• Quantifying system disturbance and recovery from historical mining-derived metal contamination at Brotherswater, northwest England

      Schillereff, Daniel; Chiverrell, Richard; Macdonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet; Welsh, Katharine E.; Kings College London, University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2016-08-18)
      Metal ore extraction in historical times has left a legacy of severe contamination in aquatic ecosystems around the world. In the UK, there are ongoing nationwide surveys of present-day pollution discharged from abandoned mines but few assessments of the magnitude of contamination and impacts that arose during historical metal mining have been made. We report one of the first multi-centennial records of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) fluxes into a lake (Brotherswater, northwest England) from point-sources in its catchment (Hartsop Hall Mine and Hogget Gill processing plant) and calculate basin-scale inventories of those metals. The pre-mining baseline for metal contamination has been established using sediment cores spanning the past 1,500 years and contemporary material obtained through sediment trapping. These data enabled the impact of 250 years of local, small-scale mining (1696 – 1942) to be quantified and an assessment of the trajectory towards system recovery to be made. The geochemical stratigraphy displayed in twelve sediment cores show strong correspondence to the documented history of metal mining and processing in the catchment. The initial onset in 1696 was detected, peak Pb concentrations (>10,000 µg g-1) and flux (39.4 g m-2 y-1) corresponded to the most intensive mining episode (1863-1871) and 20th century technological enhancements were reflected as a more muted sedimentary imprint. After careful evaluation, we used these markers to augment a Bayesian age-depth model of the independent geochronology obtained using radioisotope dating (14C, 210Pb, 137Cs and 241Am). Total inventories of Pb, Zn and Cu for the lake basin during the period of active mining were 15,415 kg, 5,897 kg and 363 kg, respectively. The post-mining trajectories for Pb and Zn project a return to pre-mining levels within 54-128 years for Pb and 75-187 years for Zn, although future remobilisation of metal-enriched catchment soils and floodplain sediments could perturb this recovery. We present a transferable paleolimnological approach that highlights flux-based assessments are vital to accurately establish the baseline, impact and trajectory of mining-derived contamination for a lake catchment.
    • Rainfall Thresholding and Susceptibility assessment of rainfall induced landslides: application to landslide management in St Thomas, Jamaica

      Miller, Servel; Brewer, Tim; Harris, Norman; University of Chester; Cranfield University (Springer Verlag, 2009-08-02)
      The parish of St Thomas has one of the highest densities of landslides in Jamaica, which impacts the residents, local economy and the built and natural environment. These landslides result from a combination of steep slopes, faulting, heavy rainfall and the presence of highly weathered volcanics, sandstones, limestones and sandstone/shale series and are particularly prevalent during the hurricane season (June–November). The paper reports a study of the rainfall thresholds and landslide susceptibility assessment to assist the prediction, mitigation and management of slope instability in landslide-prone areas of the parish.
    • Re-naming and re-framing: Evolving the ‘Higher Education Research Group’ to the ‘Geography and Education Research Group’

      Healey, Ruth L.; West, Harry; University of Chester; University of the West of England
      Editorial for special issue of Area about the evolution of the Higher Education Research Group to the Geography and Education Research Group of the Royal Geographical Society.
    • A real-time emergency response scenario using Web 2.0 (Yammer) technology

      Miller, Servel; France, Derek; University of Chester (2013-12)
    • Realism, reflection and responsibility: The challenge of writing effective scenarios to support the development of ethical thinking skills

