• Coastal landslide mapping of the Black Ven Spittles complex, Charmouth

      Miller, Servel; Morris, Chloe; University of Chester (Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 2014-01-01)
      Landslides are not generally perceived as natural hazards that significantly affect the UK. However, slope instability affects many parts of Britain including the Dorset and Devon coastline. Black Ven Spittles is a classic landslide complex along this coastline, exhibiting some of the largest and most dynamic landslips in Europe. It has a long history of instability with significant events occurring as recently as 2008 when a succession of rock falls occurred towards the western side of the complex, uncovering waste material from the old town tip. With the beach adjacent to the landslide regularly used by tourists, fossil hunters and locals for recreational activities, it is of paramount importance that landslides be mapped to determine the active areas. Such mapping may be used for effectively managing the risk posed for this landslide complex. Through field and geospatial mapping techniques utilising remote sensing imagery and Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the most updated geomorphic map of the landslide complex is presented. The maps produced as a result of this research identify how the ‘system’ has changed since 1996 when the most comprehensive geomorphic map prior to this research was published. The most active section of the landslide complex is near the village of Charmouth, which is popular with tourists and fossil-hunters. By identifying this increasing risk, management can be better informed and the public made more accurately aware of this natural hazard
    • Evaluation of the use high resolution satellite Imagery to map slope instability in a tropical environment: St. Thomas, Jamaica

      Miller, Servel; Leszczyńska, Małgorzata; University of Chester (VGTU Press, 2014-12-31)
      Landslides are a major natural hazard in Jamaica, and have resulted in loss of life, major economic losses, social disruption and damage to public and private properties. There is a need to delineate areas that are prone to slope instability in order to mitigate their effects. The first and most important stage for the creation of a landslide risk maps is the collection of accurate landslide data in a timely manner. However the type of terrain makes landslide mapping particularly difficult. Aerial Photographs have proven to be an effective way of mapping landslides but acquiring new photographs to map recent landslides is very expensive. High resolution satellite imagery were evaluated for their effectiveness in delineating landslides. The landslides on a whole had no distinctive spectral property; hence no one classification technique could be used to identify them. This research developed integrative methods utilising a combination of: edge enhancement to delineate the scarps area; Wetness Index to identify back titling blocks and debris flow lobes where moisture is higher; shape classification (to distinguish from e.g. ground cleared for agriculture); and slope curvature to map scarps. The information from the image classification was combined in a GIS and automated to determine the probability of the presence and or absence of a landslides. Data derived was validated against detailed field mapping at a scale of 1:5000. For more recent landslides, the modelling proved to be effective, accurately identifying 91% of the landslide both in terms of the location and extent. For the older landslides Pre 2000) the mapping was less effective, with misclassification as high as 24% particularly for smaller landslides. However, the use of these imagery does have great potential as they prove useful for mapping new landslides quickly and efficiently after landslide disaster and are much cheaper and quicker to acquire.
    • Geographical Information Systems (GIS) applied to landslide hazard zonation in the North Wales coalfield

      Miller, Servel; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (National Museum Wales, 2015-05-01)
      In areas with a history of slope instability problems, landslide hazard zonation is increasingly becoming an integral tool in the effective management of this hazard (Chauhan et al., 2010; Leventhal and Kotze, 2008; Fells et al., 2008; Moreiras, 2005). Landslide hazard zonation provides the scientific basis for the implementation of land-use, emergency management and loss reduction measures in landslide-prone areas (Haubin et al., 2005). Although such techniques are commonly used worldwide in the management of slope instability, their use has been limited in the UK to a number of localised studies; e.g. South Wales coalfield (Halcrow and Partners, 1989) and Derbyshire Peak District (Thurston, 1997). It has been recognised that there are numerous relict landslides throughout the UK, which are being reactivated due to climatic factors (Arnell and Reynard 1996; Collison, 2000; and Environmental Agency, 2010) as well as land-use changes (Norbury, 2002; Smith, 2002). As indicated by Glade (2003, p3) ‘Land-use change has been recognized throughout the world as one of the most important factors influencing the occurrence of rainfall-triggered landslides’. Hazard mapping and susceptibility modelling (zonation) in landslide-prone areas should be a vital component of land-use planning, particularly where development continues to spread onto slopes deemed unstable. This paper outlines the development of a landslide susceptibility zonation model for areas of solid geology in the North Wales Coalfield and Halkyn Mountain. The model has been validated and has the potential to be utilised in land-use planning at a local and regional level
    • Landslide hazard mapping and impact in the Holywell area of NE Wales

