• Walking through the past

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Chester College of Higher Education (English Nature, 1997-07)
      This journal article discusses the Llangollen town walking trail which encourages people to examine the local geology.
    • Weaned age variation in the Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

      Eckardt, Winnie; Fawcett, Katie; Fletcher, Alison W.; University of Chester; The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International (Springer, 02/02/2016)
      Weaning marks an important milestone during life history in mammals indicating nutritional independence from the mother. Age at weaning is a key measure of maternal investment and care, affecting female reproductive rates, offspring survival and ultimately the viability of a population. Factors explaining weaned age variation in the endangered mountain gorilla are not yet well understood. This study investigated the impact of group size, group type (one-male versus multi-male), offspring sex, as well as maternal age, rank, and parity on weaned age variation in the Virunga mountain gorilla population. The status of nutritional independence was established in 69 offspring using long-term suckling observations. A Cox-regression with mixed effects was applied to model weaned age and its relationship with covariates. Findings indicate that offspring in one-male groups are more likely to be weaned earlier than offspring in multi-male groups, which may reflect a female reproductive strategy to reduce higher risk of infanticide in one-male groups. Inferior milk production capacity and conflicting resource allocation between their own and offspring growth may explain later weaning in primiparous mothers compared to multiparous mothers. Sex-biased weaned age related to maternal condition defined by parity, rank, and maternal age will be discussed in the light of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Long-term demographic records revealed no disadvantage of early weaning for mother or offspring. Population growth and two peaks in weaned age within the Virunga population encourage future studies on the potential impact of bamboo shoots as a weaning food and other environmental factors on weaning.
    • What regulates HPA activity in lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus)?

      Skyner, Lindsay J.; Smith, Tessa E.; University of Chester (Primate Society of Great Britain, 2005-06)
    • Where are the women in geology?

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society, 2008)
      This article looks at the place of women in geology primarily from a historic viewpoint but also covering academia and geography. The role that women have played in the development of the science of geology has varied tremendously throughout history but is intimately linked the the context of women's place in society. Two issues will be looked at in detail - the effect of travel to field locations and the place of female role models (or the lack of them). In the realm of academic, the article will examine whether female geologists have favoured palaeontology and consider what other European countries think about female scientists and female geologists.
    • Who were they? The lives of geologists 2 - Sir Roderick Impey Murchison

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (Earth Science Teachers' Association, 2004)
      This article discusses the life and career of British geologist Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (1792-1871) who first described and investigated the Silurian system.
    • Who were they? The lives of geologists 3 - Mary Anning

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (Earth Science Teachers' Association, 2009-05-19)
      This article discusses the life of British fossil hunter Mary Anning (1799-1847).
    • Why pain is still a welfare issue for farm animals, and how facial expression may be the answer

      McLennan, Krista M.; University of Chester (MDPI, 11/08/2018)
      Pain is a sensory and emotional experience that significantly affects animal welfare and has negative impacts on the economics of farming. Pain is often associated with common production diseases such as lameness and mastitis, as well as introduced to the animal through routine husbandry practices such as castration and tail docking. Farm animals are prey species which tend not to overtly express pain or weakness, making recognizing and evaluating pain incredibly difficult. Current methods of pain assessment do not provide information on what the animal is experiencing at that moment in time, only that its experience is having a long term negative impact on its behavior and biological functioning. Measures that provide reliable information about the animals’ affective state in that moment are urgently required; facial expression as a pain assessment tool has this ability. Automation of the detection and analysis of facial expression is currently in development, providing further incentive to use these methods in animal welfare assessment.
    • “You Can’t Really Hug a Tiger”: Zookeepers and Their Bonds with Animals

      Birke, Lynda; Hosey, Geoff; Melfi, Vicky (Informa UK Limited, 2019-09-20)
    • (Z)3,4,5,4'-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level.

      Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su-Wei; Wong, Vincent K-W.; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 06/11/2015)
      Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients.