• Incision and aggradation in proglacial rivers: post-Little Ice Age long-profile adjustments of southern Iceland outwash plains

      Roussel, Erwab; Marren, Philip M.; Cossart, Etienne; Toumazet, Jean-Pierre; Chenet, Marie; Grancher, Delphine; Jomelli, Vincent; Université Clermont Auvergne; University of Chester; Université de Lyon; Université Paris (Wiley, 2018-08-12)
      The retreat of glaciers in response to climate warming leads to substantial changes in meltwater and sediment yield. Glacial shrinkage also induces the emergence and growth of proglacial margin landforms which strongly affect water and sedimentary transfers from the glacier to the outwash plains.On a decadal-timescale, field observations show that outwash plains of retreating glaciers typically exhibit proximal incision which decreases in magnitude downstream and stops at an inflection point where aggradation begins. Nevertheless, there is a lack of knowledge about the rates and magnitude of this fluvial adjustment and the effects of the proglacial margin configuration on the temperance or the aggravation of this fluvial adjustment to glacier retreat. This paper investigates the proglacial rivers of 14 retreating glaciers in southeast Iceland over a post-Little Ice Age timescale, combining fluvial deposits mapping, lichenometric dating and long-profile measurements of proglacial fluvial terraces.Our results demonstrate that: (1) proximal incision, associated with distal aggradation and downstream migration of the inflection point is the dominant pattern of proglacial river response to post-LIA glacier retreat in Iceland; (2) estimated mean rates of downstream migration of the inflection point range between 5and 46m.a-1; (3)t he downstream migration rate of the inflection point is positively correlated with the proportion of proglacial lakes within the glacier foreland. These findings suggest that proglacial margins dominated by proglacial lakes intensify the rates of proximal incision and inflection point migration.
    • Engaging in radical work: Students as partners in academic publishing

      Healey, Ruth L.; Healey, Mick; Cliffe, Anthony D.; University of Chester; University of Gloucestershire; Liverpool John Moores University (Efficiency Exchange, 2018-05)
      Students as partners is the radical antithesis of the consumerist mind-set in higher education. Yet students have traditionally been absent from one key arena of academia: publishing. The International Journal for Students as Partners seeks to address this absence through pairing academic and student co-editors for all its sections.

      Bhattacharya Mis, Namrata; Chan,Faith; Kreibich,Heidi; Montz, Burrell; Lamond, Jessica; Proverbs, David; Wilkinson, Sara; University of Chester, Nottingham university, GHZ Berlin, University of East Carolina, University of West of England, Birmingham City University, UTS Sydney (Royal institution of Chartered Surveyors , London, 2018-04-23)
      There is an increasing body of research which identifies the need for flood risk mitigation advice and the potential for building professionals such as surveyors to be involved. This research explored the potential for surveyors to play a greater role in advising on at-risk commercial properties to better manage risk within the commercial property sector. Through a series of 72 expert interviews of professionals in the field of flood risk management in five international markets (UK, US, Australia, China and Germany), the research developed a picture of the current and potential role surveyors can play in providing professional advice on flood risk affected commercial properties. The interviews revealed that a wide set of opportunity lies in expert surveyors’ technical and local knowledge and understanding of risk mitigation and damage reduction processes, building typology, commercial land use, property valuation, and insurance schemes. However, their ability to offer flood specific advice is constrained by lack of: flood related expertise and training, market demand, client awareness of flood risk and, an willingness to invest in advice and mitigation measures on behalf of clients. The research highlights the need for collaborative practice to enable well informed all round advice on flood risk resilience. The findings also highlight the need for additional flood risk education and training for surveyors to assist them to provide improved risk mitigation advice.
    • A Sustainable Future in the Making? The Maker Movement, the Maker-Habitus and Sustainability

