation, in response to changing water, sediment and base level controls. Recent ongoing retreat at Skaftafellsjökull, Iceland (c. 50m per year since 1998) has resulted in the formation of a sequence of river terraces, and several changes in river channel pattern. This paper compares widely used models of river channel pattern against the changes observed at Skaftafellsjökull. Doing this reveals the role of topographic forcing in determining proglacial channel pattern, whilst examining the predictive power and limitations of the various approaches to classifying river channels. Topography was found to play a large role in determining channel pattern in proglacial environments for two reasons: firstly, glacier retreat forces rivers to flow through confined moraine reaches. In these reaches, channels which theory predicts should be braided are forced to adopt a single channel. Secondly, proximal incision of proglacial rivers, accompanied by downstream aggradation, leads to changes in slope which force the river to cross channel pattern thresholds. The findings of this work indicate that in the short term, the majority of channel pattern change in proglacial rivers is due to topographic forcing, and that changes due to changing hydrology and sediment supply are initially relatively minor, although likely to increase in significance as deglaciation progresses. These findings have implications for palaeohydraulic studies, where changes in proglacial channel pattern are frequently interpretedas being due to changes in water or sediment supply. This paper shows that channel pattern can change at timescales faster than hydrological or sediment budget changes usually occur, in association with relatively minor changes in glacier mass balance.
    • Characterising beach intertidal bar systems using multi-annual LiDAR data

      Miles, Andrew; Ilic, Suzana; Whyatt, Duncan; James, Mike R.; University of Chester; Lancaster University (Wiley, 2019-02-05)
      Intertidal bars are common in meso-macrotidal low-to-moderate energy coastal environments and an understanding of their morphodynamics is important from the perspective of both coastal scientists and managers. However, previous studies have typically been limited by considering bar systems two-dimensionally, or with very limited alongshore resolution. This paper presents the first multi-annual study of intertidal alongshore bars and troughs in a macro-tidal environment using airborne LiDAR data to extract three-dimensional bar morphology at high resolution. Bar and trough positions are mapped along a 17.5 km stretch of coastline in the northwest of England on the eastern Irish Sea, using eight complete, and one partial, LiDAR surveys spanning 17 years. Typically, 3 – 4 bars are present, with significant obliquity identified in their orientation. This orientation mirrors the alignment of waves from the dominant south-westerly direction of wave approach, undergoing refraction as they approach the shoreline. Bars also become narrower and steeper as they migrate onshore, in a pattern reminiscent of wave shoaling. This suggests that the configuration of the bars is being influenced by overlying wave activity. Net onshore migration is present for the entire coastline, though rates vary alongshore, and periods of offshore migration may occur locally, with greatest variability between northern and southern regions of the coastline. This work highlights the need to consider intertidal bar systems as three-dimensional, particularly on coastlines with complex configurations and bathymetry, as localised studies of bar migration can overlook three-dimensional behaviour. Furthermore, the wider potential of LiDAR data in enabling high-resolution morphodynamic studies is clear, both within the coastal domain and beyond.
    • Chester College site and setting

      Hargreaves, Clifford (Governors of Chester College, 1989-01-01)
      This book chapter discusses the site of Chester College, covering building and land developments.
    • Children and Environment

      Hayward, Bronwyn; Collins, Rebecca; Nissen, Sylvia (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017-03-06)
    • Chile

      Degg, Martin; Shufflebotham, Emma; University of Chester (International Underwriting Association of London, 2003)
    • Coastal landslide mapping of the Black Ven Spittles complex, Charmouth

