• Ability of students to recognize the relationship between using mobile apps for learning during fieldwork and the development of graduate attributes

      France, Derek; Powell, Victoria; Mauchline, Alice; Welsh, Katharine E.; Park, Julian R.; Whalley, W. Brian; Rewhorn, Sonja; University of Chester; University of Reading; University of Sheffield (Taylor & Francis, 2016-05-08)
      The increasing importance of employability in Higher Education curricula and the prevalence of using mobile devices for field-based learning, prompted an investigation into student awareness of the relationship between the use of mobile apps for learning and the development of graduate attributes (and the link to employability). The results from post-fieldwork focus groups from four field courses indicated that students could make clear links between the use of a variety of mobile apps and graduate attribute development. The study suggests a number of mobile apps can align simultaneously with more than one graduate attribute. Furthermore, prior experience and the context of use can influence students’ perceptions of an app and its link with different graduate attributes
    • Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) in Higher Education: Opportunities and Challenges

      Miller, Servel; Welsh, Katharine E.; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2017-12-01)
      The recent growth of mobile device ownership provides significant opportunities for universities to utilise these devices to enhance the student experience. Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) allows students to use their own devices in an educational environment. This can provide opportunities such as students feeling more familiar with the technology, enabling personalisation of the devices, and could potentially reduce the cost of keeping up to date with new technology for higher education institutions. However a number of challenges also exist such as how to ensure students without mobile devices feel included and the issue of devices acting as a distraction. This chapter focuses on student’s perceptions of BYOD including how motivated they feel to learn and how they use their own devices in the classroom. The findings suggest that students are willing to use their own devices, they feel more motivated to learn and they feel more connected with teaching overall.
    • By any other name? The impacts of differing assumptions, expectations and misconceptions in bringing about resistance to student-staff ‘partnership’

      Healey, Ruth L.; Lerczak, Alex; Welsh, Katharine E.; France, Derek; University of Chester (McMaster University, 2019-05-07)
      Most of the existing literature on student-staff partnership explores the experiences of people who are keen to be involved and who have already bought into the ethos of students as partners. We explore the challenges of conducting student-staff partnership in the context of resistance. Specifically, we focus on the interpretations of ‘partnership’ by students and staff who were attempting to work in partnership for the first time. The views of the participants were captured during a six-month project in which four undergraduate students were employed to work with eight academics to re-design the second-year undergraduate curriculum on one programme. Notwithstanding an introductory briefing and on-going support, some participants showed indications of resistance. Our findings suggest that different perspectives on ‘partnership’ influenced participants’ experiences. We argue that assumptions and misconceptions around the terminology used to describe ‘students as partners’ practice may hinder the process itself, as some people may not ‘buy-in’ to the practice. However, despite the challenges of this project, the experience of being involved has led to reduced resistance and emerging partnership practices throughout the department.
    • Convergent human and climate forcing of late-Holocene flooding in northwest England

      Schillereff, Daniel; MacDonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet; Welsh, Katharine E.; Piliposian, G.; Croudace, Ian; Chiverrell, Richard; Kings College London; University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Chester, University of Liverpool, University of Southampton (Elsevier, 2019-07-30)
      Concern is growing that climate change may amplify global flood risk but short hydrological data series hamper hazard assessment. Lake sediment reconstructions are capturing a fuller picture of rare, high-magnitude events but the UK has produced few lake palaeoflood records. We report the longest lake-derived flood reconstruction for the UK to date, a 1500-year record from Brotherswater, northwest England. Its catchment is well-suited physiographically to palaeoflood research, but its homogeneous, dark brown sediment matrix precludes visual identification of flood layers. Instead, an outlier detection routine applied to high-resolution particle size measurements showed a >90% match, in stratigraphic sequence, to measured high river flows. Our late-Holocene palaeoflood reconstruction reveals nine multi-decadal periods of more frequent flooding (CE 510-630, 890-960, 990-1080, 1470-1560, 1590-1620, 1650-1710, 1740-1770, 1830-1890 and 1920-2012), and these show a significant association with negative winter North Atlantic Oscillation (wNAO) phasing and some synchrony with solar minima. These flood-rich episodes also overlap with local and regional land-use intensification, which we propose has amplified the flood signal by creating a more efficient catchment sediment conveyor and more rapid hillslope-channel hydrological connectivity. Disentangling anthropogenic and climatic drivers is a challenge but anthropogenic landscape transformation should evidently not be underestimated in palaeoflood reconstructions. Our paper also demonstrates that flood histories can be extracted from the numerous lakes worldwide containing organic-rich, visually homogeneous sediments. This transformative evidence base should lead to more reliable assessments of flood frequency and risks to ecosystems and infrastructure.
    • Developing active personal learning environments on smart mobile devices.