      Collins, Rebecca; University of Chester (Routledge, 2018-04-06)
      Recent years have seen the emergence of what has been termed a new ‘maker movement’. Alternately cast either as an essentially new mode of engagement with the practices and potentialities of making instigated by the development of new technologies, or a (re)turn to the fundamentals and rewards of traditional crafts, opportunities to practice making in an array of forms are increasingly widespread. Whilst there has been some (limited) acknowledgement of the role a (re)valorisation of making might play in a more environmentally sustainable material culture (e.g. Brook 2012), how such connections might be made and supported has remained unexplored. This chapter draws on both theoretical and empirical sources in order to articulate a conceptual ‘maker-habitus’ – an embodied orientation to the material world characterised by an interest in material (re)production. I argue that fundamental to the ‘maker-habitus’ is a particularly acute affordance sensitivity – that is, an ability to identify the potentialities of materials and material things. Recent empirical work is used to illustrate this notion at work and, in turn, to suggest that increasing societal support for the proliferation of such sensibilities might be key to eliciting a more environmentally sustainable everyday material culture.
    • Staff-student partnership: Inclusive/exclusive pedagogical practices

      Moore-Cherry, Niamh; Healey, Ruth L.; University College Dublin; University of Chester (RAISE, 2018-04)
      This workshop focused on student-staff partnership working in a mass education system. Specifically we explored whether in a mass education system we can, and should, engage in partnership working that goes beyond just selected staff and students to become mainstream pedagogical practice.
    • Landslides in Jamaica: Distribution, Cause, Impact and Management

      Miller, Servel; Shalkowski, Anestoria; Harris, Norman; Richards, Dionne; Brown, Lyndon; University of Chester; University of the West Indies (CRC Press, 2018-03-19)
      Jamaica has one of the highest natural hazard risk exposures in the world, with more than 90% of the population exposed to two or more natural hazards. The island of Jamaica is particularly prone to multiple hazards, including hurricanes, earthquakes and slope instability, due to its geographical position (within the track of Atlantic hurricanes and its location on the Caribbean ‘tectonic’ plate) and its topography and geology (steep slopes with highly weathered material). Of these hazards, slope instability is the most common, affecting not only mountainous areas but also the coastal plains, where submarine landslides have been known to generate tsunamis. One such tsunami contributed to the destruction of the then capital city of Port Royal in 1692. Landslides are predominantly triggered by seismic activities and heavy rainfall associated with hurricanes and tropical depressions. These landslides have caused loss of lives, widespread destruction to the built and natural environment and long-term damage to the socio-economic development of the country. The slope instability problem is compounded by the lack of awareness of the impact by the general public, developers and planners, as well as uncontrolled and unplanned urbanization on marginal lands susceptible to slope failure.
    • Would Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) be welcomed by undergraduate students to support their learning during fieldwork?

      Welsh, Katharine E.; Mauchline, Alice; France, Derek; Powell, Victoria; Whalley, W. Brian; Park, Julian R.; University of Chester; University of Reading; University of Sheffield (Taylor & Francis, 2018-02-15)
      This paper reports student perceptions of the benefits and challenges of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) in a fieldwork context. Student perceptions from six field courses across two institutions have been gathered using questionnaires and focus groups. Whilst a number of studies have focused on BYOD in a classroom context, little research has been undertaken about BYOD in a fieldwork context. The key findings suggest that around one fifth of students were not willing to use their own device during fieldwork citing loss or damage as the main reason. This key challenge is different to that which are found in a classroom which generally focus on network security, connectivity etc. The findings also suggest that some students believe that BYOD can have a negative impact on group work. There is a misalignment here between student and practitioner thinking with previous literature which suggests that practitioners believe BYOD and smart devices can enhance group work. The one key challenge which is found regardless of learning environment is inequality between those who have a device and those who do not.
    • Flood risk to commercial property: Training and Education Needs of Built Environment Professionals

