• Laterality of hand function in naturalistically housed chimpanzees

      Fletcher, Alison W.; Weghorst, Jennifer A.; University College Chester ; Washington University (Psychology Press, 2005-05)
      Studies of laterality of hand function in chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) have the potential to tell us about the origins of handedness in Homo sapiens . However, the data are confusing, with discrepancies present between studies done in the field and the laboratory: the former show wild chimpanzees to be unlateralised at the population level, while the latter show captive chimpanzees as lateralised at the population level. This study of 26 semi-free ranging chimpanzees of Chester Zoo, UK, aimed to investigate a situation between the wild and captivity and provided ethological data for 43 categories of spontaneous manual use and 14 categories of tool use. Other variables recorded were subordinate hand activity, whether the subject was arboreal or terrestrial, and the identity of the subject. Using switching focal subject sampling, 23,978 bouts of hand use and 1,090 bouts of tool use were recorded. No population-level handedness was present for manual non-tool use activities in the naturalistically housed chimpanzees of Chester Zoo in a similar way to studies of wild chimpanzees. However, about half of the individuals were lateralised to one side or the other for the foraging behaviours of pick up , eat , and pluck . Using a modified version of McGrew and Marchant's (1997) Laterality Framework, these results are comparable to some wild and captive populations for similar foraging tasks. Bimanuality was rare and thus prevented comparison with captive experimental studies that have reported population right handedness. Behaviour involving contact with water elicited stronger lateralisation. Chester chimpanzees were more likely to exhibit hand preferences for manual tasks with increasing age but there were no effects of sex or rearing history on hand specialisations in adult individuals. Lateralisation was biased in tool use, which evoked significant left hand preferences in half the individuals, with no effect of age. Results are discussed.
    • "Learning to speak horse": The culture of "natural horsemanship"

      Birke, Lynda; University of Chester (Brill, 2007-01-01)
      This journal article discusses the rise of "natural horsemanship" as a definitive cultural change within the horse industry.
    • Lentiviral hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

      De Ravin, Suk S.; Wu, Xiaolin; Moir, Susan; Anaya-O'Brien, Sandra; Kwatemaa, Nana; Littel, Patricia; Theobald, Narda; Choi, Uimook; Su, Ling; Marquesen, Martha; et al. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2016-04-20)
      X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is a profound deficiency of T, B, and natural killer (NK) cell immunity caused by mutations inIL2RGencoding the common chain (gammac) of several interleukin receptors. Gamma-retroviral (gammaRV) gene therapy of SCID-X1 infants without conditioning restores T cell immunity without B or NK cell correction, but similar treatment fails in older SCID-X1 children. We used a lentiviral gene therapy approach to treat five SCID-X1 patients with persistent immune dysfunction despite haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplant in infancy. Follow-up data from two older patients demonstrate that lentiviral vector gammac transduced autologous HSC gene therapy after nonmyeloablative busulfan conditioning achieves selective expansion of gene-marked T, NK, and B cells, which is associated with sustained restoration of humoral responses to immunization and clinical improvement at 2 to 3 years after treatment. Similar gene marking levels have been achieved in three younger patients, albeit with only 6 to 9 months of follow-up. Lentiviral gene therapy with reduced-intensity conditioning appears safe and can restore humoral immune function to posthaploidentical transplant older patients with SCID-X1.
    • The life and works of Emily Dix, 1904-1972

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Cleal, C. (Geological Society, 2005-04-01)
      This book chapter discusses the life and career of the British palaeobotanist Emily Dix (1904-1972).
    • Lipid remodelling in the reef-building honeycomb worm, Sabellaria alveolata, reflects acclimation and local adaptation to temperature

      Muir, Anna P.; Nunes, Flavia L. D.; Dubois, Stanislas F.; Pernet, Fabrice; University of Chester; Ifremer Centre Bretagne; Ifremer Centre Bretagne; Ifremer Centre Bretagne (Nature Publishing Group, 2016-10-20)
      Acclimation and adaptation, which are key to species survival in a changing climate, can be observed in terms of membrane lipid composition. Remodelling membrane lipids, via homeoviscous adaptation (HVA), counteracts membrane dysfunction due to temperature in poikilotherms. In order to assess the potential for acclimation and adaptation in the honeycomb worm, Sabellaria alveolata, a reefbuilding polychaete that supports high biodiversity, we carried out common-garden experiments using individuals from along its latitudinal range. Individuals were exposed to a stepwise temperature increase from 15 °C to 25 °C and membrane lipid composition assessed. Our results suggest that S. alveolata was able to acclimate to higher temperatures, as observed by a decrease in unsaturation index and 20:5n-3. However, over the long-term at 25 °C, lipid composition patterns are not consistent with HVA expectations and suggest a stress response. Furthermore, unsaturation index of individuals from the two coldest sites were higher than those from the two warmest sites, with individuals from the thermally intermediate site being in-between, likely reflecting local adaptation to temperature. Therefore, lipid remodelling appears limited at the highest temperatures in S. alveolata, suggesting that individuals inhabiting warm environments may be close to their upper thermal tolerance limits and at risk in a changing climate.
    • Literature and science: Social impact and interaction

