• Head imaging and craniometry: A historical note on a base line error

      Lewis, Stephen J.; Chester College of Higher Education (College of Radiographers, 1995-07)
      This journal article discusses the work of Lysholm, Reid, and von Ihering in standarding patient positioning during radiological examination of the skull.
    • Heat shock proteins form part of a danger signal cascade in response to lipopolysaccharide and GroEL

      Davies, Emma L.; Bacelar, Maria M. F. V. G.; Marshall, Michael J.; Johnson, E.; Wardle, T. D.; Andrew, Sarah M.; Williams, John H. H.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; Charles Salt Centre, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; Spinal Studies, The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; Countess of Chester Hospital ; University of Chester ; University of Chester (Wiley, 2006-05-26)
      An increasing number of cell types, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), have been demonstrated to release heat shock proteins (Hsps). This paper investigates further the hypothesis that Hsps are danger signals. PBMCs and Jurkat cells released Hsp70 (0·22 and 0·7 ng/106 cells, respectively) into medium over 24 h at 37°C. Release of Hsp70 was stimulated 10-fold by GroEL (P < 0·001) and more than threefold by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (P < 0·001). Although Hsp60 could be detected in the medium of cells cultured at 37°C for 24 h, the low rates of release were due probably to cell damage. Significant release of Hsp60 was observed when Jurkat cells were exposed to GroEL (2·88 ng/106 cells) or LPS (1·40 ng/106 cells). The data are consistent with the hypothesis that Hsp70 and Hsp60 are part of a danger signalling cascade in response to bacterial infection.
    • Helpers influence on territory use and maintenance in Alpine marmot groups

      Pasquaretta, Cristian; Busia, Laura; Ferrari, Caterina; Bogliani, Giuseppe; Reale, Denis; von Hardenberg, Achaz; University of Pavia, Universiteé du Quebec a Montreal, Gran Paradiso National Park (2015-04-22)
      In social mammals, territory size and shape vary according to the number and strength of neighbour individuals competing for resources. Two main theories have been proposed to explain this variability: the Group Augmentation (GA) and the realized Resource Holding Potential (rRHP) hypotheses. The first states that the outcome of the interactions among groups depends on the total number of individuals in the group while the second states that only the number of animals directly involved in intergroup competition determines this outcome. We collected data on space use of individually tagged Alpine marmots ( Marmota marmota), a cooperative breeding species that overlaps part of its territory with neighbouring groups. In accordance with the rRHP hypothesis, we found that groups having higher proportion of helpers, rather than higher total number of individuals, had lower percentage of the territory overlapping with neighbouring groups and a larger area available for individual exclusive use.
    • Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus nest sites on the Isle of Mull are associated with habitat mosaics and constrained by topography

      Geary, Matthew; Haworth, Paul F.; Fielding, Alan H.; University of Chester; Haworth Conservation Ltd. (Taylor & Francis, 2018-02-07)
      Capsule: Hen Harrier on the Isle of Mull, UK, are associated with habitat mosaics consisting of moorland, scrub and forestry but avoid grazed land, suggesting that forested habitats could be managed sympathetically for Hen Harrier in the future should the current UK population increase. Aims: To use distribution modelling to investigate nesting habitat associations using a long term dataset for Hen Harrier on Mull. Methods: We develop area-interaction models using a LASSO penalty to explore the distribution of 102 Hen Harrier nest sites in relation to habitat and topography. Our model is then successfully validated in tests using data for 70 nest sites from subsequent years. Results: Our model is effective in predicting suitable areas for Hen Harrier nest sites and indicates that Hen Harriers on Mull are found in habitat mosaics below 200 m asl. Hen Harrier nest intensity is positively associated with increasing proportions of moorland and scrub, open canopy forestry and closed canopy forestry. Nest intensity is negatively associated with increasing proportions of grazed land. Conclusion: Hen Harrier avoid grazed areas but are relatively tolerant of other habitat combinations. These findings are supported by previous observations of Hen Harrier habitat use and have implications for the recovery of some Hen Harrier SPA populations and future forest management. Open canopy forest and forest mosaics could potentially be incorporated into landscape-scale conservation plans for Hen Harriers using the population in Mull as an example.
    • Heterospecific Fear and Avoidance Behaviour in Domestic Horses (Equus caballus)