      Bhattacharya-Mis, Namrata; Lamond, Jessica; Chang, Faith; Kreibich, Heidi; Burrell, Montz; Wilkinson, Sara; Proverbs, David (Emerald, 2018)
      Improved management of commercial property at risk from flooding may result from well-targeted advice from built environment professionals, such as surveyors, valuers and project managers. However, research indicates that the role of these professionals in providing such advice is currently limited for a variety of reasons. This research aimed to investigate the (perceived and real) barriers and opportunities for providing such advice in a number of international locations. In particular the research sought greater understanding of the link between regulation and guidance; perceived roles and capacity; and training and education needs. In order to cover different international settings an illustrative case study approach was adopted within the selected countries (Australia, UK, US, China and Germany). This involved a qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews of built environment (BE) professionals with experience of advising on commercial properties at risk of flooding. Due to the specific nature of these interviews, a purposive sampling approach was implemented, leading to a sample of 72 interviews across the five international locations. Perceived barriers were linked to regulatory issues, a shortage of suitably experienced professionals, a lack of formal guidance and insurance requirements. BE professionals defined their roles differently in each case study in relation to these factors and stressed the need for closer collaboration among the various disciplines and indeed the other key stakeholders (i.e. insurers, loss adjusters, contractors). A shortage of knowledgeable experts caused by a lack of formal training and education was a common challenge highlighted in all locations. The research is unique in providing an international perspective on issues affecting built environment professionals in providing robust and impartial advice on commercial property at risk of flooding. Whilst acknowledging the existence of local flood conditions, regulatory frameworks and insurance regimes, the results indicate some recurring themes, indicating a lack of general flood risk education and training across all five case study countries. Learning across case studies coupled with appropriate policy development could contribute towards improved skills development and more consistent integration of BE professionals within future flood risk management practice, policy and strategy.
    • ‘Are we losing our way?’ Navigational aids, socio-sensory way-finding and the spatial awareness of young adults

      McCullough, David; Collins, Rebecca; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018)
      Recent advances in the accessibility and reliability of mobile technologies, roaming services and associated data have led to an increased usage of modern navigational devices using Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This paper reports on a study which explored concerns about over-reliance upon these navigational technologies, specifically amongst young people in the Global North. Based on an experiment in which participants were asked to navigate a series of different (unfamiliar) routes on foot, using different navigational technologies each time, we argue that routes navigated are more memorable, and the process of way-finding is more enjoyable, when navigational tools/methods enable sensory and social interactions. GNSS aids, though claimed by participants as their preferred navigational aid, were the least enabling in this regard. We conclude that, whilst concerns about young people’s way-finding abilities may be overstated, the importance of sensory and social interactions with(in) environments might usefully be borne in mind in the development of future GNSS aids and locative media.
    • ‘It depends’: Exploring the context-dependent nature of students as partners practices and policies

      Healey, Mick; Healey, Ruth L.; University of Gloucestershire; University of Chester (McMaster University, 2018)
      In running workshops and presenting keynotes on students as partners (SaP), one of the most common answers we give to questions is, ‘It depends’. The breadth and complexity of practices and policies surrounding SaP mean that it is often difficult to make generalisations. This difficulty is intensified by the newness of the field, at least as it relates to learning and teaching in higher education, where the term has only become extensively used in the last decade and particularly the last five years, and then only in selected countries. Unsurprisingly, the term is used in a variety of different ways (Cliffe et al., 2017).
    • Enhancing outcomes and reducing inhibitors to the engagement of students and staff in learning and teaching partnerships: Implications for academic development

      Matthews, Kelly E; Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Dvorakova, Sam Lucie; Acia, Anita; Cook-Sather, Alison; Felten, Peter; Healey, Mick; Healey, Ruth L.; Marquis, Elizabeth; University of Queensland; University of Edinburgh; McMaster University; Bryn Mawr College; Elon University; University of Gloucestershire; University of Chester; Healey HE Consultants (Taylor & Francis, 2018)
      A growing body of literature on students as partners in learning and teaching offers evidence on which academic developers can draw when supporting, advocating for, or engaging in partnerships. We extend a previous systematic review of the partnership literature by presenting an analysis and discussion of the positive and negative outcomes of partnership, and the inhibitors to partnership. Implications include the importance of academic developers supporting: the relational processes of partnership; institutional or structural change to address resistance; and the potential of partnership to make institutions more equitable and empowering spaces.
    • Remote rural home based businesses and digital inequalities: Understanding needs and expectations in a digitally underserved community

      Philip, Lorna; Williams, Fiona; University of Aberdeen; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018)
      The digital economy offers home based micro-businesses in rural areas many advantages but stubborn social, economic and territorial digital divides continue to create challenges for this sector of the rural economy. Complex digital inequalities are illustrated in our case studies of the digital behaviour and Internet experiences of those running micro, home based businesses in a remote, digitally underserved rural community before, during and after the deployment of broadband technology. Findings draw attention to the role and importance of fit-for-purpose broadband in promoting digital inclusion for individuals, households and small, home based businesses: in a fast changing digital national and global economy remote rural home based micro-businesses are at risk of being left behind.
    • Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges

      Miller, Servel; Welsh, Katharine E.; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2017-12-01)
      The recent growth of mobile device ownership provides significant opportunities for universities to utilise these devices to enhance the student experience. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) allows students to use their own devices in an educational environment. This can provide opportunities such as students feeling more familiar with the technology, enabling personalisation of the devices, and could potentially reduce the cost of keeping up to date with new technology for higher education institutions. However a number of challenges also exist such as how to ensure students without mobile devices feel included and the issue of devices acting as a distraction. This chapter focuses on student’s perceptions of BYOD including how motivated they feel to learn and how they use their own devices in the classroom. The findings suggest that students are willing to use their own devices, they feel more motivated to learn and they feel more connected with teaching overall.
    • Realism, reflection and responsibility: The challenge of writing effective scenarios to support the development of ethical thinking skills

      Ribchester, Chris; Healey, Ruth L.; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2017-08-07)
      Universities are paying increased attention to how they might support the ethical development of their students as one of a range of graduate attributes that will enable them to negotiate increasingly complex professional, civic and personal futures. Scenario-based learning (SBL) is a longstanding strategy used in ethical teaching and this paper describes and evaluates a version of this approach as applied to a second year undergraduate tutorials module. A quantitative assessment of the development of students’ ethical sensitivity over the course of two deliveries of the module shows an uneven impact but also some encouraging trends. A detailed qualitative analysis of how students responded to each scenario identifies five factors that appear to precipitate more in-depth reflection on ethical problems, and these are presented as useful points of guidance for teachers writing ethical scenarios for the first time or for those aiming to hone their existing practice. These factors include the challenge of devising circumstances which appear realistic and plausible to contemporary undergraduate students, constructing scenarios which encourage readers to reflect on and test their personal values, and portraying events which push students to intervene proactively and so taking individual responsibility for their decisions and actions.
    • On the application of contemporary bulk sediment organic carbon isotope and geochemical datasets for Holocene sea-level reconstruction in NW Europe

      Wilson, Graham P.; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2017-08-02)
      Bulk organic stable carbon isotope (δ13C) and element geochemistry (total organic carbon (TOC) and organic carbon to total nitrogen (Corg/Ntot)) analysis is a developing technique in Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) research. The uptake of this technique in Northern Europe is limited compared to North America, where the common existence of coastal marshes with isotopically distinctive C3 and C4 vegetation associated with well defined inundation tolerance permits the reconstruction of RSL in the sediment record. In Northern Europe, the reduced range in δ13C values between organic matter sources in C3 estuaries can make the identification of elevation-dependent environments in the Holocene sediment record challenging and this is compounded by the potential for post-depositional alteration in bulk δ13C values. The use of contemporary regional δ13C, C/N and TOC datasets representing the range of physiographic conditions commonly encountered in coastal wetland sediment sequences opens up the potential of using absolute values of sediment geochemistry to infer depositional environments and associated reference water levels. In this paper, the application of contemporary bulk organic δ13C, C/N and TOC to reconstruct Holocene RSL is further explored. An extended contemporary regional geochemical dataset of published δ13C, C/N and TOC observations (n=142) from tidal-dominated C3 wetland deposits (representing tidal flat, saltmarsh, reedswamp and fen carr environments) in temperate NW Europe is compiled, and procedures implemented to correct for the 13C Suess effect on contemporary δ13C are detailed. Partitioning around medoids analysis identifies two distinctive geochemical groups in the NW European dataset, with tidal flat / saltmarsh and reedswamp / fen carr environments exhibiting characteristically different sediment δ13C, C/N and TOC values. A logistic regression model is developed from the NW European dataset in order to objectively identify in the sediment record geochemical groups and, more importantly, group transitions, thus allowing the altitude of reference water levels to be determined. The application of this method in RSL research is demonstrated using the Holocene sediments of the Mersey Estuary (UK), in which δ13C, C/N and TOC variability is typical of that encountered in Holocene sediments from C3 coastal wetlands in NW Europe. Group membership was predicted with high probability in the depositional contexts studied and the accuracy of group prediction is verified by microfossil evidence.The method presented facilitates the application of δ13C, C/N and TOC analysis in RSL reconstruction studies in C3 vegetated wetlands throughout temperate NW Europe.

      Miller, Servel; Malgorzata, Leszczynska; University of Chester; University of Warmia (2017-07-05)
      The touristic maps are the one of the most popular and widely used among the society type of map. However the ones are not official map and no government entity of Poland responsible for producing and distributing this types of maps. Therefore they are not free for local governments. Tourist on line maps are an ideal way for cities and region to promote their local business community. Indeed, it is estimated that hundred billion is spent on travel and tourism annually in the Poland. This is why local governments spend a large financial outlay for the creation of online tourist maps. But the tourist maps created base on non-standardized and official source become quickly outdated and update them is expensive. It seems to be good solution use constantly updated topographic databases for produce tourist maps to promote cities. The one is funded with taxes therefore can be usable without fees for public entities and it is national resource not classified for national security reasons. The series of articles about use topographic database for non-standard project topics will present an algorithm and legal and technological limitations appearing during the attempts to use topographic maps to create online tourist maps base on topographic databases. The article is an introduction to this subject.
    • Launching a Journal About and Through Students as Partners

      Cliffe, Anthony D.; Cook-Sather, Alison; Healey, Mick; Healey, Ruth L.; Marquis, Beth; Matthews, Kelly, E.; Mercer-Mapstone, Lucy; Ntem, Anita; Puri, Varun; Woolmer, Cherie (2017-05)
      Editorial of first issue of the International Journal for Student as Partners.
    • Asylum

      Healey, Ruth L.; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2017-02-15)
    • The digital divide: Patterns, policy and scenarios for connecting the ‘final few’ in rural communities across Great Britain

      Philip, Lorna; Cottrill, Caitlin; Farrington, John; Williams, Fiona; Ashmore, Fiona; University of Aberdeen; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2017-01-17)
      The Internet can bestow significant benefits upon those who use it. The prima facie case for an urban-rural digital divide is widely acknowledged, but detailed accounts of the spatial patterns of digital communications infrastructure are rarely reported. In this paper we present original analysis of data published by the UK telecommunications regulator, Ofcom, and identify and reflect on the entrenched nature of the urban-rural digital divide in Great Britain. Drawing upon illustrative case vignettes we demonstrate the implications of digital exclusion for personal and business lives in rural, and in particular remote rural, areas. The ability of the current UK policy context to effectively address the urban-rural digital divide is reviewed and scenarios for improving digital connectivity amongst the ‘final few’, including community-led broadband, satellite broadband and mobile broadband, are considered. A call is made for digital future proofing in telecommunications policy, without which the already faster urban areas will get ‘faster, fastest’ leaving rural areas behind and an increasingly entrenched urban-rural divide.
    • Every Student use of iPads: A Vade Mecum for Students' Active Learning

      Whalley, W. Brian; France, Derek; Mauchline, Alice; Welsh, Katharine E.; Park, Julian R.; University of Sheffield, University of Chester, University of Reading (Cambridge Scholars, 2017-01-01)
      The iPad has evolved into a very capable computer with high processor power, enhanced screen resolution, and good battery life. However, this capability is still largely untapped in higher education by students or staff where there is still reliance on a Victorian higher educational system; that is, content delivery by lectures and assessment by examination. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are, mostly, a modernisation of such content delivery. However, active learning , coupled with increased availability of cloud services and iPads/smartphones, provides opportunities for students to use practical mobile devices anywhere. Such ubiquity allows tutors to promote active learning in any location, even in the lecture theatre. We examine some of the practicalities and pedagogy behind this trend and suggest ways in which students’ educational experiences are enhanced via active learning with iPads, whether cloud linked or not. Involved, active learning promotes digital information and literacy skills into the curriculum as well as integrates knowledge bases via an Internet of Everything. Moreover, employability skills can be incorporated into the learning experiences and the personalisation of iPads can accommodate the needs of students with mobility and specific difficulties. Tutors seem reluctant to use iPads in educational environments. We expect this to diminish as students become empowered to use smart-cloud technologies to promote their educational needs. The iPad and its kin can be thought of as a vade mecum, enhancing everyone’s learning in a fourth dimension and can fit into modern pedagogies.