      Whalley, Brian; France, Derek; Park, Julian; mauchline, Alice; Welsh, Katharine E.; University of Sheffield, University of Chester, University of Reading (Springer, 2019-10-10)
      ‘Tablets’ and other 'smart' devices (such as iPads and iPhones)have established themselves as a significant part of mobile technologies used in mobile (m-)learning. Smart devices such as iPads and the Apple Watch not only provide many apps that can be used for a variety of educational purposes; they also allow communication between students and tutors and with the world at large via social media. We argue that 'smart' mobile devices enable personalized learning by adjusting to the educational needs of individuals. We refer to Salmon's quadrat diagram to suggest where using mobile technologies should be of benefit to revising our views of pedagogy, making it much more responsive to students' needs in education as well as the world in general. Smart mobile devices now contain computing power to allow voice and face recognition, augmented reality and machine learning to make them intelligent enough to act as tutors for individual students and adjust and respond accordingly. To take advantage of these facilities on mobile devices, pedagogy must change from an institution-centred to a student-tutor-device focus. This is best done via 'active learning' and incorporating cognitive awareness into an educational operating system that can develop with the owner.
    • Development of Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) activities and an Evaluation of their Impact on Learning: Geoscience students’ perceptions,

      Miller, Servel; France, Derek; Welsh, Katharine E.; University of Chester (National Committee of Geography of Belgium, Société Royale Belge de Géographie, 2015)
      Recently, the recognition of Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) tools in natural hazard management and disaster reduction has gained prominence. A successful CERC will ensure the relevant stakeholders are effective communicating with each other. This requires a clear plan and set of principles that enables the stakeholders to function effectively in a crisis. Students hoping to work in the emergency and natural hazard management field need to develop these skills. This paper outlines the development of a range of risk communicating activities including simulation exercises for undergraduate Geoscience students. Progress in the development of the students risk communication skill through the series of activities is tracked and evaluated. Results indicate that 87% of the students perceived their risk communication skills were good or excellent after undertaking the exercises compared to 26% before. This paper also evaluates the impact of the activities and if they motivated them to learn more about the subject as a whole. Students generally indicated that the exercises motivated them to learn more about natural hazard management and they felt that they have become better risk communicators. They also indicate that they gained a more in-depth understanding of the requirements of effective and timely communications should they need to develop a CERC strategy during a crisis.
    • Enhancing Fieldwork Learning Using Mobile Technologies

      France, Derek; Whalley, W. Brian; Mauchline, Alice; Powell, Victoria; Welsh, Katharine E.; Lerczak, Alex; Park, Julian R.; Bednarz, Robert S.; University of Chester; University of Reading and Texas A&M University (Springer, 2015-10-26)
      This book aims to share and develop pedagogic fieldwork practice of practitioners through the applications of new digital technologies. The book showcases 29 case studies. Fieldwork is a core element of many Bioscience, Geography, Geology, Earth & Environmental Science degree courses. Fieldwork can provide opportunities for experiential learning and research-led teaching in a ‘real-world’ setting. Teaching and learning on fieldwork can be enhanced through the use of digital technologies; tablets provide opportunities to develop novel approaches to fieldwork pedagogy that neither students nor tutors envisaged possible through traditional means.
    • Every Student use of iPads: A Vade Mecum for Students' Active Learning

      Whalley, W. Brian; France, Derek; Mauchline, Alice; Welsh, Katharine E.; Park, Julian R.; University of Sheffield, University of Chester, University of Reading (Cambridge Scholars, 2017-01-01)
      The iPad has evolved into a very capable computer with high processor power, enhanced screen resolution, and good battery life. However, this capability is still largely untapped in higher education by students or staff where there is still reliance on a Victorian higher educational system; that is, content delivery by lectures and assessment by examination. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are, mostly, a modernisation of such content delivery. However, active learning , coupled with increased availability of cloud services and iPads/smartphones, provides opportunities for students to use practical mobile devices anywhere. Such ubiquity allows tutors to promote active learning in any location, even in the lecture theatre. We examine some of the practicalities and pedagogy behind this trend and suggest ways in which students’ educational experiences are enhanced via active learning with iPads, whether cloud linked or not. Involved, active learning promotes digital information and literacy skills into the curriculum as well as integrates knowledge bases via an Internet of Everything. Moreover, employability skills can be incorporated into the learning experiences and the personalisation of iPads can accommodate the needs of students with mobility and specific difficulties. Tutors seem reluctant to use iPads in educational environments. We expect this to diminish as students become empowered to use smart-cloud technologies to promote their educational needs. The iPad and its kin can be thought of as a vade mecum, enhancing everyone’s learning in a fourth dimension and can fit into modern pedagogies.
    • Geotagging photographs in student fieldwork

      Welsh, Katharine E.; France, Derek; Whalley, W. Brian; Park, Julian R.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Sheffield ; University of Reading (Routledge, 2012-01-23)
      This article provides guidance for staff and students on the potential educational benefits, limitations and applications of geotagging photographs.
    • iPad use in Fieldwork: Formal and informal use to enhance pedagogic practice in a Bring Your Own Technology world.