      Miller, Servel; Morris, Chloe; University of Chester (Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 2014-01-01)
      Landslides are not generally perceived as natural hazards that significantly affect the UK. However, slope instability affects many parts of Britain including the Dorset and Devon coastline. Black Ven Spittles is a classic landslide complex along this coastline, exhibiting some of the largest and most dynamic landslips in Europe. It has a long history of instability with significant events occurring as recently as 2008 when a succession of rock falls occurred towards the western side of the complex, uncovering waste material from the old town tip. With the beach adjacent to the landslide regularly used by tourists, fossil hunters and locals for recreational activities, it is of paramount importance that landslides be mapped to determine the active areas. Such mapping may be used for effectively managing the risk posed for this landslide complex. Through field and geospatial mapping techniques utilising remote sensing imagery and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the most updated geomorphic map of the landslide complex is presented. The maps produced as a result of this research identify how the ‘system’ has changed since 1996 when the most comprehensive geomorphic map prior to this research was published. The most active section of the landslide complex is near the village of Charmouth, which is popular with tourists and fossil-hunters. By identifying this increasing risk, management can be better informed and the public made more accurately aware of this natural hazard
    • Collaborative individualization? Peer-to-peer action in youth transitions

      Cuzzocrea, Valentina; Collins, Rebecca; University of Cagliari ; University of Chester (SAGE, 2015-04-23)
      In this paper we propose the notion of collaborative individualization (henceforth, C.I.) as a means of characterizing young people’s attempts to define their identities as simultaneously self-reliant and in need of support and collaboration. Our arguments are based on the findings of a transnational case study: a recent Council of Europe policy project called Edgeryders, an online platform whose participants were invited to discuss their experience of attempting to achieve “fully independent adulthood”. In light of findings which suggest that individualization amongst the young might take forms which are more collaborative than self-focused, we argue that youth scholars ought to rethink the assumptions made about the nature of individualization in youth transitions. We propose that such theorizations should embrace the potential described by C.I. in order to provide constructive responses to young people’s changing socio-economic needs, and refocus attention on young people’s situatedness within the communities many are demonstrably committed to working with and for.
    • Conceptions of ‘research’ and their gendered impact on research activity: A UK case study

      Healey, Ruth L.; Davies, Chantal; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2019-08-31)
      The last twenty years have seen an increased emphasis around the world on the quality and quantity of research in response to national research assessments, international league tables, and changes in government funding. The prevailing attitude in higher education embeds research as the ‘gold standard’ in the context of academic activity. However, a key feature of this trend is significant gender differences in research activity. We argue that research productivity is related to identification as a researcher, and that identifying as ‘research-active’ or not would appear to depend upon how an individual academic subjectively defines ‘research’. This article brings together two hitherto separate bodies of work 1) the impact of gender on academic research careers, and 2) academic conceptions of research. Through a combination of interviews, focus groups and questionnaires, we investigate the extent to which interpretations of ‘research’ and ‘research activity’ differ by gender within an institution in the UK and the potential impact of these interpretations. Although the research found that there are many similarities in the interpretations of ‘research activity’ between genders, we found one important difference between male and female participants’ conceptions of research and its relationship to teaching. Significantly, our findings suggest that there is a need to expand our existing conceptualisations of ‘research’ to include ‘research as scholarship’ in order to address the obstacles that current understanding of ‘research’ have placed on some academics. Self-definition as a researcher underlies research activity. A narrow conception of ‘research’ may prevent individuals from identifying as ‘research-active’ and therefore engaging with research.
    • Contested spaces, new opportunities: displacement, return and the rural economy in Casamance, Senegal

      Evans, Martin; University of Chester (Zed Books, 2014-05-08)
      Casamance is the southwesternmost part of Senegal, largely separated from the rest of the country by The Gambia to the north and bordering Guinea-Bissau to the south. As the scene of West Africa’s longest-running civil conflict, now some 30 years old, Casamance provides a case of displacement economies on a relatively small scale but of long duration. The focus here is on human displacement, understood as the enforced physical dislocation of people, the dynamics of their return and resettlement, and the economic, political and social effects related to these processes. Much of the long-term human displacement in the conflict has occurred in the relatively narrow band of territory between the south bank of the Casamance River and northern border districts of Guinea-Bissau. Following flight and protracted exile from this border area in the 1990s, however, the 2000s and beyond have mostly seen people return, driven by economic and social desperation coupled with generally improved (though still at times volatile) security conditions, and supported by international aid for reconstruction. Building on field research conducted over twelve years, the chapter considers the emergent economic and political landscape of the border area. It shows how this landscape is the result of layers of displacement over two decades, situated within a deeper historical context of migration. From a theoretical perspective, it seeks to understand these dynamics through the concept of ‘relational space’, formulated in human geography and beginning to be used, if not always explicitly, in studies of displacement.
    • Convergent human and climate forcing of late-Holocene flooding in northwest England

