• A quantified ethogram for oviposition in triturus newts: Description and comparison of T. helveticus and T. vulgaris

      Norris, Karen M.; Hosie, Charlotte A.; University of Chester (Ethologische Gesellschaft e.V., 2005-03-25)
      Female newts of the genus Triturus deposit and wrap their eggs individually in the submerged leaves of aquatic macrophytes. Although this behaviour has previously been described, the different elements of the oviposition process have not been fully characterized nor any attempt made to quantify the behavioural elements. The study examined the oviposition behaviour of the two similarly sized species, Triturus helveticus and T. vulgaris on a standardized substrate macrophyte, Rorippa nasturtium–aquaticum. Continuous focal sampling was used to develop a baseline of discrete behavioural elements enabling quantification and comparison of oviposition behaviour between the two species. The results showed that the same pattern of elements was followed for each egg laid and the same key elements of the process were present in each newt species. Although these are broadly similar in size, there were striking differences in certain aspects of the oviposition sequence between the two species. Key findings were that leaf sniffing and leaf flexing and a measure of the duration of ovipositing were all significantly greater in females of T. helveticus and females of T. vulgaris laid significantly more eggs than those of T. helveticus in a standard observation period. The work presented here defines a baseline ethogram and shows how it can be used to reveal quantifiable differences in closely related species. This demonstrates its value in furthering our understanding of oviposition – a key aspect of female behaviour currently understudied in Triturus behavioural ecology, despite its intrinsic interest and value in understanding recruitment and maintenance of populations.
    • Quantifying measurement error

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Oxbow Books (for the Osteoarchaeological Research Group), 1999-12-01)
      It is important for workers to have some estimate of the degree of error evident when measuring objects. Although many use their own "rule-of-thumb" to give them the personal satisfaction that they are working accurately, measures of error, or conversely reliability, are rarely given in the lierature. Some simple, useful equations are given that may be used privately or when reporting metrical work.
    • Questioning the role of Darwinian medicine

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (2001-09)
      Darwinian medicine as a distinct scientific discipline can be traced to George Williams' and Randolph Nesse's paper 'The Dawn of Darwinian Medicine' (Q Rev. Biol. 66: 1-22, 1991). Ten years on, at what is still the dawn of a new millennium, it is timely to review the current state of Darwinian medicine and to assess some of its still latent potentialities. Nesse remains the main protagonist of a Darwinian approach to medicine. Important work by others has appeared but his and Williams' 'Evolution and Healing' (Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1995)†, although written for the popular press, remains the primary text of the whole discipline. Distinct lines of academic interest and inquiry are, however, emerging within Darwinian medicine and it has found inclusion in a number of undergraduate curricula. Sufficient interest exists to suggest that it will survive as a discipline. But as a discipline, Darwinian medicine needs more than a single protagonist – it needs serious critical attention. It is important, therefore, to ask in what form the discipline is to persist and into what new areas it might go. Fundamental to such questions is the relationship between Darwinian medicine (as a scientific discipline) and Western clinical medicine (as a profession). It is suggested that, rather than try to gain direct acceptance by the medical profession, Darwinian medicine might seek to establish itself more firmly within the academic disciplines of evolutionary and human biology. It is suggested that it give special attention to identifying and making its own distinctive voice heard as a biological science of health and disease distinct from medicine – a voice that clinical medicine, drawing as ever from allied sciences, cannot then afford to ignore. To this end, the question of what might be the “zeroth law” of Darwinian medicine is posited.
    • Rachel Carson

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (The National Federation of Women's Institute, 2011)
      This article discusses the life and career of the environmentalist Rachel Carson (1907-1964).
    • RAISIN, Catherine Alice (1855-1945)

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University College Chester (Thoemmes Continuum, 2004-06-01)
      This dictionary entry discusses This article discusses the life and career of British geologist Catherine Raisin (1855-1945) including her impact on the education system.
    • Raising awareness of anaerobic digestion in the UK - Views of key stakeholders