      Whalley, W. Brian; France, Derek; Mauchline, Alice; Welsh, Katharine E.; Park, Julian R.; University of Sheffield; University of Reading; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars, 2014-03-31)
      We report on use of iPads (and other IOS devices) for student fieldwork use and as electronic field notebooks. We have used questionnaires and interviews of tutors and students to elicit their views on technology and iPad use for fieldwork. There is some reluctance for academic staff to relinquish paper notebooks for iPad use, whether in the classroom or on fieldwork. Students too are largely unaware of the potential of iPads for enhancing fieldwork. Apps can be configured for a wide variety of specific uses that make iPads useful for educational as well as social uses. Such abilities should be used to enhance existing practice as well as make new functionality. For example, for disabled students who find it difficult to use conventional note taking iPads can be used to develop student self-directed learning and for group contributions. The technology becomes part of the students’ personal learning environments as well as at the heart of their knowledge spaces – academic and social. This blurring of boundaries is due to iPads’ usability to cultivate field use, instruction, assessment and feedback processes. iPads can become field microscopes and entries to citizen science, and we see the iPad as the main ‘computing’ device for students in the near future. As part of Bring Your Own Technology/Device the iPad has much to offer, although both staff and students need to be guided in the most effective use for self-directed education via development of personal learning Environments.
    • Quantifying system disturbance and recovery from historical mining-derived metal contamination at Brotherswater, northwest England

      Schillereff, Daniel; Chiverrell, Richard; Macdonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet; Welsh, Katharine E.; Kings College London, University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Liverpool, University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2016-08-18)
      Metal ore extraction in historical times has left a legacy of severe contamination in aquatic ecosystems around the world. In the UK, there are ongoing nationwide surveys of present-day pollution discharged from abandoned mines but few assessments of the magnitude of contamination and impacts that arose during historical metal mining have been made. We report one of the first multi-centennial records of lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) fluxes into a lake (Brotherswater, northwest England) from point-sources in its catchment (Hartsop Hall Mine and Hogget Gill processing plant) and calculate basin-scale inventories of those metals. The pre-mining baseline for metal contamination has been established using sediment cores spanning the past 1,500 years and contemporary material obtained through sediment trapping. These data enabled the impact of 250 years of local, small-scale mining (1696 – 1942) to be quantified and an assessment of the trajectory towards system recovery to be made. The geochemical stratigraphy displayed in twelve sediment cores show strong correspondence to the documented history of metal mining and processing in the catchment. The initial onset in 1696 was detected, peak Pb concentrations (>10,000 µg g-1) and flux (39.4 g m-2 y-1) corresponded to the most intensive mining episode (1863-1871) and 20th century technological enhancements were reflected as a more muted sedimentary imprint. After careful evaluation, we used these markers to augment a Bayesian age-depth model of the independent geochronology obtained using radioisotope dating (14C, 210Pb, 137Cs and 241Am). Total inventories of Pb, Zn and Cu for the lake basin during the period of active mining were 15,415 kg, 5,897 kg and 363 kg, respectively. The post-mining trajectories for Pb and Zn project a return to pre-mining levels within 54-128 years for Pb and 75-187 years for Zn, although future remobilisation of metal-enriched catchment soils and floodplain sediments could perturb this recovery. We present a transferable paleolimnological approach that highlights flux-based assessments are vital to accurately establish the baseline, impact and trajectory of mining-derived contamination for a lake catchment.
    • Student perceptions of iPads as mobile learning devices for fieldwork

      Welsh, Katharine E.; Mauchline, Alice; Powell, Victoria; France, Derek; Park, Julian R.; Whalley, W. Brian; University of Chester (2015-09-01)
      This paper reports findings from six field courses about student’s perceptions of iPads as mobile learning devices for fieldwork. Data were collected through surveys and focus groups. The key findings suggest that the multi-tool nature of the iPads and their portability were the main strengths. Students had some concerns over the safety of the iPads in adverse weather and rugged environments, though most of these concerns were eliminated after using the devices with protective cases. Reduced connectivity was found to be one of the main challenges for mobile learning. Finally, students and practitioners views of why they used the mobile devices for fieldwork did not align.
    • Would Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) be welcomed by undergraduate students to support their learning during fieldwork?

      Welsh, Katharine E.; Mauchline, Alice; France, Derek; Powell, Victoria; Whalley, W. Brian; Park, Julian R.; University of Chester; University of Reading; University of Sheffield (Taylor & Francis, 2018-02-15)
      This paper reports student perceptions of the benefits and challenges of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) in a fieldwork context. Student perceptions from six field courses across two institutions have been gathered using questionnaires and focus groups. Whilst a number of studies have focused on BYOD in a classroom context, little research has been undertaken about BYOD in a fieldwork context. The key findings suggest that around one fifth of students were not willing to use their own device during fieldwork citing loss or damage as the main reason. This key challenge is different to that which are found in a classroom which generally focus on network security, connectivity etc. The findings also suggest that some students believe that BYOD can have a negative impact on group work. There is a misalignment here between student and practitioner thinking with previous literature which suggests that practitioners believe BYOD and smart devices can enhance group work. The one key challenge which is found regardless of learning environment is inequality between those who have a device and those who do not.