• Iceberg jam floods in Icelandic proglacial rivers: testing the self-organized criticality hypothesis

      Roussel, Erwan; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Marren, Philip M.; Cossart, Etienne; University Clermont Auvergne; University Blaise Pascal; CNRS ; University of Chester (GFG, 2016-03-31)
      In this paper, we describe a fluvial marginal process associated with the formation of iceberg jams in Icelandic proglacial lakes. The floods triggered by the release of these iceberg jams have implications for the geomorphic evolution of the proglacial fluvial system. The process of iceberg jam floods share some conceptual characteristics with Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) approach of complex systems. Using a simple numerical model and field observations, we test the hypothesis that iceberg jam floods exhibit SOC. Field observations and aerial photo-interpretations in southeastern Iceland demonstrate the occurrence of icebergs jam in ice-contact lakes. The mapping of the south Vatnajökull margins between 2003 and 2012 reveals an increase of the calving potentiality and a rise in the likelihood of iceberg jam flood occurrence. Based on the results of the numerical model and field observations, we suggest that iceberg jam floods should be recognized as a SOC phenomenon. Analysis of the simulated time-series show that the iceberg jam floods become less frequent and more similar in magnitude over time. This global trend is related to the gradual enlargement of the lake outlet channel.
    • The impact of a major Quaternary river capture on the alluvial sediments of a beheaded river system, the Rio Alias SE Spain

      Maher, Elizabeth; Harvey, Adrian M.; France, Derek; University College Chester ; University of Liverpool ; University College Chester (Elsevier, 2007-02-28)
      This article discusses a major river capture event within the Sorbas Basin (c.70 ka) which created a situation whereby the Rio Alias abruptly lost c. 70% of its drainage area and this led to a significant modification of the fluvial system in both upstream and downstream zones on the capturing stream, and downstream on the beheaded system.
    • The impact of dams on floodplain geomorphology: are there any, should we care, and what should we do about it?

      Marren, Philip M.; Grove, James R.; Webb, J. Angus; Stewardson, Michael J.; University of Melbourne (7th Australian Stream Management Conference / asn events, 2014)
      We undertook a review of the potential for dams to impact floodplain geomorphology, using both a conventional literature review and a systematic review using ‘causal criteria’ analysis. The literature review identified potential impacts on overbank flooding, scour and sedimentation, within-channel bank erosion, meander migration and cutoff frequency, and avulsion characteristics and frequency. The temporal scale of impacts ranged from years and decades, through to millennia. The causal criteria analysis indicated that with the exception of reduced meander migration rates, most impacts had been too poorly documented to be confident of their impact at present. We identify a distinction between ‘passive impacts’ (floodplain disconnection) and ‘active impacts’ (changes in geomorphological processes and functioning). Dams do impact floodplain geomorphology: many of the impacts will be subtle, and over very long timescales (1000s of years), but altered overbank sediment loads have the potential to change patterns of scour and deposition across floodplains. Further research is needed that specifically seeks to identify the impacts of dams on floodplain geomorphology, hydrology-geomorphology-vegetation interactions, and floodplain ecological response. Given the practical constraints on overbank environmental flow releases, there is relatively little that can be done to mitigate dam impacts on floodplain geomorphology. The main options include using within-channel flows to maintain meander migration and partial floodplain connectivity. We suggest that the major action should be that once dams come online, efforts should be made to prevent channel enlargement through scour, channel widening and wood removal, so that geomorphological processes can fully reestablish immediately once the dam ceases to operate.
    • Impact of large instream logs on river bank erosion

      Zhang, Nuosha; Rutherfurd, Ian; Marren, Philip M.; University of Melbourne (Zhang, Rutherfurd); University of Chester (Marren) (11th International Symposium on Ecolhydraulics, 2016-02-29)
      There has been abundant research into the effect of tree roots on stabilizing river banks, and also on the effect of trees on bed-scour after they have fallen into the stream, but there is little research into the effect of instream logs on bank erosion. Here we develop the hydraulic theory that predicts local and reach scale bank erosion associated with instream logs with various configurations and distributions and conclude that individual log can increase local bank erosion, but multiple logs can reduce overall reach erosion. Where there is consistent bank strength, the local erosion varies in a non-linear way with the angle, size and position of the log. The reach scale effect of multiple logs depends on the distribution of logs and the proportion of the reach occupied by logs. Erosion effects of instream logs are difficult to measure. We are testing the above theory of erosion associated with instream logs in a series of anabranches of different sizes that experience consistent irrigation flows each year (on the Murray River in SE Australia). These channels have high erosion rates, abundant logs, and are like a giant flume that allows us to measure erosion processes, as well as hydraulics, in a controlled setting.
    • Inadvertent environmentalism and the action–value opportunity: reflections from studies at both ends of the generational spectrum

