• Mental Distress

      Taylor, Paul J.; University of Chester (Policy Press, 2014-10-22)
      This chapter critically evaluates the concept of mental distress. Within the domains of criminal justice and mental health care, critical debate concerning 'care' versus 'control' and 'therapy' versus 'security' is now commonplace. Indeed, the 'hybridisation' of these areas is now a familiar theme. This unique and topical text provides an array of expert analyses from key contributors in the field that explore the interface between criminal justice and mental health. Using concise yet robust definitions of key terms and concepts, it consolidates scholarly analysis of theory, policy and practice. Readers are provided with practical debates, in addition to the theoretical and ideological concerns surrounding the risk assessment, treatment, control and risk management in a cross-disciplinary context. Included in this book is recommended further reading and an index of legislation, making it an ideal resource for students at undergraduate and postgraduate level, together with researchers and practitioners in the field.
    • Mental Health Chaplains: Practitioners’ perspectives on their value, purpose and function in the UK National Health Service

      Gubi, Peter M.; Smart, Harry; University of Chester; Lincolnshire Partnership Foundation Trust (Taylor & Francis, 2016-04-15)
      There is limited research into the value, purpose and function of Mental Health (MH) Chaplains. Yet, they are employed within National Health Service Trusts in the UK. Eight MH Chaplains were interviewed to explore how they see their value, purpose and function. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The data reveal the relational and spiritual/existential accompaniment nature of their work, which is of transformative value, and which requires MH Chaplains to be able to offer ‘hospitality’ and to work at relational depth which is akin to working with the spiritual dimension of clients within counselling. Other roles include: religious care; offering a visible presence; running groups; training; advocacy; connecting with other services; community liaison; committee work; and staff support.
    • The Missing Link: Relational Exploration in Working with Suicide

      Reeves, Andrew; University of Chester (Regent's University, London, 2018-09-01)
      Empirical research has driven the agenda around suicide risk assessment for many years leading to mental health services and allied professionals, including counsellors and psychotherapists, relying more heavily on risk factor-based questionnaires as the primary mechanism for identifying suicide potential. Research also suggests however, that the efficacy of such risk questionnaires is, at best, questionable and does not really provide a reliable insight into the likelihood of harm. This article argues the position that while factor-based information can be contextually helpful, the only way in which a deeper understanding of the meaning of, and potential for, suicide can be achieved is through the therapeutic discourse. Suicide exploration, it is asserted, provides not only greater insight into the process of suicide for the client, but also contributes to a context where the client may be enabled to support themselves effectively at times of suicidal crisis.
    • Mobility, impairment and empowerment: Subverting normalising discourses

      Ogden, Cassandra A.; Cox, Peter; University of Chester (2013-11-23)
      Deriving our understandings from a Foucauldian perspective, we argue that the mobile subject is not a natural, pre-social being. Rather, power relations structure our ability to choose and the choices we can make. One of the ways in which these paper relations are manifest is through the micro-politics of normalising discourses. Our concern in this study is to disrupt the normalising and naturalising discourses of mobility in order to reveal the impacts these have on the differently able body. First, the paper utilises fictional reverse narratives, combining the methods of Miner’s influential 1956 article “Body ritual among the Nacirema” (American Anthropologist 58: 3), with more recent work on the creation of “ethnographic fictions”. These narratives are designed to invert and subvert conventional assumptions about the processes of travel and the experiential dimension of quotidian mobility. The paper then explores the ways to which they serve to highlight the degree to which ableism underpins and permeates majority conceptualisation of travel processes. Through these narratives, space is made in which to unpack power relations and to consider the hegemony of the ‘normal’ body in mobility studies. Secondly, the paper applies this analysis to some wider issues in the verbal and visual languages associated with sustainable mobility models in current use, to consider the degree to which these are compatible with a socially sustainable and inclusive modelling of future mobility.
    • Modernist Sociology in a Postmodern World?

