• Validation of a new hand-held electronic appetite rating system against the pen and paper method

      Almiron-Roig, Eva; Green, Hilary; Virgili, Robert; Aeschlimann, Jean-Marc; Mosera, Mireille; Erkner, Alfrun; University of Chester (Almirion-Roig) : Nestlé Research Centre (Elsevier, 2009-10-01)
      This study describes the validation of a new electronic appetite rating system, and a statistical variance model for visual analogue scale (VAS) research. Thirty volunteers rated hunger, fullness, desire to eat, prospective intake, thirst and liking on 100 mm paper VAS and on 70 mm electronic VAS presented on a Dell™ Pocket PC, after consuming breakfast, in a repeated trial. The electronic method was comparable in relative accuracy and reproducibility to the paper method, with weak differences between tests (within-subject SD ≤ 14 mm). The data obtained were used to generate a model for VAS data variability.
    • Validation of urinary cortisol as an indicator of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in the bearded emperor tamarin (Saguinus imperator subgrisescens)

      McCallister, Josephine M.; Smith, Tessa E.; Elwood, Robert W.; Queen's University of Belfast ; University College Chester/Queen's University of Belfast ; Queen's University of Belfast (Wiley, 2004-05-14)
      This article discusses a study which aimed to collect samples of cortisol levels from bearded emperor tamarins (Saguinus imperator subgrisescens) in noninvasive manner and validate an enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for the measurement of cortisol in urine to quantify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity in the the bearded emperor tamarin.
    • Visualizing multivariate analysis - An intuitive approach to high dimensional statistical extractions

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for The Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1997-12-01)
      The numerical output of multivariate statistical analyses may extend to a greater number of dimensions than can be comprehended and so may appear abstract and divorced from the original data. A need arises, therefore, for the provision of a more intuitive understanding of the results of such techniques - perhaps of a graphical nature. A simple method is to plot, what have come to be known as, Andrews' curves. A tabular procedure, using a standard computer spreadsheet, is described whereby the coefficients produced by various multivariate statistical techniques can be substituted into a simple equation to produce a smooth, wave-like curve characterising the source data. Importantly, this technique also provides a means whereby groups of curves may be compared visually to identify clusters and curves of similar or dissimilar overall shape. Similarly, "outliers" may also be spotted.
    • Walking through the past

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Chester College of Higher Education (English Nature, 1997-07)
      This journal article discusses the Llangollen town walking trail which encourages people to examine the local geology.
    • Wasserstein GAN based Chest X-Ray Dataset Augmentation for Deep Learning Models: COVID-19 Detection Use-Case

      Hussain, B. Zahid; Andleeb, Ifrah; Ansari, Mohammad Samar; Joshi, Amit Mahesh; Kanwal, Nadia (IEEE, 2022-07-11)
    • Weaned age variation in the Virunga mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

      Eckardt, Winnie; Fawcett, Katie; Fletcher, Alison W.; University of Chester; The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International (Springer, 2016-02-02)
      Weaning marks an important milestone during life history in mammals indicating nutritional independence from the mother. Age at weaning is a key measure of maternal investment and care, affecting female reproductive rates, offspring survival and ultimately the viability of a population. Factors explaining weaned age variation in the endangered mountain gorilla are not yet well understood. This study investigated the impact of group size, group type (one-male versus multi-male), offspring sex, as well as maternal age, rank, and parity on weaned age variation in the Virunga mountain gorilla population. The status of nutritional independence was established in 69 offspring using long-term suckling observations. A Cox-regression with mixed effects was applied to model weaned age and its relationship with covariates. Findings indicate that offspring in one-male groups are more likely to be weaned earlier than offspring in multi-male groups, which may reflect a female reproductive strategy to reduce higher risk of infanticide in one-male groups. Inferior milk production capacity and conflicting resource allocation between their own and offspring growth may explain later weaning in primiparous mothers compared to multiparous mothers. Sex-biased weaned age related to maternal condition defined by parity, rank, and maternal age will be discussed in the light of the Trivers-Willard hypothesis. Long-term demographic records revealed no disadvantage of early weaning for mother or offspring. Population growth and two peaks in weaned age within the Virunga population encourage future studies on the potential impact of bamboo shoots as a weaning food and other environmental factors on weaning.
    • What regulates HPA activity in lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus)?