      Miller, Servel; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (National Museum Wales, 2015-05-15)
      Landslide hazard within urban environments in the UK is largely attributable to two distinct, but not mutually exclusive, types of landslide activity: i) relict landslides in the landscape that predate urban development, and whose presence may or may not have been known about at the time of development; and ii) new slope movements that postdate urban developments. Significant efforts have been made to delimit and categorise the hazard posed by relict slides through, for example, demarcation of known landslides on 1:50 000 maps produced by the British Geological Survey and the compilation of regional databases of landslide activity produced as part of the UK national landslides survey (e.g. Jones and Lee, 1994). This survey showed that much of the relict landsliding in the UK was originally the product of significant climate and environmental changes that followed on from the end of the last (Devensian) glaciation, and that many of these features are now stable in the British landscape, but with the potential to be reactivated either through human mismanagement and/or deteriorating environmental conditions; e.g. changing rainfall patterns linked to climate change (Jones, 1993; Arnell and Reynard 1996; Collison et al., 2000; Environment Agency, 2010). The mapping of landslide susceptibility beyond these relict features is far less complete within the UK, and varies in terms of the methodologies used. One common characteristic of many smaller scale studies is the assumption that the location and type of relict landsliding in an area can be extrapolated to identify new areas with similar geological and geomorphological characteristics that might be susceptible to failure in the future (Siddle, 2000). This assumption is explored in this paper with reference to the physical evidence for landslide damage within a moderately built up area of NE Wales. The research utilises the spatial analysis capabilities of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to produce slope susceptibility maps using hazard controlling parameters identified from relict landslides, and then explores the relationship between the relict and anticipated landslide hazard with physical evidence for landslide impact upon aspects of the built environment.
    • Landslide susceptibility mapping in North-East Wales

      Miller, Servel; Degg, Martin; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2011-10-04)
      In North-East Wales, United Kingdom, slope instability is a known environmental hazard which has caused significant damage to the built environment in the recent past. This paper reports on the creation of a digital landslide inventory for North-East Wales and the use of a Geographical Information System (GIS) to create landslide susceptibility models that are applicable to landslide hazard management in the area. The research undertaken has resulted in the most comprehensive landslide inventory of North-East Wales to date, documenting 430 landslides within the area. Landslide susceptibility models created within a GIS using a statistical (multiple logistic regression) approach, divide the landscape of North-East Wales into areas of ‘low’, ‘moderate’ and ‘high’ landslide susceptibility using calculated probability values. These models indicate that 8% of the surface exposure of drift deposits and 12% of the area of solid geology is of high or very high susceptibility to slope instability. Validation tests have demonstrated the accuracy of these models and their potential value in a predictive sense. The digital landslide database and susceptibility models created are readily available to interested stakeholders, and may be useful tools in land-use planning, development of civil contingency plans and as guidance for the insurance industry.
    • Rainfall Thresholding and Susceptibility assessment of rainfall induced landslides: application to landslide management in St Thomas, Jamaica

      Miller, Servel; Brewer, Tim; Harris, Norman; University of Chester; Cranfield University (Springer Verlag, 2009-08-02)
      The parish of St Thomas has one of the highest densities of landslides in Jamaica, which impacts the residents, local economy and the built and natural environment. These landslides result from a combination of steep slopes, faulting, heavy rainfall and the presence of highly weathered volcanics, sandstones, limestones and sandstone/shale series and are particularly prevalent during the hurricane season (June–November). The paper reports a study of the rainfall thresholds and landslide susceptibility assessment to assist the prediction, mitigation and management of slope instability in landslide-prone areas of the parish.

      Miller, Servel; Malgorzata, Leszczynska; University of Chester; University of Warmia (2017-07-05)
      The touristic maps are the one of the most popular and widely used among the society type of map. However the ones are not official map and no government entity of Poland responsible for producing and distributing this types of maps. Therefore they are not free for local governments. Tourist on line maps are an ideal way for cities and region to promote their local business community. Indeed, it is estimated that hundred billion is spent on travel and tourism annually in the Poland. This is why local governments spend a large financial outlay for the creation of online tourist maps. But the tourist maps created base on non-standardized and official source become quickly outdated and update them is expensive. It seems to be good solution use constantly updated topographic databases for produce tourist maps to promote cities. The one is funded with taxes therefore can be usable without fees for public entities and it is national resource not classified for national security reasons. The series of articles about use topographic database for non-standard project topics will present an algorithm and legal and technological limitations appearing during the attempts to use topographic maps to create online tourist maps base on topographic databases. The article is an introduction to this subject.