      Shipman, Jessica; Powell, Jason; University of Leeds; University of Chester (Emerald, 2005-10-14)
      This article looks at the problems Sociology has in theorising modern discourses in the light of the rise and consolidation of Postmodernism. The paper begins with an historical sketch of the emergence of Enlightenment and how its values helped to engender intellectual curiosity amongst the precursors of modernist sociological theorising. Indeed, the paper analyses how Sociology faces up to enlightenment thought and legacy via a critical analysis of the modern‐postmodern debate: its historiography, pathologies, and futurology. At the same time, there has been a huge escalation of neo‐Nietzschean theorists under the label of ‘postmodernist’ who have castigated the enlightenment to the dustbin of the history of ideas, that its metanarratives of ‘progress’ and ‘freedom’ have failed and that western rationality is exhausted (Lyotard, 1984). Subsequently, the paper assesses to what extent the values of the ‘project of modernity’ have to be abandoned, and whether, in turn, sociology can offer the epistemic stretching of postmodern narratives.
    • Modernity, communicative action and reconstruction of rationality

      Powell, Jason; Coventry University (SciPress Ltd, 2014)
      Associated with the Frankfurt School, Jurgen Habermas's work focuses on the modern foundations of social theory and epistemology, the analysis of advanced capitalistic societies and democracy, the rule of law in a critical social-evolutionary context, and contemporary politics, particularly German politics. Habermas's theoretical system is devoted to revealing the possibility of reason, emancipation, and rational-critical communication latent in modern institutions and in the human capacity to deliberate and pursue rational interests. Habermas is known for his work on the concept of modernity, particularly with respect to the discussions of rationalization originally set forth by Max Weber. He has been influenced by American pragmatism and action theory. This paper sets out to explore the problems and possibilities of communicative action and the reconstruction of rationality which Habermas claims was lost in postmodern genre.
    • Motivational factors in mental health chaplains: Practitioners’ perspectives

      Gubi, Peter M.; Smart, Harry; University of Chester ; Lincolnshire Partnership Foundation Trust (Equinox Publishing, 2013)
      The role of Mental Health (MH) Chaplains in the UK is unclear. Their motivation to undertake and sustain them in the work is under-researched. The aim of this research is to explore what motivates people into MH Chaplaincy, and examines what motivates them to remain. For this research, eight MH Chaplains were interviewed to explore what brought them into MH Chaplaincy and what motivates them to remain in it. The data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Three major themes emerged: Contextual; Early motivation; Sustaining Motivation. The data revealed significant factors that motivate MH Chaplains to undertake the work, and factors that sustain them in the work. Implications for recruitment, training, supervision, appraisal and professionalization are explored.
    • Moving and Not Moving: rhythm, flow and interruption in a sensory ethnography of urban cycling

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (2015-09-16)
      Recent work in sensory ethnography has drawn attention to the integration of both corporeal and cognitive dimensions in the experience of mobile practices. Drawing on fieldwork conducted in Munich and its immediate surroundings, together with comparative data from Munich and London, this paper follows on from work by Edensor (2010) in linking a Lefebvrian consideration of rhythm with a concern for the sensory dimensions of mobility. In this case, the central concern shifts towards a greater focus on an exploration of the intertwined physical and emotional sensations imposed on the mobile body by its immediate surroundings and the physical environments of movement. In the sensory world of journey-making by bicycle, a process reliant on repetitive, rhythmic physical motion restricted by the mechanics of the machine itself, stopping and starting has a significantly greater impact than it does for walking. The paper therefore considers the import of the not-moving experience for journey-making by the cycle commuter. By focusing on the sensory dimensions of travel, differentiation can be made between stillness, not moving, pausing and waiting. Consideration is given to how these relate to the sensory environments of non-motorised urban mobility.
    • Moving Forward: New frontiers in treatments for psychological trauma

