• The UK Welfare State System: With Special Reference to the Mental Health Care System

      Taylor, Paul J.; Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Routledge, 2017-01-13)
      This chapter explores the welfare state in the United Kingdom. We critically review its historiography, major institutions and contemporary issues relating to its sustainability. We draw out one feature of the welfare state via an in depth case study: its mental health care system focusing from the legacy of Thatcherism to the present.
    • Unconventional in all respects: same-sex, married and living apart together

      Pratesi, Alessandro; University of Chester (2016-06)
      New, emerging forms of relationships, intimacies and care represent some of the most important challenges facing individuals, society and public policy today. Increasingly, due to work-related geographical mobility, several families and partners live separately and are forced, as such, to entwine love and care relationships at a distance. How far are alternative family models and non-conventional partnering—such as ‘living apart together’ (LAT) couples, same sex couples, solo living persons, or indeed relations ‘beyond the family’, such as friendship—seen as equally valid and entitled? What are their multiple challenges, opportunities and implications? Long distance relationships and caring at a distance may be connected with emotional and psychological exhaustion but also gratification, reward and empowerment; above all, they possess important implications in terms of social justice, equality and citizenship. The expression ‘world families’ (Beck and Beck-Gernsheim, 2014) includes a heterogeneous and tension-filled set of social actors who share in common the potentiality to bridge traditional distinctions between public and private, centre and periphery, national and international, able-bodied and physically/cognitively impaired, heterosexual and homosexual, bypassing dichotomous ideas of inclusion/exclusion which typically characterise the concept of citizenship. This concept resonates with the notion of ‘cultural rights’ described by Pakulski (1997) in terms of a new set of claims including the right to symbolic presence and visibility vs. marginalisation; the right to dignifying representation vs. stigmatisation; and the right to affirmation and propagation of identity vs. assimilation. Among the numerous issues concerning the need to provide different social actors with fair and adequate responses, James (2014) emphasises that of the social and ethical framing of the problem, which requires going beyond unilateral, inflexible and value-neutral definitions of entitlement to rights. More specifically, the author suggests the necessity to ground the ethics of rights to an ethics of care through which fundamental questions of difference/identity, inclusion/exclusion, and mobility/belonging are negotiated. This requires shifting the focus upon the micro level of analysis and looking at the spaces where the situated actions and interactions occur; at the ways, in other words, in which people constantly construct and negotiate their sense of entitlement and belonging. Drawing on recent work on families, relationships, intimacies and caring for distant others and contextualising it within the specific and still unexplored context of LAT same-sex couples, this paper examines the moral, sociological and institutional geographies of these less visible chains of care and affection and their unequally entitled rights and visibility. The literature review of the current state-of-the-art is empirically grounded on self-ethnographic work analysing and discussing the case of a same-sex, transnational, LAT married couple.
    • Unconventional relationships, positive marginalities and citizenship

      Pratesi, Alessandro; University of Chester (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 2018-07)
      Long distance relationships and caring at a distance may be connected with emotional and psychological exhaustion but also gratification, reward and empowerment; above all, they possess important implications in terms of social justice, equality and citizenship. The expression ‘world families’ (Beck and Beck-Gernsheim, 2014) includes a heterogeneous and tension-filled set of social actors who have in common the potential to bridge traditional distinctions between public and private, centre and periphery, national and international, able-bodied and physically/cognitively impaired, heterosexual and homosexual, bypassing dichotomous ideas of inclusion/exclusion which typically characterise the concept of citizenship. These families represent a group of very different social actors, including couples of mixed cultures and ethnicities, low-paid migrant workers, skilled migrant workers, asylum seekers, refugees, distant families, etc. who challenge our culturally homogenous understanding of family and society and are defined therefore as ‘pioneers of cosmopolitanism’ and cultural diversity. Drawing on recent work on families, relationships, intimacies and caring for distant others and contextualising it within the specific and still unexplored context of Living Apart Together (LAT) same-sex couples, this article examines the moral, sociological and institutional geographies of these less visible chains of care and affection and their unequally entitled rights and visibility. The literature review is combined with auto-ethnographic work analysing and discussing the case of a married, same-sex, transnational, Living Apart Together (LAT) couple. This article suggests that by looking at what happens at the level of emotion-based, micro-situated interactions we can get some crucial insights into the changing nature of families, intimacies and relationships and their multiple implications in terms of social inclusion, entitlement to rights/citizenship and social change. It is a form of relational, emotion-based and micro-situated social inclusion and entitlement to rights/citizenship which is occurring, on a daily basis, in the interstices of people’s interactions even when such change still meets several obstacles at the structural, political and institutional level.
    • Understanding Aging

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2013-05-19)
      An examination of major theories of ageing and relevance to social policy and professional practice.
    • Understanding Illness, Crisis and Loss