      Duruiheoma, Franklin I.; Burek, Cynthia V.; Bonwick, Graham A.; Alexander, Roy; University of Chester (Macrothink Institute, 2014-12-31)
      Meeting rising energy demand and sustainable development goals at the same time is a major challenge for policy makers in the 21st century. The situation is further stressed by a rising world population, climate change, natural disasters and food security concerns. Renewable energy technologies such as anaerobic digestion (AD) proffer one solution for policy makers to overcome some of the challenges to sustainable development. The technology has been widely adopted in some parts of Europe (e.g. Germany, Denmark, Austria and Sweden), the United States and also parts of Asia and Africa. However in the United Kingdom (UK), the technology is under-developed, as was recognised in its anaerobic digestion strategy and action plan of 2011. This study focused on identifying options for raising awareness of AD technology in the UK. 21 key stakeholders divided into groups according to their expertise, were interviewed to explore their views on the areas of focus in the UK strategy and action plan regarding raising awareness of the technology. The results revealed that aligning AD with sustainable development goals, community AD and localism, small AD plants, provision of an available market for AD products, building UK skills and diversifying biogas use from AD are positive options for raising awareness of AD in the UK. Challenges to these options and possible solutions to the challenges were also identified and discussed.
    • RANK, RANKL and osteoprotegerin in bone biology and disease

      Wright, H. L.; McCarthy, Helen S.; Middleton, Jim F.; Marshall, Michael J.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry (2008-12-20)
      This review discusses the latest news and views on the mechanisms controlling bone resorption in normal and pathological conditions.
    • Recapture rates and habitat associations of White-faced Darter Leucorhinnia dubia on Fenn's and Whixall Moss, Shropshire, UK

      Davies, Rachel; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Geary, Matthew; Conservation Biology Research Group, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Chester, CH1 4BJ (British Dragonfly Society, 2018-10-01)
      Land-use change and habitat loss are important drivers of biodiversity decline at both global and local scales. To protect species from the impacts of land-use change it is important to understand the population dynamics and habitat associations across these scales. Here we present an investigation into the survival and habitat preferences of Leucorrhinia dubia at the local scale at Fenn’s and Whixall Moss, Shropshire, UK. We used mark-release-recapture methods to investigate survival and used sightings of individual dragonflies along with habitat data to investigate habitat preference. We found that survival between capture-visits was very low and that L. dubia showed a clear preference for the open moss habitat on this site. In both cases, we found that the detectability, either through sightings or recaptures, was potentially very low and suggest that this should be taken into account in future analyses. We suggest that by encouraging recorders to submit complete lists and to repeat visits to sites detectability could be easily estimated for dragonfly species and incorporating this into analyses would improve estimates fo population trends and habitat associations.
    • Recognising the potential role of native ponies in conservation management

      Stanley, Christina R.; Fraser, Marecia; Hegarty, Matt; University of Chester; Aberystwyth University (Elsevier, 2019-04-28)
      Population control of feral horses has been the subject of public debate in many parts of the world in recent years due to wide-reaching ecological and societal impacts. However, the feral populations in these high-profile cases are not ‘native’ but are instead descended from animals which escaped from or were released by settlers. This paper considers i) the potential role of indigenous equids as conservation grazers within native ecosystems currently in poor condition, and ii) the value of supporting semi-wild native ponies specifically. We argue that the high ecological overlap between ponies and cattle reported in a range of studies means that they should be considered as alternative tools for conservation management, particularly in scenarios where there is a need to reduce the dominance of plant species avoided by more-selective small ruminants such as sheep. Semi-wild ponies could be particularly suited to conservation grazing because their genomes have been predominately shaped by natural and not artificial selection, meaning they may have adaptations no longer present in domesticated equids. With agricultural and environmental policy in the EU and UK under major review, it is anticipated that the wider delivery of public goods, rather than primary production, will be prioritised under future subsidy payment schemes. Recognising the value of native ponies as conservation grazers would broaden the range of routes by which land managers could achieve biodiversity gain, while simultaneously supporting at-risk equine genotypes.
    • Recommendations for Transdisciplinary Professional Competencies and Ethics for Animal-Assisted Therapies and Interventions