      Kiyimba, Nikki (Wiley, 2019-04-11)
      Both the Diagnostic and Statistics Manual (DSM 5), and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) embed PTSD (and complex PTSD in the ICD-11) as categories of mental health disorders. Although these classification tools offer criteria by which patients can be assessed as to whether they meet the criteria for diagnosis of PTSD, or complex PTSD, they are not able to provide guidance on treatment options. This special section of Counselling and Psychotherapy Research showcases three very new approaches to working with psychological trauma. The first paper by Kip and Finnegan introduces Accelerated Resolution Therapy (ART), which is a brief intervention protocol that is already demonstrating very promising early results, particularly within the military veterans community of those also experiencing traumatic brain injury (TBI). The second paper by psychiatrists Frank Corrigan and Alistair Hull, demonstrates the ways in which the Comprehensive Resource Model (CRM) is an excellent choice of treatment for those suffering from complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD). The third paper by Brochmann et al., explores the ways in which therapists can work effectively with groups of people who have experienced psychological trauma. Regarding the impetus of moving forward in tailoring treatments for those experiencing PTSD, the papers presented in this special issue provide a valuable starting point to discussions about treatments best suited for particular sub-populations of PTSD sufferers.
    • Moving people: Sustainable transport development

      Cox, Peter; Univeristy of Chester (Zed Books, 2011-02-11)
      Moving People provides an attention-grabbing introduction to the problems of transport and the development of sustainable alternatives, focusing on the often misunderstood issue of personal mobility, as opposed to freight.
    • Neither marginalisation nor incorporation: Gay and lesbian caregivers as a case for anti-assimilationist citizenship

      Pratesi, Alessandro; University of Chester (2013-06)
      Introduction Care is a fundamental component of people’s life, with significant implications in terms of status and power dimensions, social justice, equality and citizenship. Nevertheless, care related policies tend to be defined in neutral terms, reinforcing inequalities based on gender, class, race/ethnicity, age, able-bodiness and sexual orientation. Moreover, the literature on care tends to be focused on its costs and responsibilities, while less attention is paid to the right to care and its consequences in terms of status inclusion or exclusion. Aims The study here presented aimed at rethinking the phenomenon of care in a broader perspective, by offering a qualitative analysis that also includes non-conventional caregivers. It builds on the findings of an empirical research on informal care conducted in the USA between 2005 and 2007. The theoretical framework draws on those aspects of the psycho-sociology of emotions that, in explaining how feelings motivate conformity and social stratification, connect micro- and macro-levels, making care, emotion and sexual orientation central to understand how situated interactions reproduce social structure. Methods The sub-sample of gay and lesbian caregivers who are examined in this paper is part of a larger purposive sample of 80 informal caregivers, 40 men and 40 women, involved in childcare or elderly care (or, sometimes, both). The research was based on a multi-method approach, including semi-structured in-depth interviews, participant observation, diaries, online discussion forums between members of carers’ associations, key-informants interviews, secondary sources on informal care collected from local associations, journal and newspaper articles and the web. Results The phenomenological analysis of the different meanings and implications of Care discussed in this paper sheds light into important and yet less visible and still unexplored aspects of Care concerning status and power dimensions. If such status and power dimensions are relevant for all caregivers, regardless of their sexual orientation, the public dimension of LGBT care activities (particularly when parenthood is involved) is also quintessentially political. Western culture incorporates aspects of same-sex parenthood that fit with neoliberal, capitalist and individualist agendas while excluding the rest. Whether LGBT caregivers/parents are interested in embracing such political agendas is questionable. Conclusions The implications of more inclusive approaches to Care are crucially important for current debates within social sciences, but also in terms of social policy and LGBT citizenship. Situating the debate of LGBT citizenship within the context of care allows us to reframe the discourse on Care and reduce the inequalities traditionally connected to this fundamental activity; but it also allows overcoming the artificial and misleading dualism between marginalisation and incorporation and to look for anti-assimilationist strategies of inclusion.
    • Neoliberalism and the power of globalization

