• Rachel Carson

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (The National Federation of Women's Institute, 2011)
      This article discusses the life and career of the environmentalist Rachel Carson (1907-1964).
    • RAISIN, Catherine Alice (1855-1945)

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (Thoemmes Continuum, 2004-06-01)
      This dictionary entry discusses This article discusses the life and career of British geologist Catherine Raisin (1855-1945) including her impact on the education system.
    • Raising awareness of anaerobic digestion in the UK - Views of key stakeholders

      Duruiheoma, Franklin I.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Bonwick, Graham A.; Alexander, Roy; University of Chester (Macrothink Institute, 2014-12-31)
      Meeting rising energy demand and sustainable development goals at the same time is a major challenge for policy makers in the 21st century. The situation is further stressed by a rising world population, climate change, natural disasters and food security concerns. Renewable energy technologies such as anaerobic digestion (AD) proffer one solution for policy makers to overcome some of the challenges to sustainable development. The technology has been widely adopted in some parts of Europe (e.g. Germany, Denmark, Austria and Sweden), the United States and also parts of Asia and Africa. However in the United Kingdom (UK), the technology is under-developed, as was recognised in its anaerobic digestion strategy and action plan of 2011. This study focused on identifying options for raising awareness of AD technology in the UK. 21 key stakeholders divided into groups according to their expertise, were interviewed to explore their views on the areas of focus in the UK strategy and action plan regarding raising awareness of the technology. The results revealed that aligning AD with sustainable development goals, community AD and localism, small AD plants, provision of an available market for AD products, building UK skills and diversifying biogas use from AD are positive options for raising awareness of AD in the UK. Challenges to these options and possible solutions to the challenges were also identified and discussed.
    • RANK, RANKL and osteoprotegerin in bone biology and disease

      Wright, H. L.; McCarthy, Helen S.; Middleton, Jim F.; Marshall, Michael J.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry (2008-12-20)
      This review discusses the latest news and views on the mechanisms controlling bone resorption in normal and pathological conditions.
    • Recapture rates and habitat associations of White-faced Darter Leucorhinnia dubia on Fenn's and Whixall Moss, Shropshire, UK

      Davies, Rachel; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Geary, Matthew; Conservation Biology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Chester, CH1 4BJ (British Dragonfly Society, 2018-10-01)
      Land-use change and habitat loss are important drivers of biodiversity decline at both global and local scales. To protect species from the impacts of land-use change it is important to understand the population dynamics and habitat associations across these scales. Here we present an investigation into the survival and habitat preferences of Leucorrhinia dubia at the local scale at Fenn’s and Whixall Moss, Shropshire, UK. We used mark-release-recapture methods to investigate survival and used sightings of individual dragonflies along with habitat data to investigate habitat preference. We found that survival between capture-visits was very low and that L. dubia showed a clear preference for the open moss habitat on this site. In both cases, we found that the detectability, either through sightings or recaptures, was potentially very low and suggest that this should be taken into account in future analyses. We suggest that by encouraging recorders to submit complete lists and to repeat visits to sites detectability could be easily estimated for dragonfly species and incorporating this into analyses would improve estimates fo population trends and habitat associations.
    • Recognising the potential role of native ponies in conservation management

      Stanley, Christina R.; Fraser, Marecia; Hegarty, Matt; University of Chester; Aberystwyth University (Elsevier, 2019-04-28)
      Population control of feral horses has been the subject of public debate in many parts of the world in recent years due to wide-reaching ecological and societal impacts. However, the feral populations in these high-profile cases are not ‘native’ but are instead descended from animals which escaped from or were released by settlers. This paper considers i) the potential role of indigenous equids as conservation grazers within native ecosystems currently in poor condition, and ii) the value of supporting semi-wild native ponies specifically. We argue that the high ecological overlap between ponies and cattle reported in a range of studies means that they should be considered as alternative tools for conservation management, particularly in scenarios where there is a need to reduce the dominance of plant species avoided by more-selective small ruminants such as sheep. Semi-wild ponies could be particularly suited to conservation grazing because their genomes have been predominately shaped by natural and not artificial selection, meaning they may have adaptations no longer present in domesticated equids. With agricultural and environmental policy in the EU and UK under major review, it is anticipated that the wider delivery of public goods, rather than primary production, will be prioritised under future subsidy payment schemes. Recognising the value of native ponies as conservation grazers would broaden the range of routes by which land managers could achieve biodiversity gain, while simultaneously supporting at-risk equine genotypes.
    • Recovery of high mountain Alpine lakes after the eradication of introduced brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis using non-chemical methods

      Tiberti, Rocco; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Brighenti, Stefano; Iacobuzio, Rocco; Liautaud, Kevin; Rolla, Matteo; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Bassano, Bruno; University of Pavia; Gran Paradiso National Park; University of Trento; Fondazione Edmund Mach; Swansea University; University of Chester (Springer, 2018-10-31)
      Fish stocking is a serious threat to originally fishless mountain lakes. We used non-chemical eradication methods (i.e. gillnetting and electrofishing) in four high mountain lakes in the Gran Paradiso National Park (Western Italian Alps) to eradicate alien brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Data of amphibians, macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, chlorophyll-a, nutrient concentrations, and water transparency were used as indicators of the recovery process. All treated lakes were returned to their original fishless condition in spite of their different sizes and habitat complexity, without permanent negative side-effects for native species. Several ecological indicators showed that many impacts of introduced fish can be reversed over a short time period following eradication. The present study adds to a still growing body of specialized literature on the recovery of habitats after the eradication of alien species and provides further evidence that physical eradication methods are effective and can be part of a more general strategy for the conservation of high mountain lake biota.
    • Rediscovering and conserving the Lower Palaeozoic 'treasures' of Ethel Woods (nee Skeat) and Margaret Crosfield in northeast Wales

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Malpas, Jacqui A.; University of Chester ; NEWRIGS, Millenium EcoCentre in Wrexham (2007-08-01)
      This book chapter explores, within a historical context, the importance of geoconservation of not only sitesbut also artefacts, collections and specimens as well as letters and original documents. It sets but the search and finding of sites in northeast Wales and materials thought lost then found and the subsequent nomination of Regionally Important Geological/Geomorphological Sites (RIGS) conservation status of the sites to safeguard them for the future. It is important to note that RIGS can be designated for their historical value alone, which is in contrast to Sites of Special Scientific Inleresi (SSSIs), which are protected solely for their national scientific and research value. The role of Ethel Woods (nee Skeat) and Margaret Crosfield in developing an understanding of the geological history of northeast Wales had been lost over time. This paper contains biographical sketches of the two women, followed by their Lower Palaeozoic lithological, structural and grap-tolite research and places it in an historical context. This case study illustrates how female curiosity, perseverance and attention to detail unearthed previously forgotten treasures. The importance of conserving their sites, specimens and sketch field notebooks in our electronic and throw-away age is vital. The role of the North East Wales Regionally Important Geological/ Geomorphological Sites (NEWRIGS) in conserving this information is put forward as an example of good practice.
    • Regional differences in mechanical and material properties of femoral head cancellous bone in health and osteoarthritis

      Brown, Sharon J.; Pollintine, Phillip; Powell, Diane E.; Davie, Michael W. J.; Sharp, Christopher A.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry/Chester College of Higher Education ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry (Springer, 2002-09)
      Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating condition common among the aging population. In this study we have determined mechanical and material properties of cancellous bone cores from two differently loaded regions of femoral heads obtained from healthy subjects and those with end-stage osteoarthritis. Densitometric properties were determined prior to compression testing for Young's modulus (EC) and yield strength (sy), after which bones were powdered for analysis of collagen and mineral content. In both OA and normal cancellous bone, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDv), apparent density (rA), EC, and sy were systematically greater in the superior than in the inferior region (P<0.05). In the OA inferior region, median BMDv (0.434 g-cm-3) and rA (0.426 g-cm-3) were significantly greater than in normals (0.329 and 0.287 g-cm-3, respectively, both P<0.05) reflecting an increased amount of tissue. The mineral:collagen ratio was decreased in OA, but this was only significant in the superior region (P<0.008). Relationships between EC and both BMDv and rA were weaker in OA bone cores (r2 = 0.66 and r2 = 0.59) than in normals (r2 = 0.86 and r2 = 0.77, respectively). Likewise, sy and both BMDv and rA were weaker in OA (r2 = 0.74 and r2 = 0.70) than in normals (r2 = 0.83 and r2 = 0.77, respectively). For the same value of density measure, EC and sy tended to be lower in OA bone when compared with normal bone. In conclusion, femoral head cancellous bone mass in end-stage osteoarthritis is increased but undermineralized, and is neither stiffer nor stronger than normal cancellous bone.
    • Regulation and roles of Ca2+ stores in human sperm.

      Correia, Joao; Michelangeli, Francesco; Publicover, Stephen; University of Birmingham (Bioscientifica, 2015-05-11)
      [Ca(2)(+)]i signalling is a key regulatory mechanism in sperm function. In mammalian sperm the Ca(2)(+)-permeable plasma membrane ion channel CatSper is central to [Ca(2)(+)]i signalling, but there is good evidence that Ca(2)(+) stored in intracellular organelles is also functionally important. Here we briefly review the current understanding of the diversity of Ca(2)(+) stores and the mechanisms for the regulation of their activity. We then consider the evidence for the involvement of these stores in [Ca(2)(+)]i signalling in mammalian (primarily human) sperm, the agonists that may activate these stores and their role in control of sperm function. Finally we consider the evidence that membrane Ca(2)(+) channels and stored Ca(2)(+) may play discrete roles in the regulation of sperm activities and propose a mechanism by which these different components of the sperm Ca(2)(+)-signalling apparatus may interact to generate complex and spatially diverse [Ca(2)(+)]i signals.
    • ‘Regurgitation and reingestion’ (R/R) in great apes: A review of current knowledge

      Hill, Sonya, P.; University of Chester; University of Cambridge (Wiley, 2018-08-02)
      Research indicates that regurgitation and reingestion (R/R) is a relatively common behaviour in zoo-housed great apes, with most work to date carried out on Western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes. It is an abnormal behaviour because great apes are not anatomically adapted to regurgitate their food as part of their normal feeding processes, and because this behaviour is not seen in members of the species living freely in the wild, in conditions that would allow a full behavioural range. In this article, I give an overview of the published literature on R/R in great apes, which suggests that this behaviour is probably multifactorial and may be linked to inappropriate feeding environments (e.g. in terms of nutritional composition of the diet and/or presentation of food), and possibly also social and other factors as well. A similar behaviour to R/R, known as rumination disorder, can also occur in another great ape species, humans, in whom it is classified as a feeding and eating disorder, and there are potential consequences to people’s physical health as a result of oral acid. There have been no known studies to date to identify whether or not similar health consequences can occur in non-human great apes, but the regurgitant has been found to be significantly more acidic in gorillas than the food they ingested originally, meaning it is potentially injurious in non-human great apes. There is much that is not yet known about this behaviour and how to reduce or eliminate it when it does occur, as the research indicates that there are a range of factors involved, and these can vary by individual animal. More research into this behaviour is clearly needed to ensure that zoos and sanctuaries are providing the best possible care for these animals, and I make some suggestions for future research directions.
    • Related flavonoids cause cooperative inhibition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase by multimode mechanisms.

      Ogunbayo, Oluseye A.; Michelangeli, Francesco; University of Birmingham (Wiley, 2014-01-27)
      Flavonoids are group of plant-derived hydroxylated polycyclic molecules found in fruit and vegetables. They are known to bio-accumulate within humans and are considered to have beneficial health effects, including cancer chemoprotection. One mechanism proposed to explain this is that they are able to induce apoptosis in cancer cells by inhibiting a variety of kinases and also the Ca²⁺ ATPase. An investigation was undertaken with respect to the mechanism of inhibition for three flavonoids: quercetin, galangin and 3,6 dihydroxyflavone (3,6-DHF). Each inhibited the Ca²⁺ ATPase with K(i) values of 8.7, 10.3 and 5.4 μM, respectively, showing cooperative inhibition with n ~ 2. Given their similar structures, the flavonoids showed several differences in their mechanisms of inhibition. All three flavonoids stabilized the ATPase in the E₁ conformation and reduced [³²P]-ATP binding. However, both galangin and 3,6-DHF increased the affinity of Ca²⁺ for the ATPase by decreasing the Ca²⁺-dissociation rate constant, whereas quercetin had little effect. Ca²⁺-induced changes in tryptophan fluorescence levels were reduced in the presence of 3,6-DHF and galangin (but not with quercetin), indicating that Ca²⁺-associated changes within the transmembrane helices are altered. Both galangin and quercetin reduced the rates of ATP-dependent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas 3,6-DHF did not. Modelling studies suggest that flavonoids could potentially bind to two sites: one directly where nucleotides bind within ATP binding site and the other at a site close by. We hypothesize that interactions of these two neighbouring sites may account for both the cooperative inhibition and the multimode mechanisms of action seen with related flavonoids.
    • A review of tropical dry forest ecosystem service research in the Caribbean – gaps and policy-implications

      Nelson, Howard; Devenish-Nelson, Eleanor; Rusk, Bonnie; Geary, Matthew; Lawrence, Andrew; University of Chester;University of Edinburgh; Grenada Dove Conservation Programme
      Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are globally threatened, yet remain poorly studied. In the Caribbean, the most biodiverse of island biodiversity hotspots, TDFs have structural properties distinct from the Neotropical mainland and are important to local communities for ecosystem services. We undertook a systematic review (n = 186) of ecosystem services literature of Caribbean TDF. Only 19.89% qualified for inclusion, with the majority (56.76%) from primary literature. Research on supporting services (31.14%), particularly primary production was predominant. Most studies (70.97%) took a biophysical perspective and quantification focused on the supply of ecosystem services (43.00%), while measurement of wellbeing benefits were uncommon. Geographic coverage of all studies was patchy originating from only nine of 28 independent countries and dependent territories. Our findings highlight a lack of research, while accentuating the value of grey literature in quantifying cultural services. Of concern, are gaps in air- and water-related services and the importance of TDF to human health. To move from biophysical assessments to a broader portfolio of ecosystem services studies, research on Caribbean TDF should be collaborative and strategic. Such gaps and research biases suggest opportunities for evidence-led policy-making. These lessons are relevant for mainstreaming ecosystem services into decision-making in Small Island Developing States.
    • Risk and resilience: high stakes for sharks making transjurisdictional movements to use a conservation area.

      Oliver, Simon P.; Grothues, Thomas; Williams, Amie; Cerna, Voltaire; Silvosa, Medel; Cases, Gary; Reed, Matthew; Christopher, Simon; University of Chester; Rutgers University Marine Field Station; Scotish National Heritage; The Thresher Shark Research and Conservation Project; Divelink Cebu; Evolution Dive Resort; Scubazoo (Elsevier, 2018-12-18)
      Oceanic sharks are vulnerable to overexploitation due to their life-history strategies, and declines in their populations are well documented. While it is clear that pelagic sharks are often subjected to uncontrolled fishing for their meat and valuable fins, a lack of empirical knowledge, and transboundary jurisdictional issues have stalled many initiatives to protect them in the wild. Alopiids, including pelagic thresher sharks, are important to Asian fisheries, but the extent to which they are exploited in the Philippines is unknown. We fitted 14 pelagic thresher sharks with acoustic tags, and monitored their fine scale lateral movements near a seamount in the Central Visayas where their regular occurrence is prized as a tourism enterprise. Pelagic thresher sharks used a specific corridor to move away from the seamount after early morning visits to cleaner wrasse. Long range dispersals occurred at a mean rate of 3.79 ± 1.43 km h-1 and were attributed to foraging behavior. Daily foraging expeditions led pelagic thresher sharks to potentially venture across the jurisdictional waters of five provincial territories even when they regularly returned to the seamount. Thresher sharks preferred specific locations on the seamount where they interact with cleaner fish. While the seamount offers cleaner associated services and refuge provision for these rare and elusive sharks, disconnects between habitual predator and prey localizations are likely to increase their vulnerability to pressure from large scale fisheries that operate in the area.
    • Risk based testing for Mycobacterium bovis following a clinical case in a zoological garden

      Hartley, Matt; Grove, Derek; Lewis, Matt; Beeston, David; Stewart, Peter; Zoo and Wildlife Solutions Limited and Dudley Zoological Gardens (European Association of Zoos and Aquaria, 2014-01-13)
      Mycobacterium bovis is a strictly controlled disease. Outbreaks in zoos result in animal movement bans, disease investigation and euthanasia of infected animals. Both specific tuberculosis legislation and European Directive 92/65, often known as the "Balai" directive, require zoos to be free from tuberculosis in order to import and export animals. This paper describes the use of a risk based targeted testing programme for tuberculosis following a confirmed case of disease. This regime ensured a comprehensive but proportionate disease investigation developed through close co-operation with government veterinary officials, therefore limiting the impact of anaesthetic procedures and animal handling required to complete the necessary testing.
    • The role of anaerobic digestion in achieving soil conservation and sustainable agricultural development in the UK.

      Duruiheoma, Franklin I.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Bonwick, Graham A.; Alexander, Roy; University of Chester (Macrothink Institute, 2015-12)
      Anaerobic digestion represents one form of renewable energy technology but has many wider benefits. This paper reviews the processes involved in anaerobic digestion, the type of systems in place and the use of digestate to improve soil quality. A case is made for the technology in the UK in the context of soil conservation and sustainable agricultural production. Its broader contribution to sustainable development in the United Kingdom is also considered. Low levels of awareness of the benefits of anaerobic digestion, poor access to funds, inadequate incentives, an unfavourable legislative and policy framework for the technology, limited application of digestate for agricultural purposes and the need for further research on digestate use are identified as key factors hindering uptake of the technology. Anaerobic digestion is presented as a technology that can support soil conservation and sustainable agricultural development while also generating both energy and income, enhancing waste and nutrient recycling and promoting environmental protection.
    • The Role of Local Societies in Early Modern Geotourism - A case study of the Chester Society of Natural Science and the Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Hose, Thomas A.; University of Chester; University of Bristol (Geological Society of London, 2016-02-01)
      Local voluntary natural science societies played an important role in the development of early modern geotourism. This chapter explores the development of field, especially geological, excursions and their popularity in two local natural science societies – The Chester Society of Natural Science and the Woolhope Naturalists’ Field Club – from the 1850s to the 1950s. Both Q21 societies were established in the borderlands between England andWales and had a strong emphasis on local and regional scientific studies. They exemplify broader trends in public engagement in the natural sciences and associated fieldwork consequent upon the British socio-political environment. Further, they draw out comparisons between the attitudes of society to excursions and scientific fieldwork, as well as involvement by social status and gender.
    • The role of women in geological higher education - Bedford College, London (Catherine Raisin) and Newham College, Cambridge, UK

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (The Geological Society of London, 2007-06-01)
      This book chapter explores the place of geology in science education and the part women have played in geological higher education through history. The context is set firstly by exploring the informal role women have played in education in general and secondly, by explaining in detail the positions they held after 1870, when female higher education was put onto a more formal footing. To illustrate this, the evolution of two female colleges of higher education - Bedford College, London and Newnham College, Cambridge both offering geological education within science are evaluated within a wider educational context. Finally, the cases of Dr Catherine Raisin, who was based at Bedford College, and Dr Gertrude Elles, based at Newnham College as role models are highlighted within this wider framework.
    • The role of women in the history of geology: An introduction

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Higgs, Bettie; University of Chester ; University College Cork (The Geological Society of London, 2007-08-01)
      This book chapter discusses the role of women in the history and development of geology, focusing on the characteristics of women who played a role, the influence of society, the situation today, and the legacy of these early pioneers.
    • The role women gave played in developing the science of geology 1797 to 1918-19

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (Open University Geological Society, 2008)
      This article examines the roles that women played in the development of geology over 120 years