      Hitchings, Russell; Collins, Rebecca; Day, Rosie; University College London; University of Chester; University of Birmingham (Routledge, 2013-11-22)
      A recent turn towards a more contextually sensitive apprehension of the challenge of making everyday life less resource hungry has been partly underwritten by widespread evidence that the environmental values people commonly profess to hold do not often translate into correspondingly low impact actions. Yet sometimes the contexts of everyday life can also conspire to make people limit their consumption without ever explicitly connecting this to the environmental agenda. This paper considers this phenomenon with reference to UK studies from both ends of the generational spectrum. The first questioned how older people keep warm at home during winter and the second examined how young people get rid of no longer wanted possessions. Both found that, though the respondents involved were acting in certain ways that may be deemed comparatively low impact, they were hitherto relatively indifferent to the idea of characterising these actions as such. We outline three ways in which sustainability advocates might respond to the existence of such “inadvertent environmentalists” and consider how they might inspire studies that generate fresh intervention ideas instead of lingering on the dispiriting recognition that people do not often feel able to act for the environment.
    • Incision and aggradation in proglacial rivers: post-Little Ice Age long-profile adjustments of southern Iceland outwash plains

      Roussel, Erwan; Marren, Philip M.; Cossart, Etienne; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Chenet, Marie; Grancher, Delphine; Jomelli, Vincent; Université Clermont Auvergne; University of Chester; Université de Lyon; Université Paris (Wiley, 2018-08-12)
      The retreat of glaciers in response to climate warming leads to substantial changes in meltwater and sediment yield. Glacial shrinkage also induces the emergence and growth of proglacial margin landforms which strongly affect water and sedimentary transfers from the glacier to the outwash plains.On a decadal-timescale, field observations show that outwash plains of retreating glaciers typically exhibit proximal incision which decreases in magnitude downstream and stops at an inflection point where aggradation begins. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge about the rates and magnitude of this fluvial adjustment and the effects of the proglacial margin configuration on the temperance or the aggravation of this fluvial adjustment to glacier retreat. This paper investigates the proglacial rivers of 14 retreating glaciers in southeast Iceland over a post-Little Ice Age timescale, combining fluvial deposits mapping, lichenometric dating and long-profile measurements of proglacial fluvial terraces.Our results demonstrate that: (1) proximal incision, associated with distal aggradation and downstream migration of the inflection point is the dominant pattern of proglacial river response to post-LIA glacier retreat in Iceland; (2) estimated mean rates of downstream migration of the inflection point range between 5and 46m.a-1; (3)t he downstream migration rate of the inflection point is positively correlated with the proportion of proglacial lakes within the glacier foreland. These findings suggest that proglacial margins dominated by proglacial lakes intensify the rates of proximal incision and inflection point migration.
    • Inclusive partnership: Enhancing student engagement in geography

      Moore-Cherry, Niamh; Healey, Ruth L.; Andrews, Will; Nicholson, Dawn T.; University College Dublin ; University of Chester ; Aberystwyth University ; Manchester Metropolitan University (2015-08-20)
      Partnership is currently the focus of much work within higher education (HEA, 2014; Healey et al., 2014; Cook-Sather et al., 2014) and advocated as an important process to address a range of higher education goals. In this paper, we propose the term inclusive partnership to conceptualise a non-selective staff-student relationship.
    • The increasing exposure of cities to the effects of volcanic eruptions: A global survey

      Chester, David; Degg, Martin; Duncan, Angus; Guest, John E.; University of Liverpool ; Chester College of Higher Education ; University of Luton ; University College London (Elsevier, 2000-09)
      This article discusses the demographic changes caused by urbanisation and detail the various types of volcanic hazard to which cities are exposed.
    • Innovative Pedagogies