      Ribchester, Chris; Healey, Ruth L.; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2017-08-07)
      Universities are paying increased attention to how they might support the ethical development of their students as one of a range of graduate attributes that will enable them to negotiate increasingly complex professional, civic and personal futures. Scenario-based learning (SBL) is a longstanding strategy used in ethical teaching and this paper describes and evaluates a version of this approach as applied to a second year undergraduate tutorials module. A quantitative assessment of the development of students’ ethical sensitivity over the course of two deliveries of the module shows an uneven impact but also some encouraging trends. A detailed qualitative analysis of how students responded to each scenario identifies five factors that appear to precipitate more in-depth reflection on ethical problems, and these are presented as useful points of guidance for teachers writing ethical scenarios for the first time or for those aiming to hone their existing practice. These factors include the challenge of devising circumstances which appear realistic and plausible to contemporary undergraduate students, constructing scenarios which encourage readers to reflect on and test their personal values, and portraying events which push students to intervene proactively and so taking individual responsibility for their decisions and actions.
    • Reconciling diverse lacustrine and terrestrial system response to penultimate deglacial warming in southern Europe

      Wilson, Graham P.; Reed, Jane M.; Frogley, Michael R.; Hughes, Philip D.; Tzedakis, Polychronis C.; University of Chester, University of Hull, University of Sussex, University of Manchester, University College London (The Geological Society of America, 2015-09-01)
      Unlike the most recent deglaciation, the regional expression of climate changes during the penultimate deglaciation remains understudied, even though it led into a period of excess warmth with estimates of global average temperature 1‒2 °C, and sea level ~6 m, above preindustrial values. We present the first complete high-resolution southern European diatom record capturing the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition, from Lake Ioannina (northwest Greece). It forms part of a suite of proxies selected to assess the character and phase relationships of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem response to rapid climate warming, and to resolve apparent conflicts in proxy evidence for regional paleohydrology. The diatom data suggest a complex penultimate deglaciation driven primarily by multiple oscillations in lake level, and provide firm evidence for the regional influence of abrupt changes in North Atlantic conditions. There is diachroneity in lake and terrestrial ecosystem response to warming at the onset of the last interglacial, with an abrupt increase in lake level occurring ~2.7 k.y. prior to sustained forest expansion with peak precipitation. We identify the potentially important role of direct input of snow melt and glacial meltwater transfer to the subterranean karst system in response to warming, which would cause rising regional groundwater levels. This explanation, and the greater sensitivity of diatoms to subtle changes in temperature, reconciles the divergent lacustrine and terrestrial proxy evidence and highlights the sensitivity of lakes situated in mountainous karstic environments to past climate warming.
    • Reflecting on ‘Directions’: Growing with the times and future developments

      Healey, Ruth L.; Hill, Jennifer; University of Chester; University of West of England (Taylor & Francis, 2019-05-03)
      This Editorial reflects on the ‘Directions’ section of the Journal of Geography in Higher Education over the last 25 years and highlights the new Co-Editors’ plans for the future of the section. We discuss how the section first emerged in the context of a heightened focus on skills development in higher education and follow this with a brief analysis of the 42 ‘Directions’ papers published to date. We reflect on how the nature of the published articles initially focused on enhancing undergraduate student assessment performance before expanding the discussion to consider broader aspects of the student experience and disciplinary learning. We recognise that while most of the articles have focused on undergraduates, many of them are also relevant to postgraduate geography students. Following a lull in submissions between 2008 and 2017, a revival of the section emerged through articles either co-authored by students and staff, or authored solely by geography students. We intend to develop this ‘students as partners’ approach with respect to future ‘Directions’ publications, by encouraging submissions co-authored by students and staff and ensuring that all articles are reviewed by both a current academic staff member and a student.
    • Remote rural home based businesses and digital inequalities: Understanding needs and expectations in a digitally underserved community

      Philip, Lorna; Williams, Fiona; University of Aberdeen; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-10-09)
      The digital economy offers home based micro-businesses in rural areas many advantages but stubborn social, economic and territorial digital divides continue to create challenges for this sector of the rural economy. Complex digital inequalities are illustrated in our case studies of the digital behaviour and Internet experiences of those running micro, home based businesses in a remote, digitally underserved rural community before, during and after the deployment of broadband technology. Findings draw attention to the role and importance of fit-for-purpose broadband in promoting digital inclusion for individuals, households and small, home based businesses: in a fast changing digital national and global economy remote rural home based micro-businesses are at risk of being left behind.
    • Resilience through flood memory– a comparison of the role of insurance and experience in flood resilience for households and businesses in England.