      Skyner, Lindsay J.; Smith, Tessa E.; University of Chester (Primate Society of Great Britain, 2005-06)
    • Where are the women in geology?

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (Leicester Literary and Philosophical Society, 2008)
      This article looks at the place of women in geology primarily from a historic viewpoint but also covering academia and geography. The role that women have played in the development of the science of geology has varied tremendously throughout history but is intimately linked the the context of women's place in society. Two issues will be looked at in detail - the effect of travel to field locations and the place of female role models (or the lack of them). In the realm of academic, the article will examine whether female geologists have favoured palaeontology and consider what other European countries think about female scientists and female geologists.
    • White-faced Darter distribution is associated with coniferous forests in Great Britain

      Geary, Matthew; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Conservation Biology Research Group, Department of Biological Science, University of Chester, Chester, CH1 4BJ (Wiley, 2020-08-11)
      Abstract 1) Understanding of dragonfly distributions is often geographically comprehensive but less so in ecological terms. 2) White-faced darter (Leucorhinnia dubia) is a lowland peatbog specialist dragonfly which has experienced population declines in Great Britain. White-faced darter are thought to rely on peat-rich pool complexes within woodland but this has not yet been empirically tested. 3) We used dragonfly recording data collected by volunteers of the British Dragonfly Society from 2005 to 2018 to model habitat preference for white-faced darter using species distribution models across Great Britain and, with a more detailed landcover dataset, specifically in the North of Scotland. 4) Across the whole of Great Britain our models used the proportion of coniferous forest within 1km as the most important predictor of habitat suitability but were not able to predict all current populations in England. 5) In the North of Scotland our models were more successful and suggest that habitats characterised by native coniferous forest and areas high potential evapotranspiration represent the most suitable habitat for white-faced darter. 6) We recommend that future white-faced darter monitoring should be expanded to include areas currently poorly surveyed but with high suitability in the North of Scotland. 7) Our results also suggest that white-faced darter management should concentrate on maintaining Sphagnum rich pool complexes and the maintenance and restoration of native forests in which these pool complexes occur.
    • Who were they? The lives of geologists 2 - Sir Roderick Impey Murchison

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (Earth Science Teachers' Association, 2004)
      This article discusses the life and career of British geologist Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (1792-1871) who first described and investigated the Silurian system.
    • Who were they? The lives of geologists 3 - Mary Anning

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (Earth Science Teachers' Association, 2009-05-19)
      This article discusses the life of British fossil hunter Mary Anning (1799-1847).
    • Why pain is still a welfare issue for farm animals, and how facial expression may be the answer

      McLennan, Krista M.; University of Chester (MDPI, 2018-08-11)
      Pain is a sensory and emotional experience that significantly affects animal welfare and has negative impacts on the economics of farming. Pain is often associated with common production diseases such as lameness and mastitis, as well as introduced to the animal through routine husbandry practices such as castration and tail docking. Farm animals are prey species which tend not to overtly express pain or weakness, making recognizing and evaluating pain incredibly difficult. Current methods of pain assessment do not provide information on what the animal is experiencing at that moment in time, only that its experience is having a long term negative impact on its behavior and biological functioning. Measures that provide reliable information about the animals’ affective state in that moment are urgently required; facial expression as a pain assessment tool has this ability. Automation of the detection and analysis of facial expression is currently in development, providing further incentive to use these methods in animal welfare assessment.
    • “You Can’t Really Hug a Tiger”: Zookeepers and Their Bonds with Animals

      Birke, Lynda; Hosey, Geoff; Melfi, Vicky (Informa UK Limited, 2019-09-20)
    • (Z)3,4,5,4'-trans-tetramethoxystilbene, a new analogue of resveratrol, inhibits gefitinb-resistant non-small cell lung cancer via selectively elevating intracellular calcium level.