      Trevathan-Minnis, Melissa; email: drtrevathanminnis@gmail.com; Johnson, Amy; orcid: 0000-0003-3536-9193; email: dramyjohnsonlpc@gmail.com; Howie, Ann R.; email: humananimalsolutions@comcast.net (MDPI, 2021-12-02)
      AAI is a transdisciplinary field that has grown exponentially in recent decades. This growth has not always been synergistic across fields, creating a need for more consistent language and standards, a call for which many professionals in the field have made. Under the umbrella of human−animal interactions (HAI) is animal-assisted interventions (AAIs), which have a more goal-directed intention with animals who have been assessed for therapeutic, educational, or vocational work. The current article offers a brief history and efficacy of HAI, describes the limitations and gaps within the field and recommends a new set of competencies and guidelines that seek to create some of the needed common language and standards for AAI work to address these limitations.
    • Reconciling egg- and antigen-based estimates of Schistosoma mansoni clearance and reinfection: a modelling study

      Clark, Jessica; Arinaitwe, Moses; Nankasi, Andrina; Faust, Christina L.; Moses, Adriko; Ajambo, Diana; Besigye, Fred; Atuhaire, Aaron; Carruthers, Lauren V.; Francoeur, Rachel; et al.
      Background Despite decades of interventions, 240 million people have schistosomiasis. Infections cannot be directly observed, and egg-based Kato-Katz thick smears lack sensitivity, affected treatment efficacy and reinfection rate estimates. The point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (referred to from here as POC-CCA+) test is advocated as an improvement on the Kato-Katz method, but improved estimates are limited by ambiguities in the interpretation of trace results. Method We collected repeated Kato-Katz egg counts from 210 school-aged children and scored POC-CCA tests according to the manufacturer’s guidelines (referred to from here as POC-CCA+) and the externally developed G score. We used hidden Markov models parameterized with Kato-Katz; Kato-Katz and POC-CCA+; and Kato-Katz and G-Scores, inferring latent clearance and reinfection probabilities at four timepoints over six-months through a more formal statistical reconciliation of these diagnostics than previously conducted. Our approach required minimal but robust assumptions regarding trace interpretations. Results Antigen-based models estimated higher infection prevalence across all timepoints compared with the Kato-Katz model, corresponding to lower clearance and higher reinfection estimates. Specifically, pre-treatment prevalence estimates were 85% (Kato-Katz; 95% CI: 79%–92%), 99% (POC-CCA+; 97%–100%) and 98% (G-Score; 95%–100%). Post-treatment, 93% (Kato-Katz; 88%–96%), 72% (POC-CCA+; 64%–79%) and 65% (G-Score; 57%–73%) of those infected were estimated to clear infection. Of those who cleared infection, 35% (Kato-Katz; 27%–42%), 51% (POC-CCA+; 41%–62%) and 44% (G-Score; 33%–55%) were estimated to have been reinfected by 9-weeks. Conclusions Treatment impact was shorter-lived than Kato-Katz–based estimates alone suggested, with lower clearance and rapid reinfection. At 3 weeks after treatment, longer-term clearance dynamics are captured. At 9 weeks after treatment, reinfection was captured, but failed clearance could not be distinguished from rapid reinfection. Therefore, frequent sampling is required to understand these important epidemiological dynamics.
    • Recovery of high mountain Alpine lakes after the eradication of introduced brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis using non-chemical methods

      Tiberti, Rocco; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Brighenti, Stefano; Iacobuzio, Rocco; Liautaud, Kevin; Rolla, Matteo; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Bassano, Bruno; University of Pavia; Gran Paradiso National Park; University of Trento; Fondazione Edmund Mach; Swansea University; University of Chester (Springer, 2018-10-31)
      Fish stocking is a serious threat to originally fishless mountain lakes. We used non-chemical eradication methods (i.e. gillnetting and electrofishing) in four high mountain lakes in the Gran Paradiso National Park (Western Italian Alps) to eradicate alien brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis. Data of amphibians, macroinvertebrates, zooplankton, chlorophyll-a, nutrient concentrations, and water transparency were used as indicators of the recovery process. All treated lakes were returned to their original fishless condition in spite of their different sizes and habitat complexity, without permanent negative side-effects for native species. Several ecological indicators showed that many impacts of introduced fish can be reversed over a short time period following eradication. The present study adds to a still growing body of specialized literature on the recovery of habitats after the eradication of alien species and provides further evidence that physical eradication methods are effective and can be part of a more general strategy for the conservation of high mountain lake biota.
    • Rediscovering and conserving the Lower Palaeozoic 'treasures' of Ethel Woods (nee Skeat) and Margaret Crosfield in northeast Wales