      Cartwright, John H.; Baker, Brian; University of Chester (ABC-CLIO, 2005-07-31)
      This book discusses the complex relationship between science and literature from Dante and Chaucer through to the twenty-first century. It focuses on science and literature in medieval times, the Elizabethan Renaissance, the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, nineteenth-century British and American literature and science, themes in science fiction, and the twentieth-century.
    • Llandudno trail questionnaire and workshop

      Tilson, Elaine; Burek, Cynthia V.; Underwood, John; Legg, Colin; University College Chester (Association of UK RIGS Groups, 2004)
      This book chapter discusses the development and production of a geologically focused brochure based on Llandudno.
    • Local adaptation with high gene flow: temperature parameters drive adaptation to altitude in the common frog (Rana temporaria)

      Muir, Anna P.; Biek, Roman; Thomas, R.; Mable, Barbara K.; University of Chester; University of Glasgow; Royal Zoological Society of Scotland (Wiley, 2014-01-20)
      Both environmental and genetic influences can result in phenotypic variation. Quantifying the relative contributions of local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity to phenotypes is key to understanding the effect of environmental variation on populations. Identifying the selective pressures that drive divergence is an important, but often lacking, next step. High gene flow between high- and low-altitude common frog (Rana temporaria) breeding sites has previously been demonstrated in Scotland. The aim of this study was to assess whether local adaptation occurs in the face of high gene flow and to identify potential environmental selection pressures that drive adaptation. Phenotypic variation in larval traits was quantified in R. temporaria from paired high- and low-altitude sites using three common temperature treatments. Local adaptation was assessed using QST -FST analyses, and quantitative phenotypic divergence was related to environmental parameters using Mantel tests. Although evidence of local adaptation was found for all traits measured, only variation in larval period and growth rate was consistent with adaptation to altitude. Moreover, this was only evident in the three mountains with the highest high-altitude sites. This variation was correlated with mean summer and winter temperatures, suggesting that temperature parameters are potentially strong selective pressures maintaining local adaptation, despite high gene flow.
    • Local geodiversity action plans (LGAPs) and the community – The Cheshire region LGAP

      Potter, Jacqueline; University of Chester (English Nature, 2005)
    • Local geodiversity action plans - setting to context for geological conservation

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline; University of Chester (English Nature, 2006)
      This booklet discusses local geodiversity action plans (LGAPs) can be established to safeguard and manage the geological resources. A number of case studies are included and recommendations are made.
    • Local geodiversity action plans - sharing good practice workshop, Peterborough, 3 December 2003

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Potter, Jacqueline; Chester College of Higher Education (English Nature, 2004)
      This booklet discusses a workshop held in Peterborough in 2003 to examine good practice in the development of local geodiversity action plans (LGAPs). Six cases studies from Cheshire, County Durham and North Pennines, Leicestershire and Rutland, Staffordshire, Tees Valley, and Warwickshire.
    • Long term analysis of social structure: evidence of age-based consistent associations in male Alpine ibex

      Brambilla, Alice; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Canedoli, Claudia; Brivio, Francesca; Sueur, Cédric; Stanley, Christina R.; University of Zurich; University of Chester; University of Milano Bicocca; University of Sassari; University de Strasbourg; Institut Universitaire de France (Wiley, 2022-06-28)
      Despite its recognized importance for understanding the evolution of animal sociality as well as for conservation, long term analysis of social networks of animal populations is still relatively uncommon. We investigated social network dynamics in males of a gregarious mountain ungulate (Alpine ibex, Capra ibex) over ten years focusing on groups, sub-groups and individuals, exploring the dynamics of sociality over different scales. Despite the social structure changing between seasons, the Alpine ibex population was highly cohesive: fission–fusion dynamics lead almost every male in the population to associate with each other male at least once. Nevertheless, we found that male Alpine ibex showed preferential associations that were maintained across seasons and years. Age seemed to be the most important factor driving preferential associations while other characteristics, such as social status, appeared less crucial. We also found that centrality measures were influenced by age and were also related to individual physical condition. The multi-scale and long-term frame of our study helped us show that ecological constrains, such as resource availability, may play a role in shaping associations in a gregarious species, but they cannot solely explain sociality and preferential association that are likely also to be driven by life-history linked physiological and social needs. Our results highlight the importance of long-term studies based on individually recognizable subjects to help us build on our understanding of the evolution of animal sociality.
    • A look at life