      Bhattacharya Mis, Namrata; Lamond, Jessica; University of Chester; University of West of England
      Resilience to flooding is influenced by adaptations or behavior that address risk reduction at all stages of the disaster cycle. This includes: physical adaptation of buildings to limit damage; individual preparedness and business continuity planning; and provision of resources for reinstatement through insurance or recovery grants. In the UK implementation of such strategies lie mainly with private property owner and their private insurer while government policy promotes greater uptake by these actors as part of an integrated strategy. In the context of increased flood events the provision of affordable insurance has been increasingly challenging and in 2016 a new insurance arrangement (Flood Re) was put in place to support transition to affordable market based insurance. However, Flood Re is specific to residential property and excludes many categories of property previously guaranteed coverage including small businesses. The research used a survey of frequently flooded locations in England to explore the different experiences and behaviors of households and businesses at risk from flooding with respect to insurance and recovery in this evolving scenario. The results show distinct differences between households and businesses that could point to greater opportunities for enhancing resilience if policy and practice recognized those differences.
    • Revisiting tropes of environmental and social change in Casamance, Senegal

      Evans, Martin; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016-11-17)
      Established tropes hold that reduced rainfall across the West African Sahel and savanna from the late 1960s onwards caused migration from rural areas to cities or to better-watered lands further south. It is argued that this in turn caused major shifts in the rural economy, social transformation, disputes over land tenure and use between indigenous and immigrant populations, and violent conflict in places. Alternative analyses, while recognising a role for environmental change in social processes, take a deeper historical perspective and offer a more diverse, nuanced view of causality. This debate is worth revisiting to help prevent flawed, sometimes fallacious tropes from informing development policy and practice. The chapter thus examines paddy rice cultivation in Casamance, southern Senegal, amid broader contemporary contestations about environmentally-induced migration.
    • The Right to Healthcare: a critical examination of the restrictions on access to state funded HIV/AIDS treatment for irregular migrants

      Hand, David; Davies, Chantal; Healey, Ruth L.; University of Chester (Springer, 2015-12-15)
      In the UK health care legislation has progressively restricted the rights of irregular migrants to access free medical treatment. Policy discussions concerning allocation of health resources have typically been framed by a perceived need to discourage overseas patients from “taking advantage” of the National Health Service (NHS) – a practise pejoratively known as “health tourism”. This has been particularly true in the context of HIV/AIDS for which treatment is often prohibitively expensive in other countries. Here we undertake a comparative review of health care legislation in the UK and other jurisdictions, looking at how such legislation is shaped by immigration policy, and the extent to which irregular migrants who suffer from HIV/AIDS are able to access treatment. We argue that evidence simply does not support the omnipresent belief that “health tourism” poses a threat to the financial integrity of the NHS.
    • Securing field learning using a twenty-first century Cook's Tour

      Fuller, Ian C.; France, Derek; Massey University; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2015-01-22)
      This paper evaluates the effectiveness of incorporating digital video into a traditional Cook’s Tour as part of a 7-day road trip around the east coast of New Zealand’s North Island over a 4-year period.
    • Seeing the city anew: Asylum seeker perspectives of ‘belonging’ in Greater Manchester

      Darling, Jonathan; Healey, Ruth L.; Healey, Lauren; University of Manchester ; University of Chester ; Independent Artist (Manchester Geographical Society, 2012)
      This paper explores the experiences of three asylum seekers in Greater Manchester through the use of experimental autophotographic walking tours. The paper focuses on discussions of belonging within geography and examines how three asylum seekers constructed varied senses of belonging in Greater Manchester through specific places, objects and communities. Using walking tours designed by the research participants to visit places of meaning in their everyday lives and photography of key sites, the paper explores the ways in which those awaiting asylum decisions experienced Greater Manchester.
    • Seismic and volcanic hazards in Peru: Changing attitudes to disaster mitigation