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Malpas, Jacqui A.; University of Chester ; NEWRIGS, Millenium EcoCentre in Wrexham (2007-08-01)
      This book chapter explores, within a historical context, the importance of geoconservation of not only sitesbut also artefacts, collections and specimens as well as letters and original documents. It sets but the search and finding of sites in northeast Wales and materials thought lost then found and the subsequent nomination of Regionally Important Geological/Geomorphological Sites (RIGS) conservation status of the sites to safeguard them for the future. It is important to note that RIGS can be designated for their historical value alone, which is in contrast to Sites of Special Scientific Inleresi (SSSIs), which are protected solely for their national scientific and research value. The role of Ethel Woods (nee Skeat) and Margaret Crosfield in developing an understanding of the geological history of northeast Wales had been lost over time. This paper contains biographical sketches of the two women, followed by their Lower Palaeozoic lithological, structural and grap-tolite research and places it in an historical context. This case study illustrates how female curiosity, perseverance and attention to detail unearthed previously forgotten treasures. The importance of conserving their sites, specimens and sketch field notebooks in our electronic and throw-away age is vital. The role of the North East Wales Regionally Important Geological/ Geomorphological Sites (NEWRIGS) in conserving this information is put forward as an example of good practice.
    • Regional differences in mechanical and material properties of femoral head cancellous bone in health and osteoarthritis

      Brown, Sharon J.; Pollintine, Phillip; Powell, Diane E.; Davie, Michael W. J.; Sharp, Christopher A.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry/Chester College of Higher Education ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry (Springer, 2002-09)
      Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating condition common among the aging population. In this study we have determined mechanical and material properties of cancellous bone cores from two differently loaded regions of femoral heads obtained from healthy subjects and those with end-stage osteoarthritis. Densitometric properties were determined prior to compression testing for Young's modulus (EC) and yield strength (sy), after which bones were powdered for analysis of collagen and mineral content. In both OA and normal cancellous bone, volumetric bone mineral density (BMDv), apparent density (rA), EC, and sy were systematically greater in the superior than in the inferior region (P<0.05). In the OA inferior region, median BMDv (0.434 g-cm-3) and rA (0.426 g-cm-3) were significantly greater than in normals (0.329 and 0.287 g-cm-3, respectively, both P<0.05) reflecting an increased amount of tissue. The mineral:collagen ratio was decreased in OA, but this was only significant in the superior region (P<0.008). Relationships between EC and both BMDv and rA were weaker in OA bone cores (r2 = 0.66 and r2 = 0.59) than in normals (r2 = 0.86 and r2 = 0.77, respectively). Likewise, sy and both BMDv and rA were weaker in OA (r2 = 0.74 and r2 = 0.70) than in normals (r2 = 0.83 and r2 = 0.77, respectively). For the same value of density measure, EC and sy tended to be lower in OA bone when compared with normal bone. In conclusion, femoral head cancellous bone mass in end-stage osteoarthritis is increased but undermineralized, and is neither stiffer nor stronger than normal cancellous bone.
    • Regucalcin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in Cos-7 kidney cells and translocates from the nucleus to the mitochondria.

      Mohammed, Noor A; Hakeem, Israa J; Hodges, Nikolas; Michelangeli, Francesco; orcid: 0000-0002-4878-046X (2022-01-01)
      Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent anticancer drug, which can have unwanted side-effects such as cardiac and kidney toxicity. A detailed investigation was undertaken of the acute cytotoxic mechanisms of DOX on kidney cells, using Cos-7 cells as kidney cell model. Cos-7 cells were exposed to DOX for a period of 24 h over a range of concentrations, and the LC50 was determined to be 7 µM. Further investigations showed that cell death was mainly via apoptosis involving Ca2+ and caspase 9, in addition to autophagy. Regucalcin (RGN), a cytoprotective protein found mainly in liver and kidney tissues, was overexpressed in Cos-7 cells and shown to protect against DOX-induced cell death. Subcellular localization studies in Cos-7 cells showed RGN to be strongly correlated with the nucleus. However, upon treatment with DOX for 4 h, which induced membrane blebbing in some cells, the localization appeared to be correlated more with the mitochondria in these cells. It is yet to be determined whether this translocation is part of the cytoprotective mechanism or a consequence of chemically induced cell stress.
    • Regulation and roles of Ca2+ stores in human sperm.

      Correia, Joao; Michelangeli, Francesco; Publicover, Stephen; University of Birmingham (Bioscientifica, 2015-05-11)
      [Ca(2)(+)]i signalling is a key regulatory mechanism in sperm function. In mammalian sperm the Ca(2)(+)-permeable plasma membrane ion channel CatSper is central to [Ca(2)(+)]i signalling, but there is good evidence that Ca(2)(+) stored in intracellular organelles is also functionally important. Here we briefly review the current understanding of the diversity of Ca(2)(+) stores and the mechanisms for the regulation of their activity. We then consider the evidence for the involvement of these stores in [Ca(2)(+)]i signalling in mammalian (primarily human) sperm, the agonists that may activate these stores and their role in control of sperm function. Finally we consider the evidence that membrane Ca(2)(+) channels and stored Ca(2)(+) may play discrete roles in the regulation of sperm activities and propose a mechanism by which these different components of the sperm Ca(2)(+)-signalling apparatus may interact to generate complex and spatially diverse [Ca(2)(+)]i signals.
    • ‘Regurgitation and reingestion’ (R/R) in great apes: A review of current knowledge

      Hill, Sonya, P.; University of Chester; University of Cambridge (Wiley, 2018-08-02)
      Research indicates that regurgitation and reingestion (R/R) is a relatively common behaviour in zoo-housed great apes, with most work to date carried out on Western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes. It is an abnormal behaviour because great apes are not anatomically adapted to regurgitate their food as part of their normal feeding processes, and because this behaviour is not seen in members of the species living freely in the wild, in conditions that would allow a full behavioural range. In this article, I give an overview of the published literature on R/R in great apes, which suggests that this behaviour is probably multifactorial and may be linked to inappropriate feeding environments (e.g. in terms of nutritional composition of the diet and/or presentation of food), and possibly also social and other factors as well. A similar behaviour to R/R, known as rumination disorder, can also occur in another great ape species, humans, in whom it is classified as a feeding and eating disorder, and there are potential consequences to people’s physical health as a result of oral acid. There have been no known studies to date to identify whether or not similar health consequences can occur in non-human great apes, but the regurgitant has been found to be significantly more acidic in gorillas than the food they ingested originally, meaning it is potentially injurious in non-human great apes. There is much that is not yet known about this behaviour and how to reduce or eliminate it when it does occur, as the research indicates that there are a range of factors involved, and these can vary by individual animal. More research into this behaviour is clearly needed to ensure that zoos and sanctuaries are providing the best possible care for these animals, and I make some suggestions for future research directions.
    • Related flavonoids cause cooperative inhibition of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase by multimode mechanisms.

      Ogunbayo, Oluseye A.; Michelangeli, Francesco; University of Birmingham (Wiley, 2014-01-27)
      Flavonoids are group of plant-derived hydroxylated polycyclic molecules found in fruit and vegetables. They are known to bio-accumulate within humans and are considered to have beneficial health effects, including cancer chemoprotection. One mechanism proposed to explain this is that they are able to induce apoptosis in cancer cells by inhibiting a variety of kinases and also the Ca²⁺ ATPase. An investigation was undertaken with respect to the mechanism of inhibition for three flavonoids: quercetin, galangin and 3,6 dihydroxyflavone (3,6-DHF). Each inhibited the Ca²⁺ ATPase with K(i) values of 8.7, 10.3 and 5.4 μM, respectively, showing cooperative inhibition with n ~ 2. Given their similar structures, the flavonoids showed several differences in their mechanisms of inhibition. All three flavonoids stabilized the ATPase in the E₁ conformation and reduced [³²P]-ATP binding. However, both galangin and 3,6-DHF increased the affinity of Ca²⁺ for the ATPase by decreasing the Ca²⁺-dissociation rate constant, whereas quercetin had little effect. Ca²⁺-induced changes in tryptophan fluorescence levels were reduced in the presence of 3,6-DHF and galangin (but not with quercetin), indicating that Ca²⁺-associated changes within the transmembrane helices are altered. Both galangin and quercetin reduced the rates of ATP-dependent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, whereas 3,6-DHF did not. Modelling studies suggest that flavonoids could potentially bind to two sites: one directly where nucleotides bind within ATP binding site and the other at a site close by. We hypothesize that interactions of these two neighbouring sites may account for both the cooperative inhibition and the multimode mechanisms of action seen with related flavonoids.
    • Responses of dispersing GPS-tagged Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) to multiple wind farms across Scotland