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (1996-11-14)
    • Lower limb orthopaedic surgery results in changes to coagulation and non-specific inflammatory biomarkers, including selective clinical outcome measures

      Hughes, Stephen F.; Hendricks, Beverly D.; Edwards, David R.; Bastawrous, Salah S.; Middleton, Jim F.; University of Chester; Keele University; Glan Clwyd Hospital; Gwynedd Hospital; University of Bristol (BioMed Central, 2013-11-09)
      Background: With an aging society and raised expectations, joint replacement surgery is likely to increase significantly in the future. The development of postoperative complications following joint replacement surgery (for example, infection, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and deep vein thrombosis) is also likely to increase. Despite considerable progress in orthopaedic surgery, comparing a range of biological markers with the ultimate aim of monitoring or predicting postoperative complications has not yet been extensively researched. The aim of this clinical pilot study was to test the hypothesis that lower limb orthopaedic surgery results in changes to coagulation, non-specific markers of inflammation (primary objective) and selective clinical outcome measures (secondary objective). Methods Test subjects were scheduled for elective total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) orthopaedic surgery due to osteoarthritis (n = 10). Platelet counts and D-dimer concentrations were measured to assess any changes to coagulation function. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured as markers of non-specific inflammation. Patients were monitored regularly to assess for any signs of postoperative complications, including blood transfusions, oedema (knee swelling), wound infection, pain and fever. Results THR and TKR orthopaedic surgery resulted in similar changes of coagulation and non-specific inflammatory biomarkers, suggestive of increased coagulation and inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Specifically, THR and TKR surgery resulted in an increase in platelet (P = 0.013, THR) and D-dimer (P = 0.009, TKR) concentrations. Evidence of increased inflammation was demonstrated by an increase in CRP and ESR (P ≤ 0.05, THR and TKR). Four patients received blood transfusions (two THR and two TKR patients), with maximal oedema, pain and aural temperatures peaking between days 1 and 3 postoperatively, for both THR and TKR surgery. None of the patients developed postoperative infections. Conclusions The most noticeable changes in biological markers occur during days 1 to 3 postoperatively for both THR and TKR surgery, and these may have an effect on such postoperative clinical outcomes as oedema, pyrexia and pain. This study may assist in understanding the postoperative course following lower limb orthopaedic surgery, and may help clinicians in planning postoperative management and patient care.
    • Mabel Elizabeth Tomlinson and Isabel Ellie Knaggs: two overlooked early female Fellows of the Geological Society

      Burek, Cynthia V; University of Chester
      Abstract: The first female Fellows of the Geological Society of London were elected in May 1919. Brief biographies were documented by Burek in 2009 as part of the celebrations for the bicentenary of the Geological Society. While some of those women were well known (e.g. Gertrude Elles and Ethel Wood), others had seemingly been forgotten. In the decade since that publication, information has come to light about those we knew so little about. There are, however, still some details evading research. From 1919 until 1925, 33 women were elected FGS, including Isobel Ellie Knaggs (1922) and Mabel Tomlinson (1924). Mabel Tomlinson had two careers, and is remembered both as an extraordinary teacher and a Pleistocene geologist. She was awarded the Lyell Fund in 1937 and R.H. Worth Prize in 1961, one of only 13 women to have received two awards from the Geological Society. She inspired the educational Tomlinson–Brown Trust. Isabel Knaggs was born in South Africa and died in Australia but spent all her school, university and working years in England. She made significant contributions to crystallography, working with eminent crystallography scientists but remained a lifelong FGS. The achievements of Tomlinson and Knaggs are considerable, which makes their relative present-day obscurity rather puzzling.
    • Mainstreaming prevention: Prescribing fruit and vegetables as a brief intervention in primary care

      Kearney, Matt; Bradbury, C.; Ellahi, Basma; Hodgson, M.; Thurston, Miranda (Elsevier, 2005)
      This articles discusses a project at the Castlefields Health Centre in Halton whereby primary care professionals issue a prescription for discounts on fruit and vegetables. The prescription is explicitly linked to the five-a-day message.
    • Making education for sustainable development: Inside-out and outside-in

      Lipscombe, Bryan P.; Ribchester, Chris; University of Chester (2007-07-10)
    • Mangrove and mudflat food webs are segregated across four trophic levels, yet connected by highly mobile top predators