      Stanley, Christina; Wiśniewska, Anna; Janczarek, Iwona; Wilk, Izabela; Tkaczyk, Ewelina; Mierzicka, Martyna; Górecka‐Bruzda, Aleksandra; University of Chester; University of Life Sciences in Lublin; Polish Academy of Sciences (MDPI, 2021-10-28)
      Ridden horses have been reported to be fearful of cows. We tested whether cows could provoke behavioural and cardiac fear responses in horses, and whether these responses differ in magnitude to those shown to other potential dangers. Twenty horses were exposed to cow, a mobile object or no object. The time spent at different distances from the stimulus was measured. In a separate test, heart rate (HR), root mean square of successive differences between heartbeats (RMSSD) and the horses’ perceived fear were assessed at various distances from the stimuli. The horses avoided the area nearest to all stimuli. During hand‐leading, the cow elicited the highest HR and lowest RMSSD. Led horses’ responses to the cow and box were rated as more fearful as the distance to the stimulus decreased. Mares had a higher HR than geldings across all tests. HR positively correlated with the fearfulness rating at the furthest distance from the cow and box, and RMSSD negatively correlated with this rating in cow and control conditions. Our results show that these horses’ avoidance response to cows was similar or higher to that shown towards a novel moving object, demonstrating that potentially, both neophobia and heterospecific communication play a role in this reaction.
    • Higher risk of gastrointestinal parasite infection at lower elevation suggests possible constraints in the distributional niche of Alpine marmots

      Zanet, Stefania; Miglio, Giacomo; Ferrari, Caterina; Bassano, Bruno; Ferroglio, Ezio; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Università di Torino; Gran Paradiso National Park; University of Chester (Public Library of Science, 2017-08-01)
      Alpine marmots Marmota marmota occupy a narrow altitudinal niche within high elevation alpine environments. For animals living at such high elevations where resources are limited, parasitism represents a potential major cost in life history. Using occupancy models, we tested if marmots living at higher elevation have a reduced risk of being infected with gastrointestinal helminths, possibly compensating the lower availability of resources (shorter feeding season, longer snow cover and lower temperature) than marmots inhabiting lower elevations. Detection probability of eggs and oncospheres of two gastro-intestinal helminthic parasites, Ascaris laevis and Ctenotaenia marmotae, sampled in marmot feces, was used as a proxy of parasite abundance. As predicted, the models showed a negative relationship between elevation and parasite detectability (i.e. abundance) for both species, while there appeared to be a negative effect of solar radiance only for C. marmotae. Site-occupancy models are used here for the first time to model the constrains of gastrointestinal parasitism on a wild species and the relationship existing between endoparasites and environmental factors in a population of free-living animals. The results of this study suggest the future use of site-occupancy models as a viable tool to account for parasite imperfect detection in ecoparasitological studies, and give useful insights to further investigate the hypothesis of the contribution of parasite infection in constraining the altitudinal niche of Alpine marmots.
    • Higher satiety ratings following yogurt consumption relative to fruit drink or dairy fruit drink

      Tsuchiya, Ami; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Lluch, Anne; Guyonnet, Denis; Drewnowski, Adam; University of Washington ; University of Washington ; Danone Research Centre, France ; Danone Research Centre, France ; University of Washington (Elsevier, 2006-04)
      This article compares the satiating power of semisolid and liquid yogurts with fruit beverages and dairy fruit drinks using 32 volunteers.
    • The historical problems of travel for women undertaking geological fieldwork

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Kolbl-Ebert, Martina; University of Chester ; Jura-Museum, Willibaldsburg (The Geological Society of London, 2007-08-01)
      From unsuitable clothes to a lack of chaperones, from sexual harrassment to lack of proper funding, throughout history women geologists have encountered difficulties travelling to their field location or wotking in the field, whether these locations were close by or abroad. From Etheldred Benett to the present day problems are often sociological and political as well as logistical. Most early women geologists were able to avoid many difficulties because they were protected through working locally where their high social standing was known and respected or because they worked in a team with husband, father, or brother. However the problem developed virulence in the second half of the nineteenth century when women started to appear as students and professionally trained geologists. The single travelling women geologist had to face desciminating attitudes, ranging from pity to disregard and even to sexual harrassment. Benevolent society also had its problems with these women when, for example, professors needed their wives as chaperones to take women students on field trips.
    • Homocysteine and cognitive decline in healthy elderly

      McCaddon, Andrew; Hudson, Peter R.; Davies, Gareth K.; Hughes, Alan; Williams, John H. H.; Wilkinson, Clare; University of Wales College of Medicine ; Wrexham Maelor Hospital ; Wrexham Maelor Hospital ; Royal Alexandra Hospital, Paisley ; Chester College ; University of Wales College of Medicine (Karger, 2001-09)
      Serum homocysteine is increased, and correlates inversely with cognitive scores, in Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia and "age-associated memory impairment". Elevated levels might signal accelerated cognitive decline, although this remains to be established. We therefore repeated Mini-Mental State Examinations, together with additional ADAS-Cog assessments, in 32 healthy elderly individuals to determine whether prior homocysteine levels predicted cognitive changes over a 5-year period.
    • Hsp70 release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells

      Hunter-Lavin, Claire; Davies, Emma L.; Bacelar, Maria M. F. V. G.; Marshall, Michael J.; Andrew, Sarah M.; Williams, John H. H.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; University College Chester ; University College Chester (Elsevier, 2004-11-12)
      There are an increasing number of studies reporting the presence of Hsps in human serum. We have investigated the release of Hsp70 into blood and culture medium from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and whether this release is due to cell damage or active secretion from the cells. Intact Hsp70 was released from cells within whole blood and from purified PBMCs under normal culture conditions. Hsp70 release was rapid (0.1 ng/106 cells/h) over the first 2 h of culture and continued at a reduced rate up to 24 h (<0.025 ng/106 cells/h). Using viable cell counts and lactate dehydrogenase release we were able to confirm that the release of Hsp70 was not due to cellular damage. Hsp70 release was inhibited by monensin, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, and methylamine, but not by brefeldin A. These data suggest that Hsp70 is released from cells via a non-classical pathway, possibly involving lysosomal lipid rafts.
    • Human-controlled reproductive experience may contribute to incestuous behavior observed in reintroduced semi-feral stallions (Equus caballus)

      Stanley, Christina; Górecka-Bruzda, Alexandra; Jaworska, Joanna; Siemieniuch, Marta; Jaworski, Zbigniew; Wocławek-Potocka, Izabela; Lansade, Lea; University of Chester; Polish Academy of Sciences; University of Warmia and Mazury; Centre INRAE Val-de-Loire (Elsevier, 2021-12-17)
      Equine reproductive behavior is affected by many factors, some remaining poorly understood. This study tested the hypothesis that a period of captivity during the juvenile period and human-controlled reproduction may potentially be involved in the disruption of the development of incestuous mating avoidance behavior in sanctuary-reintroduced male Konik polski horses. Between 1986 and 2000, cases of incestuous behavior in harem stallions born and reared until weaning in the sanctuary were studied. Eight males lived in the sanctuary’s feral herd for the rest of their lives (the non-captive group; nC). They gained their own harem of mares without human intervention (no human-controlled reproductive activity, nHC). Another five stallions were removed as weanlings, reared in captivity and then reintroduced as adults (captive, C). Three of these C stallions were used as in-hand breeding stallions, one as a “teaser” (human-controlled reproductive activity, HC) and one was not used for reproduction in captivity (nHC). Reproductive records for 46 mares, daughters of all 13 harem stallions, were scrutinized and cases of incestuous breeding were recorded by interrogation of foal parentage records. C stallions failed to expel more daughters than nC stallions (33% vs. 18%, P = 0.045), and mated with significantly more of them (28% vs. 11%, P = 0.025). Interestingly, HC stallions expelled fewer (60%) and successfully mated with more (33%) daughters that nHC stallions (84% expelled, P = 0.013, and 10% successful mating with daughters, P = 0.010). All HC stallions bred incestuously at least once. We propose that human intervention during a critical period of development of social and reproductive behavior in young stallions, by enforced separation from their natal herd and in-hand breeding, may contribute to their later aberrant behavior and disruption of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in these stallions. The previous occurrence of human-controlled breeding may be one of the factors promoting incestuous behavior of stallions in natural conditions. The uninterrupted presence of stallions in their harems and herd member recognition may also play important roles in inbreeding avoidance in horses.
    • Hunger, thirst, and energy intakes following consumption of caloric beverages

      Almiron-Roig, Eva; Drewnowski, Adam; University of Washington (Elsevier, 2003-09)
      Whereas soft drinks are described as primarily thirst-quenching liquids, juices and milk are said to be liquid foods, with a greater satiating power. This study was conducted to compare the effects of orange juice, low-fat milk (1%), regular cola, and sparkling water on hunger, thirst, satiety, and energy intakes at the next meal. Thirty-two volunteers (14 men and 18 women), ages 18–35 years, consumed a breakfast preload composed of 590 ml (20 oz) of an energy-containing beverage (1036 kJ) or water (0 kJ) and a slice of toast (418 kJ) on four different occasions. Participants rated hunger, thirst, fullness, and desire to eat at baseline and at 20-min intervals for 2 h following preload ingestion. A tray lunch was presented at 2 h, 15 min and food consumption was measured. Compared to sparkling water, the three energy-containing beverages were associated with higher fullness and reduced hunger rating and desire to eat. However, energy intakes at lunch (4511±151 kJ for men and 3183±203 kJ for women) were the same across all four beverage conditions and no compensation for breakfast energy was observed. The three beverages of equal energy value were significantly different from sparkling water, but not from each other, in their effects on hunger and satiety ratings. All four beverages satisfied thirst equally well. Whether energy-containing cola, juice, and low-fat milk facilitate a positive energy balance remains a topic for further study.
    • Ida Slater: A Collection Researcher in a Male World at the Beginning of the 20th Century