      Hill, jennifer; France, Derek; University of West of England, University of Chester (Elsevier, 2019-12-04)
      We scope eight innovative pedagogies that have the potential to provoke major shifts in teaching, learning, and assessment in geography at the undergraduate level. There are further opportunities for geography educators to embrace newly emerging pedagogies to the positive benefit of students, staff, and the health of the discipline. The next decade of higher education geographical pedagogy might focus less on individual elements of our practice and more on how to integrate latent pedagogies into an effective process for future-facing lifelong learning, which might be achieved by focusing on heutagogy in borderland spaces of learning; bringing together a multiplicity of geography and other disciplinary students over diverse spaces and times to co-construct understanding dialogically, allowing them to determine their own learning needs, and preparing them to be successful citizens in a dynamic and uncertain future.
    • Interaction of ENSO-driven Flood Variability and Anthropogenic Changes in Driving Channel Evolution: Corryong/ Nariel Creek, Australia

      Teo, Elisha A.; Marren, Philip M.; University of Melbourne (Taylor & Francis, 2015-09-03)
      Understanding the relative contributions of climatic and anthropogenic drivers of channel change are important to inform river management, especially in the context of environmental change. This global debate is especially pertinent in Australia as catchments have been severely altered since recent European settlement, and there is also strong evidence of cyclical climate variability controlling environmental systems. Corryong/Nariel Creek is an ideal setting to further study the interaction between climate and anthropogenic changes on channel evolution as it has experienced both significant periods of flood and drought, controlled by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), and extensive anthropogenic changes. Since European settlement the floodplain has been completely cleared, the riparian zone almost entirely invaded by willows, and every reach of the channel has experienced some form of direct channel modification. Through the combined analysis of channel evolution, climate changes and anthropogenic history of the river it was found that both the ENSO-driven climate and anthropogenic drivers are significant, although at different scales of channel change. Significant straightening in response to land clearing in the early twentieth century occurred before any records of direct channel modifications. Following this, most river management works were in response to instabilities created in the clearing period, or to instabilities created by flooding triggering a new phase of instability in reaches which had already undergone stabilisation works. Overall, human activities triggered channel instability via land clearing, and management works since then generally exacerbated erosion during high flows that are driven by climate fluctuations. This research raises the interesting question of whether rivers in Australia have become more responsive to the ENSO cycle since the clearing of catchment and riparian vegetation, or whether the past response to climate variability was different.
    • International perspectives on the effectiveness of geography fieldwork for learning

      Fuller, Ian C.; Edmondson, Sally; France, Derek; Higgitt, David; Ratinen, Ilkka; Massey University ; Liverpool Hope University ; University of Chester ; National University of Singapore ; University of Jyväskylä (Routledge, 2006-03)
      This article discusses assumptions on the effectiveness of fieldwork as a mode of learning in geography. This is approached from an international perspective, both in the review of available evidence, which demonstrates a need for rigorous research into the issue, and in providing preliminary findings of research into the value of fieldwork from universities across three continents.
    • iPad use in Fieldwork: Formal and informal use to enhance pedagogic practice in a Bring Your Own Technology world.

      Whalley, W. Brian; France, Derek; Mauchline, Alice; Welsh, Katharine E.; Park, Julian R.; University of Sheffield; University of Reading; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars, 2014-03-31)
      We report on use of iPads (and other IOS devices) for student fieldwork use and as electronic field notebooks. We have used questionnaires and interviews of tutors and students to elicit their views on technology and iPad use for fieldwork. There is some reluctance for academic staff to relinquish paper notebooks for iPad use, whether in the classroom or on fieldwork. Students too are largely unaware of the potential of iPads for enhancing fieldwork. Apps can be configured for a wide variety of specific uses that make iPads useful for educational as well as social uses. Such abilities should be used to enhance existing practice as well as make new functionality. For example, for disabled students who find it difficult to use conventional note taking iPads can be used to develop student self-directed learning and for group contributions. The technology becomes part of the students’ personal learning environments as well as at the heart of their knowledge spaces – academic and social. This blurring of boundaries is due to iPads’ usability to cultivate field use, instruction, assessment and feedback processes. iPads can become field microscopes and entries to citizen science, and we see the iPad as the main ‘computing’ device for students in the near future. As part of Bring Your Own Technology/Device the iPad has much to offer, although both staff and students need to be guided in the most effective use for self-directed education via development of personal learning Environments.
    • ‘It depends’: Exploring the context-dependent nature of students as partners practices and policies