      Marley, Guy; Lawrence, Andrew; Phillip, Dawn; Hayden, Brian; Canadian Rivers Institute
      Seascape connectivity is crucial for healthy, resilient ecosystems and fisheries. Yet, our understanding of connectivity in turbid mangrove-lined estuaries—some of the world’s most productive ecosystems—is limited to macrotidal systems, and rarely incorporates highly mobile top predators. We analysed δ13C and δ15N isotope values of 7 primary producers, 24 invertebrate taxa, 13 fishes, 4 birds and 1 reptile to reveal trophic interactions within and between a mangrove and adjacent mudflat in a microtidal system of the Gulf of Paria, Orinoco River estuary. Primary producers, invertebrates and fishes collected within the mangrove were significantly depleted in 13C and 15N compared to those collected on the mudflat. Stable isotope mixing models showed that mangrove-derived carbon was predominantly assimilated by invertebrates (78 ± 5% SE) and fishes (88 ± 11%) sampled in the mangrove. In contrast, invertebrates and fishes sampled in the mudflat derived <21% of their carbon from mangrove sources. Instead, microphytobenthos and phytoplankton underpinned the mudflat food web. Scarlet ibis Eudocimus ruber and yellow-crowned night heron Nyctanassa violacea were also highly associated with mangrove carbon sources. However, osprey Pandion haliaetus, snowy egret Egretta thula and spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus obtained carbon from both mangrove and mudflat sources, effectively integrating the food webs. The present study demonstrates simultaneous aspects of food web segregation and connectivity, as well as the importance of surveying the entire food web across a range of tidal systems when investigating seascape connectivity.
    • Mangrove or mudflat: Prioritising fish habitat for conservation in a turbid tropical estuary

      Marley, Guy; Deacon, Amy; Philip, Dawn; Lawrence, Andrew; University of the West Indies, University of the West Indies, University of the West Indies, University of Chester (Elsevier, 2020-04-26)
      Mangrove habitats are typically the focus of conservation efforts in tropical estuaries because their structural complexity is thought to support greater biodiversity and nursery function than unvegetated habitats. However, evidence for this paradigm has been equivocal in turbid tropical estuaries where unvegetated mudflats are also highly productive. The present study compared the community composition, biodiversity, nursery-role and commercial fish biomass in two mangrove habitats and one mudflat habitat in the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad. A total of 12 705 fishes, comprising 63 species from 26 families, were sampled in mangrove creeks, seaward mangrove fringe and the subtidal margin of an intertidal mudflat from June 2014 to June 2015. The composition of the creek and mudflat communities were distinct, while the community of the mangrove fringe more closely resembled the mudflat than the mangrove creeks. Mean species richness (MSR), total species richness (TSR) extrapolated from species accumulation curves, and juvenile species richness (JSR) were significantly greater in the mudflat (MSR = 11.4 ± 1.0; TSR = 75 ± 14; JSR = 9.1 ± 0.8) than mangrove creeks (MSR = 9.0 ± 0.5; TSR = 49 ± 3; JSR = 6.1 ± 0.4) and the seaward mangrove fringe (MSR = 6.4 ± 0.7; TSR = 58 ± 14; JSR = 5.2 ± 0.4). Meanwhile, Shannon Weiner diversity, juvenile fish abundance and commercial fish biomass were comparable between habitats. These findings caution against the generalisation that mangroves are the most important habitat for fishes in turbid tropical estuaries. There is now a growing body of evidence that mudflats warrant consideration as important repositories of biodiversity and nursery function for juvenile fishes.
    • Margaret Chorley Crosfield, FGS: the very first female Fellow of the Geological Society

      Burek, C. V.; orcid: 0000-0002-7931-578X (Geological Society of London, 2020-07-10)
      AbstractIn May 1919 the first female Fellows of the Geological Society were elected and from then on attended meetings at the Society. The first person on the female fellows’ list was Margaret Chorley Crosfield. She was born in 1859 and died in 1952. She lived all her life in Reigate in Surrey. After studying and then leaving Cambridge, Margaret had sought to join the Geological Society of London for many years, in order to gain recognition of her research work, but also to attend meetings and use the library. This paper will look at her history and trace her geological achievements in both stratigraphy and palaeontology, as well as her extraordinary field notebooks that she left to the Geological Survey. She worked closely with two female geological colleagues, Mary Johnston and Ethel Skeat. Margaret Crosfield epitomizes the educated, amateur, independent woman who wanted to be recognized for her work, especially fieldwork, at a time when female contributions, especially in the field sciences, were not always acknowledged or even appreciated.