      Powell, Jason; Coventry University (NOVA Publishers, 2013-12-01)
    • New kinds of families, new kinds of social care

      Pratesi, Alessandro; Groger, Teppo (Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2004)
      The SOCCARE Project studied social care arrangements of European families in five different socio-economic and cultural environments that represent the variety of European welfare states (Finland, France, Italy, Portugal and the UK). It focused on four key family types that all are heavily affected by the ongoing demographic, socio-economic and structural changes within European societies: 1) lone parent families, 2) dual-career families, 3) immigrant families and, 4) “double front carer” families (that have young children and, at the same time, elderly family members in need of care). The project interviewed almost 400 European families in detail about their opportunities and difficulties to make flexible and responsive care arrangements and to combine these with participation in paid employment. These interviews were made in national languages by five national research teams. The interview data was analysed mostly at the national level and reported in national workpackage reports. Moreover, on the basis of the information available in these national reports (and in synopses of interviews), care arrangements and their in/flexibilities in that particular family type were compared in the five European countries. Results of these qualitative comparisons were reported in four comparative workpackage reports of the project. In addition, the SOCCARE Project produced a state-of-the-art report on comparative social care research and finally, a final report. All reports of the SOCCARE Project are freely available at its web site (http://www.uta.fi/laitokset/sospol/soccare/). The findings of the project have been thoroughly disseminated and discussed with policy experts at the local, national and European levels. The final aim of the project has been to provide a major contribution towards shaping a functioning framework for future policies on social care in Europe. Accordingly, the SOCCARE Project gave a number of policy recommendations. A part of these recommendations were based on particular findings from the workpackages but the main recommendations were based on the evidence from the whole project. Recommendations were given for policies on formal care, policies on informal care, labour market policies and other social policies (including housing policies, immigration policies, social security policies and social work). According to the final and most general recommendation of the SOCCARE Project, it is highly necessary that policies do away with strict dichotomies. Citizens of Europe are not either workers or carers. They are both at the same time. As well, children, disabled people and older people are not in need of either informal or formal care. Both are essential and practically always, there is a need to integrate both at the level of everyday family life. To face the challenges of the future, an integrated policy perspective on work and care is required in Europe.
    • New Perspectives on China and Aging

      Cook, Ian; Powell, Jason; Liverpool John Moores University; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2007-10-18)
      The first part of the book is entitled ‘Family, Transitions and Aging’ and addresses rapid social and economic changes in China through a kaleidoscope of differential perspectives that focus on how family continues to be an important reference point for the past, present and future institution in the care of older people. The second part of the book focuses on the tangible social forces associated with managing old age: ‘Welfare, Consumption and Aging’. This section is important in locating the structures and agents of power that are relevant to maintaining trust and social relations between older people, the Chinese State and its dualism of state welfare and consumption of welfare.
    • Nonconventional forms of intimacy and migration: towards a micro-situated and emotion-based model of social inclusion

      Pratesi, Alessandro; University of Chester (2014-06)
      A growing literature on same-sex parenthood supports the argument that nonconventional forms of intimacy and care represent an opportunity to explore possible venues of resistance against macro-structural forces while at the same time avoiding marginalisation. My findings from a previous research on family care conducted in the US show that same-sex parents, by gaining social visibility, enriching and changing the possible definitions of family and parenthood, and challenging hegemonic sexualities, simultaneously distance themselves from homonormative definitions of family and marginalising definitions of cultural citizenship based on hegemonic heterosexuality. The theoretical framework of my research drew on those aspects of the sociology of emotions that, in explaining how feelings can reproduce social stratification, connect micro- and macro-levels, making intimacy, care and emotion central to understand how situated interactions reproduce social structure. Migrant LGBT people share many of the issues and concerns of heterosexual migrant people who are forced to live separated from their partners and/or families, but their experience can be made more complicated by their sexualities, biographies and histories. Their (private) stories and experiences are not only relevant to them, but also to the wider communities of migrant people and to their civil, legal, social and cultural rights. The right to visibility, the right to dignifying and dignified representation, the right to affirmation of identity, and the right to appreciation and valuing of differences also apply to many other forms of cultural citizenship currently denied. The relatively invisible experiences of LGBT transnational families may have therefore important implications in terms of social change and citizenship. Situating the debate of LGBT citizenship within the context of migration allows us to overcome misleading dualisms between marginalisation and incorporation and to look for anti-assimilationist strategies of inclusion. Thus, the nonviolent, micro-situated and emotion-based model of social change represented by these cultural entrepreneurs can perhaps be exported to other social groups, contexts and settings, creating the foundations for more caring, more just and more inclusive societies.
    • Not so usual families: overlaps and divergences in the practice of care within disabled and same-sex families