      Degg, Martin; Chester, David; University College Chester ; University of Liverpool (Blackwell, 2005-07-05)
      This article discusses how the United Nations sponsored International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1990–2000) has led to increased co-operation between earth scientists and social scientists, focusing on the example of Peru.
    • Should you be using mobile technologies in teaching? Applying a pedagogical framework

      France, Derek; Lee, Rebecca; Maclachlan, John; McPhee, Siobhán; University of Chester; McMaster University; University of British Columbia
      The extent of how mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets, are seamlessly incorporated into the personal day-to-day life is not often considered by University instructors. Unfocused incorporation of mobile technologies into the classroom can de-emphasize intended learning objectives if students struggle using the technology itself or by acting as a distraction. The effective inclusion of mobile technology is not a simple process as the inclusion needs to be purposeful and have the potential to improve the student learning environment, while working alongside more traditional face-to-face learning. This paper presents a pathway to help instructors address both pedagogical and technological considerations of incorporating mobile learning into the curriculum. The pathway developed through the adaptation of the iPAC framework, feedback from international practitioners and tested with worked examples. In all cases the instructors’ reflective responses to the eight pathway questions indicate a clear structured activity, engaged students, and considers equal access, prior experience and contingency planning. This pathway indicates an effective methodology for instructors to assess whether the mobile learning intervention is appropriate and adds value to their teaching. Further external evaluation of the pathway with additional teaching examples will enhance the effectiveness of the methodology.
    • Slope–channel coupling between pipes, gullies and tributary channels in the Mocatán catchment badlands, Southeast Spain

      Faulkner, Hazel; Alexander, Roy; Zukowskyj, Paul; University of Middlesex ; University of Chester ; University of Hertforshire (Wiley, 2007-10-18)
      This article attempts to develop a conceptual model of the way geologic, topographic, material property and ecological factors combine to explain the complex geomorphological evolution of the Mocatán catchment badlands in Almería, Spain.
    • Some Observations on Human-Landscape interactions in Almería

      Alexander, Roy; University of Chester
      Extended abstract of Keynote presentation delivered at EcoDesert Symposium, Almería, February 2019.
    • Staff-student partnership: Inclusive/exclusive pedagogical practices

      Moore-Cherry, Niamh; Healey, Ruth L.; University College Dublin; University of Chester (RAISE, 2018-04-30)
      This workshop focused on student-staff partnership working in a mass education system. Specifically we explored whether in a mass education system we can, and should, engage in partnership working that goes beyond just selected staff and students to become mainstream pedagogical practice.
    • Steaming through the past

      France, Derek; Chester College of Higher Education (English Nature, 1997-07)
      This journal article discusses the Llangollen rail trail which aims to introduce the geology and geomorphology of the Vale of Llangollen during the train journey to Carrog.
    • Striking a professional balance: interactions between nurses and their older rural patients

      Corbett, Sophie; Williams, Fiona; University of Aberdeen (Mark Allen Publishers, 2014-04-07)
      Close relationships between older adults and their health-care professionals in community settings can enhance wellbeing and support positive health in older age. In rural areas, health-care workers may know their patients socially as well as professionally, and roles are mediated. This article reports the findings from 16 qualitative interviews with older adults and health and social care professionals in rural areas of Wales. The study found that the sharing of non-clinical information in rural home-care situations is both likely and desirable, supporting the sense of social connectedness experienced by the older adult, contributing towards the development of the nurse/carer–client relationship and improving older adult wellbeing. However, it is recognised that there is potential for boundaries to become blurred and, in some situations, nurses and carers may need support to negotiate the divide between appropriate and inappropriate disclosure while maintaining a close relationship with the older adult.