      Healey, Mick; Healey, Ruth L.; University of Gloucestershire; University of Chester (McMaster University, 2018-05-07)
      In running workshops and presenting keynotes on students as partners (SaP), one of the most common answers we give to questions is, ‘It depends’. The breadth and complexity of practices and policies surrounding SaP mean that it is often difficult to make generalisations. This difficulty is intensified by the newness of the field, at least as it relates to learning and teaching in higher education, where the term has only become extensively used in the last decade and particularly the last five years, and then only in selected countries. Unsurprisingly, the term is used in a variety of different ways (Cliffe et al., 2017).
    • ‘It’s revolutionised how we do things’: then and now - a case study of Internet behaviours in a remote rural community

      Williams, Fiona; Farrington, John; Philip, Lorna; University of Aberdeen (James Hutton Institute, 2015-08-31)
      The Digital Economy has opened up new opportunities for societal wellbeing across many domains of life. However, the market dependency of the landscape of connection has resulted in communities which have inadequate broadband infrastructure and are off the digital map. This form of digital exclusion is most notable in remote, rural areas. In this paper we draw upon the Rural Public Access WiFi Service research study that is focused upon enabling Internet connectivity for commercially ‘hard to reach’ rural areas in the UK. Enabling broadband connectivity to those who were previously unable to access the Internet demonstrates benefits, which translate into the positive role that improved digital connectivity can have on the wellbeing of individuals and remote rural communities at large.
    • Keeping it in the family: Refocusing household sustainability

      Collins, Rebecca; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2015-01-24)
      Recent research on how best to support the development of pro-environmental behaviours has pointed towards the household as the scale at which interventions might be most effectively targeted. While pro-environmental behaviour research has tended to focus on the actions of adults, almost one-third of UK households also include children and teenagers. Some research has suggested that young people are particularly adept at exerting influence on the ways in which the household as a whole consumes. Yet this influence is not only one-way; parents continue to have direct input into the ways in which their children relate to and interact with the objects of consumption (such as personal possessions) through routine processes including acquisition, use, keeping and ridding. In this paper I draw on qualitative research with British teenagers to highlight how young people and their parents interact when managing household material consumption. I use this discussion to suggest that promoters of sustainability might increase the efficacy of their efforts by engaging households as complex family units, where individual household members’ distinct priorities are linked by shared familial values, and where family-based group identity is used to encourage shared commitment to lower-impact living.
    • Landslide hazard mapping and impact in the Holywell area of NE Wales

      Miller, Servel; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (National Museum Wales, 2015-05-15)
      Landslide hazard within urban environments in the UK is largely attributable to two distinct, but not mutually exclusive, types of landslide activity: i) relict landslides in the landscape that predate urban development, and whose presence may or may not have been known about at the time of development; and ii) new slope movements that postdate urban developments. Significant efforts have been made to delimit and categorise the hazard posed by relict slides through, for example, demarcation of known landslides on 1:50 000 maps produced by the British Geological Survey and the compilation of regional databases of landslide activity produced as part of the UK national landslides survey (e.g. Jones and Lee, 1994). This survey showed that much of the relict landsliding in the UK was originally the product of significant climate and environmental changes that followed on from the end of the last (Devensian) glaciation, and that many of these features are now stable in the British landscape, but with the potential to be reactivated either through human mismanagement and/or deteriorating environmental conditions; e.g. changing rainfall patterns linked to climate change (Jones, 1993; Arnell and Reynard 1996; Collison et al., 2000; Environment Agency, 2010). The mapping of landslide susceptibility beyond these relict features is far less complete within the UK, and varies in terms of the methodologies used. One common characteristic of many smaller scale studies is the assumption that the location and type of relict landsliding in an area can be extrapolated to identify new areas with similar geological and geomorphological characteristics that might be susceptible to failure in the future (Siddle, 2000). This assumption is explored in this paper with reference to the physical evidence for landslide damage within a moderately built up area of NE Wales. The research utilises the spatial analysis capabilities of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to produce slope susceptibility maps using hazard controlling parameters identified from relict landslides, and then explores the relationship between the relict and anticipated landslide hazard with physical evidence for landslide impact upon aspects of the built environment.
    • Landslide Susceptibility Assessment for ST. Thomas, Jamaica.