      Fan, Xing-Xing; Yao, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Su-Wei; Wong, Vincent K-W.; He, Jian-Xing; Ding, Jian; Xue, Wei-Wei; Mujtaba, Tahira; Michelangeli, Francesco; Huang, Min; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2015-11-06)
      Calcium is a second messenger which is required for regulation of many cellular processes. However, excessive elevation or prolonged activation of calcium signaling would lead to cell death. As such, selectively regulating calcium signaling could be an alternative approach for anti-cancer therapy. Recently, we have identified an effective analogue of resveratrol, (Z)3,4,5,4′-trans-tetramethoxystilbene (TMS) which selectively elevated the intracellular calcium level in gefitinib-resistant (G-R) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. TMS exhibited significant inhibitory effect on G-R NSCLC cells, but not other NSCLC cells and normal lung epithelial cells. The phosphorylation and activation of EGFR were inhibited by TMS in G-R cells. TMS induced caspase-independent apoptosis and autophagy by directly binding to SERCA and causing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and AMPK activation. Proteomics analysis also further confirmed that mTOR pathway, which is the downstream of AMPK, was significantly suppressed by TMS. JNK, the cross-linker of ER stress and mTOR pathway was significantly activated by TMS. In addition, the inhibition of JNK activation can partially block the effect of TMS. Taken together, TMS showed promising anti-cancer activity by mediating calcium signaling pathway and inducing apoptosis as well as autophagy in G-R NSCLC cells, providing strategy in designing multi-targeting drug for treating G-R patients.
    • Zoo-housed mammals do not avoid giving birth on weekends

      Hosey, Geoff; Ward, Samantha J; Ferguson, Amanda; Jenkins, Hannah; Hill, Sonya P; University of Bolton; Nottingham Trent University; ZSL London Zoo; North of England Zoological Society; University of Chester
      There is evidence that zoo visitor presence can influence the behavior and, in some cases, adrenal response of zoo animals, and can sometimes compromise animal welfare. In some laboratory studies, significantly more primate births have been reported on weekends, when fewer people are working there, compared with weekdays when staffing levels are at their highest. Here we investigate whether there is evidence of a “weekend effect” on births in zoo animals as a result of visitor numbers. Unlike laboratories, zoos are typically busier with visitors on weekends than on weekdays, although staffing levels remain fairly consistent across days of the week. If zoo animal parturition is sensitive to human presence, then fewer births would be expected on weekends compared with weekdays. We tested this using birth data and visitor numbers on the entrance gate from zoo records across 16 species representing artiodactyls, perissodactyls, carnivores and primates at four British zoos, to see whether there is an association between mean daily birth rates and average visitor numbers. We predict that, if there is a visitor effect, daily births should be lower on weekends than weekdays and should correlate with mean daily visitor numbers. Results showed that births for all 16 species were randomly distributed through the week, and there was no significant decline in births on weekends. We conclude that the ‘weekend effect’, if such a thing exists, does not appear to be a feature of zoo births, suggesting that elevated weekend visitor numbers are not sufficiently stressful to trigger delayed parturition.
    • Zooarchaeology through the lens of collagen fingerprinting at Denisova Cave

      Brown, Samantha; Wang, Naihui; Oertle, Annette; Kozlikin, Maxim B.; Shunkov, Michael V.; Derevianko, Anatoly P.; Comeskey, Daniel; Jope-Street, Blair; Harvey, Virginia L.; Chowdhury, Manasij Pal; et al. (Nature Research, 2021-07-29)
      Denisova Cave, a Pleistocene site in the Altai Mountains of Russian Siberia, has yielded significant fossil and lithic evidence for the Pleistocene in Northern Asia. Abundant animal and human bones have been discovered at the site, however, these tend to be highly fragmented, necessitating new approaches to identifying important hominin and faunal fossils. Here we report the results for 8253 bone fragments using ZooMS. Through the integration of this new ZooMS-based data with the previously published macroscopically-identified fauna we aim to create a holistic picture of the zooarchaeological record of the site. We identify trends associated with climate variability throughout the Middle and Upper Pleistocene as well as patterns explaining the process of bone fragmentation. Where morphological analysis of bones from the site have identified a high proportion of carnivore bones (30.2%), we find that these account for only 7.6% of the ZooMS assemblage, with large mammals between 3 and 5 more abundant overall. Our analysis suggests a cyclical pattern in fragmentation of bones which sees initial fragmentation by hominins using percussive tools and secondary carnivore action, such as gnawing and digestion, likely furthering the initial human-induced fragmentation.