      Schillereff, Daniel; MacDonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet; Welsh, Katharine E.; Piliposian, G.; Croudace, Ian; Chiverrell, Richard; Kings College London; University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Chester, University of Liverpool, University of Southampton (Elsevier, 2019-07-30)
      Concern is growing that climate change may amplify global flood risk but short hydrological data series hamper hazard assessment. Lake sediment reconstructions are capturing a fuller picture of rare, high-magnitude events but the UK has produced few lake palaeoflood records. We report the longest lake-derived flood reconstruction for the UK to date, a 1500-year record from Brotherswater, northwest England. Its catchment is well-suited physiographically to palaeoflood research, but its homogeneous, dark brown sediment matrix precludes visual identification of flood layers. Instead, an outlier detection routine applied to high-resolution particle size measurements showed a >90% match, in stratigraphic sequence, to measured high river flows. Our late-Holocene palaeoflood reconstruction reveals nine multi-decadal periods of more frequent flooding (CE 510-630, 890-960, 990-1080, 1470-1560, 1590-1620, 1650-1710, 1740-1770, 1830-1890 and 1920-2012), and these show a significant association with negative winter North Atlantic Oscillation (wNAO) phasing and some synchrony with solar minima. These flood-rich episodes also overlap with local and regional land-use intensification, which we propose has amplified the flood signal by creating a more efficient catchment sediment conveyor and more rapid hillslope-channel hydrological connectivity. Disentangling anthropogenic and climatic drivers is a challenge but anthropogenic landscape transformation should evidently not be underestimated in palaeoflood reconstructions. Our paper also demonstrates that flood histories can be extracted from the numerous lakes worldwide containing organic-rich, visually homogeneous sediments. This transformative evidence base should lead to more reliable assessments of flood frequency and risks to ecosystems and infrastructure.
    • Developing a Web 2.0 technology for hazard response simulation

      Miller, Servel; France, Derek; University of Chester (Higher Education Academy, 2012)
      Students studying disaster/hazard management in UK Higher Education institutions (HEi's) traditionally focus on hazard mapping and process analysis, but have limited opportunities to develop their risk communication skills which are required during emergency response situations. These skills are vital for the real world and employment. Opportunities to develop risk communication skills are not readily available to students during their studies as employers are reluctant to offer placements due to legal barriers. Therefore, universities have to develop tools to provide students with this vital ‘real-world’ experience. Over the last two years, the department of Geography & Development Studies at the University of Chester has begun to explore and evaluate the role of the Web 2.0 tool, Yammer (microblogging/communication tool) for natural hazard (volcano) simulation exercises. This paper highlights the continuing development of the natural hazard simulation exercise through input from external emergency/contingency practitioners locally and internationally to enhance its usability. Input from practitioners has resulted in the adaptation of the tool to flooding hazard emergency response and to other geographically based scenarios (e.g. crime analysis). The input from professionals in the field has enhanced the quality of the exercise/tool as well as providing students with vital employability skills currently used in the workplace of hazard management. Feedback from students highlighted their feeling of a ‘real-life’ pressure situation in which ‘real-time’ decisions have to be made in response to a rapidly changing environment. At the same time they indicated that their experience was stimulating, fun, innovative and enabled networking and interactive opportunities between tutors and students. The development of the Web 2.0 simulation tool through contributions from practitioners and an assessment as to whether the use of such technologies enhances student-learning experience is the focus of this paper.
    • Developing active personal learning environments on smart mobile devices.