      Pratesi, Alessandro; Runswich-Cole, Katherine (Serials Publications, 2011)
      This article draws on two qualitative studies on family care conducted in the US and the UK (between 2006 and 2008 the first one and between 2008 and 2011 the second one). It highlights convergences and divergences in the care practices of disabled and same-sex families, and illustrates the importance of shedding light on both the ‘bright’ and ‘dark’ sides of care. Adding a focus on different kinds of carers is not only important theoretically—to fill the gaps—but also strategically—to increase equality. Since difference and inequality co-determine one another, and since heterosexism and ableism will undoubtedly continue, the inclusion of diverse subjects into the discourse on ‘care’, the contextualization of care within situated interaction (Ridgeway and Correll, 2000), and the accent on the positive/energizing aspects of care might be the most effective way not only to achieve greater care related equality but also to increase the symbolic importance that people attach to this crucial social phenomenon.
    • Obesity and health: Understanding the issues in Pakistani women living in the UK

      Ludwig, Alison F.; Ellahi, Basma; Cox, Peter; University of Chester (British Sociological Association, 2008)
    • Object in focus: The cargo bike

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (British Society for the History of Science, 2015-10)
      Two images of carrier tricycles, built almost a century apart. The first is from a 1912 catalogue in the archives from the Deutsches Museum in Munich. The second is a Christiana Bike from a recent catalogue. At a glance, they appear to show remarkable continuity, even the longevity of a single technological artifact. But their histories tell hidden stories of social change, in shops and shopping, of counter-culture and alternative lifestyle, and of the convergence of environmental sustainability and economic efficiency in the 21st century.
    • Oil Corrupts Elections: The Political Economy of Vote-Buying in Nigeria

      Francis, Suzanne; Onapajo, Hakeem; Uzodike, Ufo; University of Chester; University of KwaZulu-Natal (University of Florida, Center for African Studies, 2015-03)
      The extant perspectives on vote-buying have produced three central arguments around its causes, which are the factors of poverty, the electoral/voting system, and the nature of politics in the state. Going beyond these perspectives, this study presents the argument that vote-buying can also be explained by considering the nature of the political economy of a state, especially when the state is oil-‑dependent. The Nigerian case study demonstrates this argument. We employ the “oil-impedes-democracy” framework, which is a strand of the resource curse theory, to argue that the incidence of vote‑buying in Nigeria’s contemporary elections is prevalent because of the oil wealth associated with politics and elections in the state. This is because abundant oil wealth intensifies elite competition, which explains the use of all strategies to win elections including vote-buying. This is also facilitated by the fact that the political elite, especially the incumbent, have adequate access to oil wealth and spend it to “buy” elections and hold on to power. Voters, on their part, also prefer to sell their votes during elections to have a share of the “national cake” given their perception of the wealth associated with politics in Nigeria and the poor service delivery by politicians after assuming state offices.
    • Old age, victimisation and crime

      Powell, Jason; Coventry University (Sacha and Diamond Academic Publishers, 2014)
      This article explores old age as an important sociological and legal dimension of analysis and dissects its relationship to victimisation and contemporary crime.