• 2^n Bordered Constructions of Self-Dual codes from Group Rings

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; University of Scranton; University of Chester; Sampoerna Academy (Elsevier, 2020-08-04)
      Self-dual codes, which are codes that are equal to their orthogonal, are a widely studied family of codes. Various techniques involving circulant matrices and matrices from group rings have been used to construct such codes. Moreover, families of rings have been used, together with a Gray map, to construct binary self-dual codes. In this paper, we introduce a new bordered construction over group rings for self-dual codes by combining many of the previously used techniques. The purpose of this is to construct self-dual codes that were missed using classical construction techniques by constructing self-dual codes with different automorphism groups. We apply the technique to codes over finite commutative Frobenius rings of characteristic 2 and several group rings and use these to construct interesting binary self-dual codes. In particular, we construct some extremal self-dual codes length 64 and 68, constructing 30 new extremal self-dual codes of length 68.
    • An Altered Four Circulant Construction for Self-Dual Codes from Group Rings and New Extremal Binary Self-dual Codes I

      Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Yildiz, Bahattin; University of Chester; Sampoerna University; Northern Arizona University (Elsevier, 2019-08-07)
      We introduce an altered version of the four circulant construction over group rings for self-dual codes. We consider this construction over the binary field, the rings F2 + uF2 and F4 + uF4; using groups of order 4 and 8. Through these constructions and their extensions, we find binary self-dual codes of lengths 16, 32, 48, 64 and 68, many of which are extremal. In particular, we find forty new extremal binary self-dual codes of length 68, including twelve new codes with \gamma=5 in W68,2, which is the first instance of such a value in the literature.
    • Bordered Constructions of Self-Dual Codes from Group Rings and New Extremal Binary Self-Dual Codes

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Korban, Adrian; Tylyshchak, Alexander; Yildiz, Bahattin; University of Scranton; University of Chester; Sampoerna Academy; Uzhgorod State University; Northern Arizona University (Elsevier, 2019-02-22)
      We introduce a bordered construction over group rings for self-dual codes. We apply the constructions over the binary field and the ring $\F_2+u\F_2$, using groups of orders 9, 15, 21, 25, 27, 33 and 35 to find extremal binary self-dual codes of lengths 20, 32, 40, 44, 52, 56, 64, 68, 88 and best known binary self-dual codes of length 72. In particular we obtain 41 new binary extremal self-dual codes of length 68 from groups of orders 15 and 33 using neighboring and extensions. All the numerical results are tabulated throughout the paper.
    • Composite Constructions of Self-Dual Codes from Group Rings and New Extremal Self-Dual Binary Codes of Length 68

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Korban, Adrian; University of Scranton; University of Chester; Sampoerna University ; University of Chester (American Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 2019-11-30)
      We describe eight composite constructions from group rings where the orders of the groups are 4 and 8, which are then applied to find self-dual codes of length 16 over F4. These codes have binary images with parameters [32, 16, 8] or [32, 16, 6]. These are lifted to codes over F4 + uF4, to obtain codes with Gray images extremal self-dual binary codes of length 64. Finally, we use a building-up method over F2 + uF2 to obtain new extremal binary self-dual codes of length 68. We construct 11 new codes via the building-up method and 2 new codes by considering possible neighbors.
    • Composite Matrices from Group Rings, Composite G-Codes and Constructions of Self-Dual Codes

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Korban, Adrian; Kaya, Abidin; University of Scranton; University of Chester; Harmony School of Technology (Springer, 2021-05-19)
      In this work, we define composite matrices which are derived from group rings. We extend the idea of G-codes to composite G-codes. We show that these codes are ideals in a group ring, where the ring is a finite commutative Frobenius ring and G is an arbitrary finite group. We prove that the dual of a composite G-code is also a composite G-code. We also define quasi-composite G-codes. Additionally, we study generator matrices, which consist of the identity matrices and the composite matrices. Together with the generator matrices, the well known extension method, the neighbour method and its generalization, we find extremal binary self-dual codes of length 68 with new weight enumerators for the rare parameters $\gamma$ = 7; 8 and 9: In particular, we find 49 new such codes. Moreover, we show that the codes we find are inaccessible from other constructions.
    • Constructing Self-Dual Codes from Group Rings and Reverse Circulant Matrices

      Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Korban, Adrian; Yildiz, Bahattin; University of Chester; Sampoerna Academy; Northern Arizona University (American Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 2020-01-20)
      In this work, we describe a construction for self-dual codes in which we employ group rings and reverse circulant matrices. By applying the construction directly over different alphabets, and by employing the well known extension and neighbor methods we were able to obtain extremal binary self-dual codes of different lengths of which some have parameters that were not known in the literature before. In particular, we constructed three new codes of length 64, twenty-two new codes of length 68, twelve new codes of length 80 and four new codes of length 92.
    • Constructions for Self-Dual Codes Induced from Group Rings

      Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Taylor, Rhian; Yildiz, Bahattin; University of Chester; Sampoerna Academy, University of Chester; Northern Arizona University (Elsevier, 2018-02-03)
      In this work, we establish a strong connection between group rings and self-dual codes. We prove that a group ring element corresponds to a self-dual code if and only if it is a unitary unit. We also show that the double-circulant and four-circulant constructions come from cyclic and dihedral groups, respectively. Using groups of order 8 and 16 we find many new construction methods, in addition to the well-known methods, for self-dual codes. We establish the relevance of these new constructions by finding many extremal binary self-dual codes using them, which we list in several tables. In particular, we construct 10 new extremal binary self-dual codes of length 68.
    • Double Bordered Constructions of Self-Dual Codes from Group Rings over Frobenius Rings

      Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Taylor, Rhian; Tylyshchak, Alexander; University of Chester; Sampoerna University; Uzhgorod State University
      In this work, we describe a double bordered construction of self-dual codes from group rings. We show that this construction is effective for groups of order 2p where p is odd, over the rings F2 + uF2 and F4 + uF4. We demonstrate the importance of this new construction by finding many new binary self-dual codes of lengths 64, 68 and 80; the new codes and their corresponding weight enumerators are listed in several tables
    • Extending an Established Isomorphism between Group Rings and a Subring of the n × n Matrices

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Korban, Adrian; University of Scranton; University of Chester
      In this work, we extend an established isomorphism between group rings and a subring of the n × n matrices. This extension allows us to construct more complex matrices over the ring R. We present many interesting examples of complex matrices constructed directly from our extension. We also show that some of the matrices used in the literature before can be obtained by a direct application of our extended isomorphism.
    • G-codes over Formal Power Series Rings and Finite Chain Rings

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Korban, Adrian; University of Scranton; University of Chester (2020-02-29)
      In this work, we define $G$-codes over the infinite ring $R_\infty$ as ideals in the group ring $R_\infty G$. We show that the dual of a $G$-code is again a $G$-code in this setting. We study the projections and lifts of $G$-codes over the finite chain rings and over the formal power series rings respectively. We extend known results of constructing $\gamma$-adic codes over $R_\infty$ to $\gamma$-adic $G$-codes over the same ring. We also study $G$-codes over principal ideal rings.
    • G-Codes, self-dual G-Codes and reversible G-Codes over the Ring Bj,k

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Korban, Adrian; Sahinkaya, Serap; Tarsus University; University of Chester (Springer, 2021-05-03)
      In this work, we study a new family of rings, Bj,k, whose base field is the finite field Fpr . We study the structure of this family of rings and show that each member of the family is a commutative Frobenius ring. We define a Gray map for the new family of rings, study G-codes, self-dual G-codes, and reversible G-codes over this family. In particular, we show that the projection of a G-code over Bj,k to a code over Bl,m is also a G-code and the image under the Gray map of a self-dual G-code is also a self-dual G-code when the characteristic of the base field is 2. Moreover, we show that the image of a reversible G-code under the Gray map is also a reversible G2j+k-code. The Gray images of these codes are shown to have a rich automorphism group which arises from the algebraic structure of the rings and the groups. Finally, we show that quasi-G codes, which are the images of G-codes under the Gray map, are also Gs-codes for some s.
    • Group Rings, G-Codes and Constructions of Self-Dual and Formally Self-Dual Codes

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Taylor, Rhian; Tylyshchak, Alexander; University of Scranton; University of Chester; Uzhgorod State University (Springer, 2017-11-15)
      We describe G-codes, which are codes that are ideals in a group ring, where the ring is a finite commutative Frobenius ring and G is an arbitrary finite group. We prove that the dual of a G-code is also a G-code. We give constructions of self-dual and formally self-dual codes in this setting and we improve the existing construction given in [13] by showing that one of the conditions given in the theorem is unnecessary and, moreover, it restricts the number of self-dual codes obtained by the construction. We show that several of the standard constructions of self-dual codes are found within our general framework. We prove that our constructed codes must have an automorphism group that contains G as a subgroup. We also prove that a common construction technique for producing self-dual codes cannot produce the putative [72, 36, 16] Type II code. Additionally, we show precisely which groups can be used to construct the extremal Type II codes over length 24 and 48. We define quasi-G codes and give a construction of these codes.
    • A Modified Bordered Construction for Self-Dual Codes from Group Rings

      Kaya, Abidin; Tylyshchak, Alexander; Yildiz, Bahattin; Gildea, Joe; University of Chester; Sampoerna University; Uzhgorod State University; Northern Arizona University (Jacodesmath Institute, 2020-05-07)
      We describe a bordered construction for self-dual codes coming from group rings. We apply the constructions coming from the cyclic and dihedral groups over several alphabets to obtain extremal binary self-dual codes of various lengths. In particular we find a new extremal binary self-dual code of length 78.
    • Modified Quadratic Residue Constructions and New Exermal Binary Self-Dual Codes of Lengths 64, 66 and 68

      Gildea, Joe; Hamilton, Holly; Kaya, Abidin; Yildiz, Bahattin; University of Chester; University of Chester; Sampoerna University; Northern Arizona University (Elsevier, 2020-02-10)
      In this work we consider modified versions of quadratic double circulant and quadratic bordered double circulant constructions over the binary field and the rings F2 +uF2 and F4 +uF4 for different prime values of p. Using these constructions with extensions and neighbors we are able to construct a number of extremal binary self-dual codes of different lengths with new parameters in their weight enumerators. In particular we construct 2 new codes of length 64, 4 new codes of length 66 and 14 new codes of length 68. The binary generator matrices of the new codes are available online at [8].
    • New binary self-dual codes of lengths 56, 58, 64, 80 and 92 from a modification of the four circulant construction.

