Francis, Suzanne; Asuelime, Lucky; Yaro, Joseph (Springer, 2014-07-01)
A growing number of scholars acknowledge the interconnectedness of the myriad of problems and prospects across Africa as a relevant part of global development discourse. Given the ever-increasing importance of knowledge for the scholarly agenda and practice of African Studies, we present a picture of contemporary issues in African development. These themes are a microcosm in the general understanding and study of global development issues that confront humanity. This is hoped will lead to novel analytical frameworks, the emergence of new conceptual approaches, and empirical accounts of relevance to scholars studying Africa as well as practitioners in African development and policy makers.
The realities of conflicts, economic growth without development, policy development and the impact of capitalism and globalization continue to challenge existing theoretical and conceptual approaches. After several decades of independence and governance in the post-colonial period in Africa, many of the political and economic indicators are still not encouraging, despite important strides towards democratic consolidation and economic development. A country study approach to the continent of Africa illuminates the diversity of the African continent and indicates the ways in which the political and socio-economic contexts of African states bear directly upon the ability of states to solve the various political and economic challenges that they face.
Like all concepts in social science, power is a complex term. The literature on power is marked by a deep disagreement over the basic definition of power. Some theorists define power as getting someone else to do what you want them to do (power over), whereas others define it more broadly as an ability or a capacity to act (power to).
The ethic of care has developed to become a body of theory that has expanded from its roots in social psychology to many other disciplines in the social sciences as well as the humanities. This work on care has informed both theory and practice by generating complex accounts of care ethics for multiple and intersecting kinds of relationships, and for a variety of domains and contexts. Its application now extends from the moral to the political realm, from personal to public relationships, from the local to the global, from feminine to feminist virtues and values, and from issues of gender to issues of power and oppression. The developments in the theories and applications of care ethics over the past few decades make this book an appropriate and timely publication. It includes chapters by authors who are developing or expanding theories of care ethics and also by those who work on applying and extending insights from care ethics to practices and policies in personal and institutional settings. Care Ethics provides readers from different disciplines and professional groups with a substantial number of new theories and applications from both new and established authors. This book was originally published as two special issues of Ethics and Social Welfare.
The bicycle is the most numerous vehicle on the planet, but it is not, and has not always been used as practical transport. Indeed, in its early years, it was almost exclusively a sporting and leisure item for the bourgeoisie. Historical studies have hitherto tended to concentrate on particular uses or national contexts and chronicled, rather than analyzed, transitions from one pattern of use to another. Taking a comparative approach, this chapter addresses the change of bicycle use from elite plaything to mass transport in the first half of the twentieth century, by. It takes a number of different national narratives and, by exploring the mechanisms of social, economic and political forces affecting cycle use, questions assumptions that the changing historical fortunes of the bicycle are technologically determined or in any way inevitable. The use of the bicycle as mass transport (or not) is demonstrated as contingent upon a broad range of other factors, including the presence of other transport modes, road use, social class relations, and political will. In light of current bicycle promotion policies, such factors may be once again prove to be important.
This edited volume offers a rich tapestry of critical theorizing about the relationship of forms of physical and symbolic violence in a global world. It provides an important volume of the Springer International Perspectives on Social Policy, Administration and Practice book series. They raise critical questions about social inaction and action and the problems of ideologies which provide mystification processes that denies positive social identity. Of course, the spectre of problems of economic violence against subjugated groups in neo-liberal globalization has endured a lasting legacy. Huge numbers of people struggle with poverty and significant pockets of poverty portend more than lack of income. Those living on the bottom of the socio-economic ladder labor under the burden of avoidable, lifestyle diseases, hunger and related maladies, not to mention myriad social risks.
This chapter focuses on the ways in which bicycle design connects with a range of factors; how external forces may shape reinterpretations of bicycle design, and how bicycle design, in turn, may be used to try to shape the external world. Two historical cases are explored to show how bicycles, as design objects, are entangled with practices and identities: Germany in the 1920s and 1930s and England in the 1960s and 1970s. In the first case, design is used to reproduce and reinforce a dominant political ideology through reinterpretation rather than innovation. Here the bicycle allows new connections to be made between state and citizen. In the second case, design innovation is employed to challenge dominant ideologies of mobility: bicycles are used to connect citizens to new mobility practices. Both cases illustrate the relations between design and politics and both have implications for inclusion and access aspects of social justice. Both studies make use of close reading of manufacturers’ literature but place it more strongly in a political/cultural context to understand the relationship between the design objects and wider society.
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