      Whalley, Brian; France, Derek; Park, Julian; mauchline, Alice; Welsh, Katharine E.; University of Sheffield, University of Chester, University of Reading (Springer, 2019-10-10)
      ‘Tablets’ and other 'smart' devices (such as iPads and iPhones)have established themselves as a significant part of mobile technologies used in mobile (m-)learning. Smart devices such as iPads and the Apple Watch not only provide many apps that can be used for a variety of educational purposes; they also allow communication between students and tutors and with the world at large via social media. We argue that 'smart' mobile devices enable personalized learning by adjusting to the educational needs of individuals. We refer to Salmon's quadrat diagram to suggest where using mobile technologies should be of benefit to revising our views of pedagogy, making it much more responsive to students' needs in education as well as the world in general. Smart mobile devices now contain computing power to allow voice and face recognition, augmented reality and machine learning to make them intelligent enough to act as tutors for individual students and adjust and respond accordingly. To take advantage of these facilities on mobile devices, pedagogy must change from an institution-centred to a student-tutor-device focus. This is best done via 'active learning' and incorporating cognitive awareness into an educational operating system that can develop with the owner.
    • Developing ethical geography students? The impact and effectiveness of a tutorial based approach

      Healey, Ruth L.; Ribchester, Chris; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2016-02-17)
      This paper explores the effectiveness of a tutorial based approach in supporting the development of geography undergraduates’ ethical thinking. It was found that overall the intervention had a statistically significant impact on students’ ethical thinking scores as assessed using Clarkeburn et al.’s (2003) Meta-Ethical Questionnaire (MEQ). The initiative led to a convergence of scores, having a bigger impact on those who had a relatively low score prior to the intervention. Interestingly the approach had the biggest impact on students who self-identified as physical geographers. Unlike some previous research there was little evidence of difference between male and female students.
    • Development of Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) activities and an Evaluation of their Impact on Learning: Geoscience students’ perceptions,

      Miller, Servel; France, Derek; Welsh, Katharine E.; University of Chester (National Committee of Geography of Belgium, Société Royale Belge de Géographie, 2015)
      Recently, the recognition of Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) tools in natural hazard management and disaster reduction has gained prominence. A successful CERC will ensure the relevant stakeholders are effective communicating with each other. This requires a clear plan and set of principles that enables the stakeholders to function effectively in a crisis. Students hoping to work in the emergency and natural hazard management field need to develop these skills. This paper outlines the development of a range of risk communicating activities including simulation exercises for undergraduate Geoscience students. Progress in the development of the students risk communication skill through the series of activities is tracked and evaluated. Results indicate that 87% of the students perceived their risk communication skills were good or excellent after undertaking the exercises compared to 26% before. This paper also evaluates the impact of the activities and if they motivated them to learn more about the subject as a whole. Students generally indicated that the exercises motivated them to learn more about natural hazard management and they felt that they have become better risk communicators. They also indicate that they gained a more in-depth understanding of the requirements of effective and timely communications should they need to develop a CERC strategy during a crisis.
    • A Developmental Framework for Mentorship in SoTL Illustrated by Three Examples of Unseen Opportunities for Mentoring

      Friberg, Jennifer C; Frake-Mistak, Mandy; Healey, Ruth L.; Sipes, Shannon; Mooney, Julie; Sanchez, Stephanie; Waller, Karena
      Mentoring relationships that form between scholars of teaching and learning occur formally and informally, across varied pathways and programs. In order to better understand such relationships, this paper proposes an adapted version of a three-stage model of mentoring (McKinsey 2016), using three examples of unseen opportunities for mentoring in the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SoTL) to illustrate how this framework might be operationalized. We discuss how the adapted framework might be useful to SoTL scholars in the future to examine mentorship and how unseen opportunities for mentoring might shape how we consider this subset of mentorship going forward.
    • 'Digital by Default' and the 'hard to reach': Exploring solutions to digital exclusion in remote rural areas