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Sage, 2014-07-01)
      This issue of the Journal brings together a number of important articles on illness, crisis, and loss. This issue shines light on illness, crisis, and loss as central forces shaping our personal experiences, social life, and order. The articles all, in one way or another, draw on various disciplines relating to education, sociology, philosophy, and psychology to provide different perspectives on the interrelationships of illness, crisis, and loss, showing how they contribute to social change and how the meanings of illness, crisis, and loss are generated to serve social functions but used to make sense of personal narratives in contemporary society.
    • Understanding old age and victimisation: a critical exploration

      Powell, Jason; Wahidin, Azrini; University of Chester; Nottingham Trent University (Emerald, 2008-06-14)
      The purpose of paper is to shine light on the under‐theorised relationship between old age and victmisation. In classical criminological studies, the relationship between “age”, victimisation and crime has been dominated by analysis of younger people's experiences. This paper aims to address this knowledge deficit by exploring older people's experiences by linking it to the social construction of vulnerability.
    • Understanding risk and old age in western society

      Powell, Jason; Wahidin, Azrini; Zinn, Jens; University of Chester; Kent University; Kent University (Emerald, 2007-01-05)
      The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of “risk” in relation to old age. Part of this reflexive response to understanding risk and old age is the importance of recognising self‐subjective dimensions of trust, biographical knowledge and resources.
    • Understanding the Voluntary Sector: Critical Success Factors – A Case Study

      Powell, Jason; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2012-10-23)
      One of the key issues in recent times in England is the inter-relationship between voluntary organizations and sustainability. It is very tempting to view voluntary agencies rather like very fragile black boxes adrift on a turbulent sea and at the mercy of powerful social, economic and political pressures. The direction of their journey and their very survival is determined by critical success factors. Although the spate of studies have undoubtedly advanced the state of knowledge about voluntary organizations, very little is known about the internal composition and operation of the black boxes and even less about the way in which internal factors interact within the external world. This book examines the factors that impinge upon opening and understanding the black box such as governance and quality, leadership, workforce, performance, partnerships and finance and funding.
    • Unequally entitled citizens: towards a micro-situated and emotion-based model of social inclusion

      Pratesi, Alessandro; University of Chester (Franco Angeli Editore, 2018)
      This paper illustrates a micro-situated and emotion-based model of social inclusion aimed to overcome current limitations of the concept of citizenship. A growing number of critical theorisations of care work, intimacy and citizenship from feminist, multicultural and global perspectives support the argument that nonconventional forms of intimacy and care represent an opportunity to explore possible sites of resistance against macro-structural forces while at the same time avoiding marginalisation. The theoretical contribution illustrated in this paper discusses the extent to which a micro-situated and emotion-based model of social inclusion can be applied to several types of unequally entitled citizens in different cultural contexts. Its overall objective is developing new perspectives to understand the relationship between individuals, local communities and political institutions and to grasp useful insights into how people across the globe resourcefully “do citizenship” and social inclusion through care practices and the emotional dynamics revolving around them. In other words, to explore and understand how new, creative ways to define citizenship and social inclusion can be activated at the local level of micro-interactions even when forms of institutional exclusion and racism persist at a structural and political level. The new perspective on citizenship and social inclusion emerging from the proposed theoretical model challenges common assumptions on the problematic nature of migration and reframes this latter as an integral part of the process of human, social and economic development.
    • Unpacking performativity: a case study of patriarchy and the elderly in China

      Powell, Jason; Cook, Ian; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University (Emerald, 2006-07-11)
      Performativity, we suggest, offers productive insights into the processes of subjection and the nature of power relations that may be usefully incorporated into studies of the elderly in China.
    • 'Unsatisfactory Saturation': A critical exploration of the notion of saturated sample sizes in qualtative research

      O'Reilly, Michelle; Parker, Nicola; University of Leicester; Birmingham and Solihull Mental Health Foundation Trust, UK (Sage, 2012-05-17)
      Measuring quality in qualitative research is a contentious issue with diverse opinions and various frameworks available within the evidence base. One important and somewhat neglected argument within this field relates to the increasingly ubiquitous discourse of data saturation. While originally developed within grounded theory, theoretical saturation, and later termed data/thematic saturation for other qualitative methods, the meaning has evolved and become transformed. Problematically this temporal drift has been treated as unproblematic and saturation as a marker for sampling adequacy is becoming increasingly accepted and expected. In this article we challenge the unquestioned acceptance of the concept of saturation and consider its plausibility and transferability across all qualitative approaches. By considering issues of transparency and epistemology we argue that adopting saturation as a generic quality marker is inappropriate. The aim of this article is to highlight the pertinent issues and encourage the research community to engage with and contribute to this important area.
    • The use of Reflexive Practice Groups in spiritual development

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2017-05-01)
      Chapter on the use of reflexive groups in spiritual development
    • The use of why questions in child mental health assessments

      Kiyimba, Nikki; Karim, Khalid; O'Reilly, Michelle; University of Chester, University of Leicester (Equinox Publishing, 2017-12-18)
      Questions form the basis of mental health assessments and yet there is limited empirical evidence about the linguistic structure of question formats in these clinical environments. While many types of questions are used, the focus of this research was on why-prefaced questions with children. Interaction analysis was employed to interrogate the data, paying specific attention to the interactional organisation of how 'why-prefaced' questions were asked and responded to. Analysis demonstrated that when three core components were present in the question, then it was usual for a reason/explanation to be provided in response, and when one or more component was missing, it rarely elicited a reason or explanation in response. The three components were the sequential position of the question, how the question was indexically tied to the child’s prior statement, and the epistemic domain of the question. Implications for therapeutic communication and training were discussed.
    • Using Discourse and Conversation Analysis to Study Clinical Practice in Adult Mental Health.