      Miller, Servel; Harris, Norman; Bhalai, Suresh; University of Chester; Mines and Geology department, Jamaica (2007-07-01)
      The parish of St Thomas in Jamaica is highly prone to slope failure and in the past this has resulted in extensive damage and in some cases loss of life. To reduce the effect from landslides, there was an urgent need to map and assess areas that may be prone to future failure. Aerial photographs coupled with geomorphological field mapping were used to inventory the landslides. The factors conditioning the slopes for failure were assessed and a weighting value assigned to them. The weighting was achieved by using the principle of Bayesian conditional probability. The weighted factors were combined in a Geographical Information System (GIS) to produce a landslide susceptibility model for the study area. The susceptibility model created is in general agreement with the distribution of landslides in the area. Comparison of the model with the existing landslides showed that 97% of the landslides fell within the high and very high susceptibility zones of the model. Comparison of the model with landslides that occurred during 2002, and that were not used in the construction of the model, shows that 83 of the 89 slides that occurred fell within the high and very high susceptibility zones. The landslide susceptibility model created hopefully will be one of the first steps in looking at the risks landslides pose to lives, developments, whether it is housing, agriculture or the physical infrastructure and may be used to guide land-use planning in the parish
    • Landslide susceptibility mapping in North-East Wales

      Miller, Servel; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2011-10-04)
      In North-East Wales, United Kingdom, slope instability is a known environmental hazard which has caused significant damage to the built environment in the recent past. This paper reports on the creation of a digital landslide inventory for North-East Wales and the use of a Geographical Information System (GIS) to create landslide susceptibility models that are applicable to landslide hazard management in the area. The research undertaken has resulted in the most comprehensive landslide inventory of North-East Wales to date, documenting 430 landslides within the area. Landslide susceptibility models created within a GIS using a statistical (multiple logistic regression) approach, divide the landscape of North-East Wales into areas of ‘low’, ‘moderate’ and ‘high’ landslide susceptibility using calculated probability values. These models indicate that 8% of the surface exposure of drift deposits and 12% of the area of solid geology is of high or very high susceptibility to slope instability. Validation tests have demonstrated the accuracy of these models and their potential value in a predictive sense. The digital landslide database and susceptibility models created are readily available to interested stakeholders, and may be useful tools in land-use planning, development of civil contingency plans and as guidance for the insurance industry.
    • Landslides in Jamaica: Distribution, Cause, Impact and Management

      Miller, Servel; Shalkowski, Anestoria; Harris, Norman; Richards, Dionne; Brown, Lyndon; University of Chester; University of the West Indies (CRC Press, 2018-03-21)
      Jamaica has one of the highest natural hazard risk exposures in the world, with more than 90% of the population exposed to two or more natural hazards. The island of Jamaica is particularly prone to multiple hazards, including hurricanes, earthquakes and slope instability, due to its geographical position (within the track of Atlantic hurricanes and its location on the Caribbean ‘tectonic’ plate) and its topography and geology (steep slopes with highly weathered material). Of these hazards, slope instability is the most common, affecting not only mountainous areas but also the coastal plains, where submarine landslides have been known to generate tsunamis. One such tsunami contributed to the destruction of the then capital city of Port Royal in 1692. Landslides are predominantly triggered by seismic activities and heavy rainfall associated with hurricanes and tropical depressions. These landslides have caused loss of lives, widespread destruction to the built and natural environment and long-term damage to the socio-economic development of the country. The slope instability problem is compounded by the lack of awareness of the impact by the general public, developers and planners, as well as uncontrolled and unplanned urbanization on marginal lands susceptible to slope failure.
    • Launching a Journal About and Through Students as Partners

      Cliffe, Anthony D.; Cook-Sather, Alison; Healey, Mick; Healey, Ruth L.; Marquis, Beth; Matthews, Kelly E.; Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Ntem, Anita; Puri, Varun; Woolmer, Cherie (2017-05-08)
      Editorial of first issue of the International Journal for Student as Partners.