      Williams, Fiona; Philip, Lorna; Farrington, John; Fairhurst, Gorry; University of Chester; University of Aberdeen (SAGE, 2016-09-30)
      In the UK, the geography of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) infrastructure required for Internet connectivity is such that high speed broadband and mobile phone networks are generally less available in rural areas compared with urban areas or, in other words, as remoteness and population sparsity increase so too does the likelihood of an area having no or very poor broadband connectivity. Against a policy backdrop of UK Government efforts to bring forward network infrastructure upgrades and to improve the accessibility of broadband services in locations where there is a weak commercial investment case, this paper considers the options for the ‘final few’ in the prevailing ‘Digital by Default’ public services context. The paper outlines the Rural Public Access WiFi Services project, a study focused upon enabling Internet connectivity for commercially ‘hard to reach’ rural areas in the UK. The Rural Public Access WiFi Services concept and the experiment are introduced before findings from a pilot deployment of a broadband service to households in a remote rural area, who may be classified as ‘digitally excluded’, are presented. The paper then reflects on our field experiment and the potential of the Rural Public Access WiFi Services model as a solution to overcoming some of the digital participation barriers manifest in the urban–rural divide. Early indications show that the Rural Public Access WiFi Services model has the potential to encourage participation in the Digital Economy and could aid the UK Government’s Digital by Default agenda, although adoption of the model is not without its challenges.
    • The digital divide: Patterns, policy and scenarios for connecting the ‘final few’ in rural communities across Great Britain

      Philip, Lorna; Cottrill, Caitlin; Farrington, John; Williams, Fiona; Ashmore, Fiona; University of Aberdeen; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2017-01-17)
      The Internet can bestow significant benefits upon those who use it. The prima facie case for an urban-rural digital divide is widely acknowledged, but detailed accounts of the spatial patterns of digital communications infrastructure are rarely reported. In this paper we present original analysis of data published by the UK telecommunications regulator, Ofcom, and identify and reflect on the entrenched nature of the urban-rural digital divide in Great Britain. Drawing upon illustrative case vignettes we demonstrate the implications of digital exclusion for personal and business lives in rural, and in particular remote rural, areas. The ability of the current UK policy context to effectively address the urban-rural digital divide is reviewed and scenarios for improving digital connectivity amongst the ‘final few’, including community-led broadband, satellite broadband and mobile broadband, are considered. A call is made for digital future proofing in telecommunications policy, without which the already faster urban areas will get ‘faster, fastest’ leaving rural areas behind and an increasingly entrenched urban-rural divide.
    • Displacement in Casamance, Senegal: Lessons (Hopefully) Learned, 2000–2019

      Evans, Martin; Coventry University (Taylor & Francis, 2021-09-05)
      The paper reflects on fieldwork conducted since 2000 with displaced communities in Lower and Middle Casamance, Senegal, amid arguably West Africa’s longest-running civil conflict. While this is a small conflict in a geographically confined space, Casamance presents a microcosm of dynamics common to other displacement situations in Africa. In this context the paper explores how the understandings, lived experiences and practices of the displaced transcend normative categories used by aid actors to define and manage such situations. Five thematic areas are examined: enumeration of the displaced; complex mobilities, both rural-urban and transnational; historiographic understandings of displacement; political manipulation of displacement situations; and the dynamics of return and reconstruction. The paper concludes by summarising failures of understanding in these areas among much of the aid community, and their consequences. It argues that well-grounded and socially nuanced understandings of displacement may inform more effective aid interventions and enhance the peace process.
    • Do educators realise the value of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) in fieldwork learning?

      Clark, Katherine; Welsh, Katharine; Mauchline, Alice; France, Derek; Whalley, Brian; Park, Julian; University of Chester, University of Reading, University of Sheffield
      This paper explores the benefits, barriers and challenges of BYOD (Bring Your Own [mobile] Device) in fieldwork teaching through the views of Higher Education practitioners who have and have not used BYOD in fieldwork. While the use of BYOD has been explored within classroom settings, there are few studies on the use and impact on BYOD in fieldwork., This study investigated the educational benefits of BYOD and the barriers and challenges associated with BYOD in the field. Students were willing to use their own devices in the field and were engaged through the use of BYOD. Practitioners noted various benefits to using BYOD, including student engagement and familiarity with their own devices, potentially increasing time available in the field. Practitioners also highlighted a number of challenges and potential challenges with BYOD including supporting a range of devices, incompatibility and the potential for inequality. This paper also explores the use of mobile technology in fieldwork through the SAMR (Substitution, Augmentation, Modification, Redefinition) model and discusses the potential for BYOD to change practice.