      Fielding, Alan H; Anderson, David; Benn, Stuart; Dennis, Roy; Geary, Matthew; Weston, Ewan; Whitfield, Phil; Natural Research Ltd; Forestry and Land Scotland; RSPB Scotland; Roy Dennis Wildlife Foundation; University of Chester (Wiley, 2021-07-20)
      Wind farms may have two broad potential adverse effects on birds via antagonistic processes: displacement from the vicinity of turbines (avoidance), or death through collision with rotating turbine blades. Large raptors are often shown or presumed to be vulnerable to collision and are demographically sensitive to additional mortality, as exemplified by several studies of the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos. Previous findings from Scottish Eagles, however, have suggested avoidance as the primary response. Our study used data from 59 GPS-tagged Golden Eagles with 28 284 records during natal dispersal before and after turbine operation < 1 km of 569 turbines at 80 wind farms across Scotland. We tested three hypotheses using measurements of tag records’ distance from the hub of turbine locations: (1) avoidance should be evident; (2) older birds should show less avoidance (i.e. habituate to turbines); and (3) rotor diameter should have no influence (smaller diameters are correlated with a turbine’s age, in examining possible habituation). Four generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) were constructed with intrinsic habitat preference of a turbine location using Golden Eagle Topography (GET) model, turbine operation status (before/after), bird age and rotor diameter as fixed factors. The best GLMM was subsequently verified by k-fold cross-validation and involved only GET habitat preference and presence of an operational turbine. Eagles were eight times less likely to be within a rotor diameter’s distance of a hub location after turbine operation, and modelled displacement distance was 70 m. Our first hypothesis expecting avoidance was supported. Eagles were closer to turbine locations in preferred habitat but at greater distances after turbine operation. Results on bird age (no influence to 5+ years) rejected hypothesis 2, implying no habituation. Support for hypothesis 3 (no influence of rotor diameter) also tentatively inferred no habituation, but data indicated birds went slightly closer to longer rotor blades although not to the turbine tower. We proffer that understanding why avoidance or collision in large raptors may occur can be conceptually envisaged via variation in fear of humans as the ‘super predator’ with turbines as cues to this life-threatening agent.
    • A review of tropical dry forest ecosystem service research in the Caribbean – gaps and policy-implications

      Nelson, Howard; Devenish-Nelson, Eleanor; Rusk, Bonnie; Geary, Matthew; Lawrence, Andrew; University of Chester;University of Edinburgh; Grenada Dove Conservation Programme
      Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are globally threatened, yet remain poorly studied. In the Caribbean, the most biodiverse of island biodiversity hotspots, TDFs have structural properties distinct from the Neotropical mainland and are important to local communities for ecosystem services. We undertook a systematic review (n = 186) of ecosystem services literature of Caribbean TDF. Only 19.89% qualified for inclusion, with the majority (56.76%) from primary literature. Research on supporting services (31.14%), particularly primary production was predominant. Most studies (70.97%) took a biophysical perspective and quantification focused on the supply of ecosystem services (43.00%), while measurement of wellbeing benefits were uncommon. Geographic coverage of all studies was patchy originating from only nine of 28 independent countries and dependent territories. Our findings highlight a lack of research, while accentuating the value of grey literature in quantifying cultural services. Of concern, are gaps in air- and water-related services and the importance of TDF to human health. To move from biophysical assessments to a broader portfolio of ecosystem services studies, research on Caribbean TDF should be collaborative and strategic. Such gaps and research biases suggest opportunities for evidence-led policy-making. These lessons are relevant for mainstreaming ecosystem services into decision-making in Small Island Developing States.