      Gildea, Joe; Korban, Adrian; Roberts, Adam; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2021-05-31)
      In this work, we give a new technique for constructing self-dual codes over commutative Frobenius rings using $\lambda$-circulant matrices. The new construction was derived as a modification of the well-known four circulant construction of self-dual codes. Applying this technique together with the building-up construction, we construct singly-even binary self-dual codes of lengths 56, 58, 64, 80 and 92 that were not known in the literature before. Singly-even self-dual codes of length 80 with $\beta \in \{2,4,5,6,8\}$ in their weight enumerators are constructed for the first time in the literature.
    • New binary self-dual codes via a generalization of the four circulant construction

      Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Yildiz, Bahattin; University of Chester ; Sampoerna University ; Northern Arizona University (Croatian Mathematical Society, 2020-05-31)
      In this work, we generalize the four circulant construction for self-dual codes. By applying the constructions over the alphabets $\mathbb{F}_2$, $\mathbb{F}_2+u\mathbb{F}_2$, $\mathbb{F}_4+u\mathbb{F}_4$, we were able to obtain extremal binary self-dual codes of lengths 40, 64 including new extremal binary self-dual codes of length 68. More precisely, 43 new extremal binary self-dual codes of length 68, with rare new parameters have been constructed.
    • New Extremal Binary Self-dual Codes from block circulant matrices and block quadratic residue circulant matrices

      Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Taylor, Rhian; Tylyshchak, Alexander; Yildiz, Bahattin; University of Chester; Sampoerna University; Uzhgorod National University; Northern Arizona University (Elsevier, 2021-08-20)
      In this paper, we construct self-dual codes from a construction that involves both block circulant matrices and block quadratic residue circulant matrices. We provide conditions when this construction can yield self-dual codes. We construct self-dual codes of various lengths over F2 and F2 + uF2. Using extensions, neighbours and sequences of neighbours, we construct many new self-dual codes. In particular, we construct one new self-dual code of length 66 and 51 new self-dual codes of length 68.
    • New Extremal binary self-dual codes of length 68 from generalized neighbors

      Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Korban, Adrian; Yildiz, Bahattin; University of Chester; Sampoerna University; Northern Arizona University
      In this work, we use the concept of distance between self-dual codes, which generalizes the concept of a neighbor for self-dual codes. Using the $k$-neighbors, we are able to construct extremal binary self-dual codes of length 68 with new weight enumerators. We construct 143 extremal binary self-dual codes of length 68 with new weight enumerators including 42 codes with $\gamma=8$ in their $W_{68,2}$ and 40 with $\gamma=9$ in their $W_{68,2}$. These examples are the first in the literature for these $\gamma$ values. This completes the theoretical list of possible values for $\gamma$ in $W_{68,2}$.
    • New Extremal Self-Dual Binary Codes of Length 68 via Composite Construction, F2 + uF2 Lifts, Extensions and Neighbors

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Korban, Adrian; Kaya, Abidin; University of Scranton; University of Chester; University of Chester; Sampoerna Academy; (Inderscience, 2020-02-29)
      We describe a composite construction from group rings where the groups have orders 16 and 8. This construction is then applied to find the extremal binary self-dual codes with parameters [32, 16, 8] or [32, 16, 6]. We also extend this composite construction by expanding the search field which enables us to find more extremal binary self-dual codes with the above parameters and with different orders of automorphism groups. These codes are then lifted to F2 + uF2, to obtain extremal binary images of codes of length 64. Finally, we use the extension method and neighbor construction to obtain new extremal binary self-dual codes of length 68. As a result, we obtain 28 new codes of length 68 which were not known in the literature before.
    • New Self-Dual and Formally Self-Dual Codes from Group Ring Constructions

      Dougherty, Steven; Gildea, Joe; Kaya, Abidin; Yildiz, Bahattin; University of Scranton; University of Chester; Sampoerna Academy; University of Chester; Northern Arizona University (American Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 2019-08-31)
      In this work, we study construction methods for self-dual and formally self-dual codes from group rings, arising from the cyclic group, the dihedral group, the dicyclic group and the semi-dihedral group. Using these constructions over the rings $_F2 +uF_2$ and $F_4 + uF_4$, we obtain 9 new extremal binary self-dual codes of length 68 and 25 even formally self-dual codes with parameters [72,36,14].