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Globalization and scapes: A new theory of global dynamicsGlobalization has produced a distinctive stage in the social history of populational projections, with a growing tension between nation state-based solutions and anxieties and those formulated by global institutions (Powell, 2011). Globalization, defined here as the process whereby nation-states are influenced (and sometimes undermined) by trans-national actors. Human identity has, itself, become relocated within a trans-national context, with international organisations (such as the World Bank and International Monetary Fund) and cross-border migrations, creating new conditions and environments for many displaced people (Estes, Biggs, & Phillipson, 2003). This paper examines the work of Appadurai and the extent to which has had a large impact on understanding the global dynamics of cultural, technological, political and economic change.