      Kiyimba, Nikki; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016-04-22)
      This is a commissioned chapter in the edited collection: The Palgrave Handbook of Adult Mental Health. It focusses on the methodological use of discourse analysis and conversation analysis as helpful ways of analysing qualitative data in the advancement of understanding of clinical practice in adult mental health settings.
    • Using naturally occurring data in qualitative health research: A practical guide.

      Kiyimba, Nikki; O'Reilly, Michelle; Lester, Jessica N. (2018-11-05)
      This highly practical resource brings new dimensions to the utility of qualitative data in health research by focusing on naturally occurring data. It examines how naturally occurring data complement interviews and other sources of researcher-generated health data, and takes readers through the steps of identifying, collecting, analyzing, and disseminating these findings in ethical research with real-world relevance. The authors acknowledge the critical importance of evidence-based practice in today’s healthcare landscape and argue for naturally occurring data as a form of practice-based evidence making valued contributions to the field. And chapters evaluate frequently overlooked avenues for naturally occurring data, including media and social media sources, health policy and forensic health contexts, and digital communications. Included in the coverage: · Exploring the benefits and limitations of using naturally occurring data in health research · Considering qualitative approaches that may benefit from using naturally occurring data · Utilizing computer-mediated communications and social media in health · Using naturally occurring data to research vulnerable groups · Reviewing empirical examples of health research using naturally occurring data Using Naturally Occurring Data in Qualitative Health Research makes concepts, methods, and rationales accessible and applicable for readers in the health and mental health fields, among them health administrators, professionals in research methodology, psychology researchers, and practicing and trainee clinicians.
    • Using prayer in Counselling and Spiritual Accompaniment

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2017-04-21)
      Chapter on using prayer in Spiritual Direction
    • Utilising Reflective Practice Groups as pedagogy in ordination training and theological development

      Gubi, Peter M.; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2019-05-03)
      With the Church of England's ([2014. Formation Criteria with Mapped Selection Criteria for Ordained Ministry in the Church of England. https://www.churchofengland.org/media/2139103/formationcriteriaforordainedministryapprovedhofbpsdec2014.docx]) recent formation criteria now requiring ordinands to have a greater degree of reflexive capability, this article considers the pedagogy of Reflective Practice Groups in ordination training and focuses on how reflexivity can be developed in a group context, towards fostering greater spiritual formation, theological reflection, self-awareness, relational practices for pastoral encounter, resilience and self-care practices for ministry. Some ‘foci for reflexivity’ are advocated for use within Reflective Practice Groups in ordination training.
    • The Value of Discourse Analysis: A Clinical Psychologist’s View.

      Kiyimba, Nikki; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015-09-02)
      As a discipline, Clinical Psychology has historically favoured a positivist approach to understanding human behaviour, and clinical psychological practice has been largely informed by research based on quantitative methods. Psychologists have tended to exploit the methodologies of the natural sciences by measuring phenomena (Peters, 2010). This bias towards quantitative research may at least in part be a function of how the discipline of psychology has from its genesis, been careful to define itself as a science. It seems that the development of a broader engagement with alternative methods has largely grown from challenges to psychology’s conception of what constitutes science, and debates regarding its merits developed in relation to our thinking about science (Biggerstaff, 2012). The growth of qualitative methods in psychology is therefore relatively new despite the rich history of the approach (Howitt, 2010). However, now that psychology is more securely established, this has begun to lead to a refreshing openness to embrace qualitative process methodology as well as outcome research.
    • The Value of Using Discourse and Conversation Analysis as Evidence to Inform Practice in Counselling and Therapeutic Interactions.

      Kiyimba, Nikki; O'Reilly, Michelle; University of Chester and University of Leicester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016-04-08)
      This is a commissioned chapter for an edited collection in The Palgrave Handbook of Adult Mental Health. It focusses on the benefits of using the analytic methodologies of discourse analysis and conversation analysis in studying therapeutic and counselling interactions. In particular it examines the value of qualitative research of this kind as evidence within the evidence-based hierarchy for therapeutic practice.
    • Velo-Diverstet: Cykler til Alle

      Cox, Peter; University of Chester (Bicycle Innovation Lab, Copenhagen, 2012-06-08)