      Burek, Cynthia V.; Sendino, Consuelo; Ducker, Erik; University of Chester, Natural Hisotry Museum, University College London
      'Ida Lilian Slater (1881-1969) was one of the first women to work as a geologist in a male w·orld, and although her career was short, she made important contributions to the Early Palaeozoic of Wales and Scotland. Her main work was based on a col lection of a group of fossil scyphozoan polyps gathered not by her but by another significant woman, Elizabeth Anderson , widely known as Mrs. Robert Gray (1831-1924). The majority of this col lection is kept at the Natural History Museum (NHM), London, and the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge. She worked in the former one for two years describing species and comparing specimens for her monograph on British conulariids. Although her work was based not only on this group, she will be remembered by her important contribution to the conulariids through collections. The NHM collection is considered the best in the world in terms of diversity and the second best in its number of specimens, while the Sedgwick Museum has a smal ler co llection that is still considered the second best in diversity and number of specimens in the United l<ingdom. Her work has been cited for more than 100 years and continues to be cited to this day by researchers on this group of fossi ls.
    • Ida Slater: A Collection Researcher in a Male World at the Beginning of the 20th Century

      Sendino, Consuelo; Ducker, Erik; Burek, Cynthia V. (SAGE Publications, 2019-06-27)
      Ida Lilian Slater (1881-1969) was one of the first women to work as a geologist in a male world, and although her career was short, she made important contributions to the Early Palaeozoic of Wales and Scotland. Her main work was based on a collection of a group of fossil scypho-zoan polyps gathered not by her but by another significant woman, Elizabeth Anderson, widely known as Mrs. Robert Gray (1831-1924). The majority of this collection is kept at the Natural History Museum (NHM), London, and the Sedgwick Museum, Cambridge. She worked in the former one for two years describing species and comparing specimens for her monograph on British conulariids. Although her work was based not only on this group, she will be remembered by her important contribution to the conulariids through collections. The NHM collection is considered the best in the world in terms of diversity and the second best in its number of specimens, while the Sedgwick Museum has a smaller collection that is still considered the second best in diversity and number of specimens in the United Kingdom. Her work has been cited for more than 100 years and continues to be cited to this day by researchers on this group of fossils.
    • Imaging atherosclerotic plaque inflammation with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography

      Rudd, H. F.; Warburton, E. A.; Fryer, Tim D.; Jones, H. A.; Clark, J. C.; Antoun, N.; Johnström, Peter; Davenport, Anthony P.; Kirkpatrick, Peter J.; Arch, Barbara N.; et al. (American Heart Association, 2002-06-20)
      This study demonstrates that atherosclerotic plaque inflammation can be imaged with 18FDG-PET, and that symptomatic, unstable plaques accumulate more 18FDG than asymptomatic lesions.
    • Immunoassays: Their history, development and current place in food science and technology

      Bonwick, Graham A.; Smith, Christopher J.; University College Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2004-10-20)
      This article discusses the types and variety of immunoassays, which are currently available. Immunoassays provide a powerful tool, which can be used in the analysis and quality control of food materials. For both the novice and the experienced worker the specialist terminology of a subject presents an initial barrier, which must be overcome before full understanding is achieved. In this paper an attempt is made to introduce the important terms with which the reader should be familiar and to try to set the various technologies in context. The various basic methods are described and the theoretical and practical basis of more sophisticated assays now being devised are introduced.
    • Impact of tank background on the welfare of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Daudin)

      Holmes, Andrew M.; Emmans, Christopher J.; Jones, Niall; Coleman, Robert C.; Smith, Tessa E.; Hosie, Charlotte A.; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2016-09-14)
      The captive environment of a laboratory animal can profoundly influence its welfare and the scientific validity of research produced. The African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) is a common model organism, however current husbandry guidelines lack supporting quantitative evidence. The visual environment is a fundamental aspect of a captive animal’s housing and may affect a number of physiological and behavioural responses. This is particularly important for species such as X. laevis where cryptic camouflage is a fundamental defence mechanism. Here male (n = 16) and female (n = 20) X. laevis were housed in tanks with ecologically relevant (black) and non-relevant (white) background colours and physiological and behavioural responses observed. Higher levels of water-borne corticosterone were observed in tanks with a white background compared to a black background in females (p = 0.047). Increased atypical active behaviours (Swimming: p = 0.042; Walling: p = 0.042) and a greater degree of body mass loss (p < 0.001) were also observed in the white background condition. Together these responses are indicative of increased stress of X. laevis when housed in tanks with a non-ecologically relevant background compared to an ecologically relevant background and suggest refined tank background colour may improve welfare in this species.
    • The importance of long-term genetic monitoring of reintroduced populations: inbreeding in the natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita)

      Muir, Anna P.; Phillips, Susanna; Geary, Matt; Allmark, Matthew; Bennett, Sarah; Norman, Kim; Ball, Rachel J.; Peters, Catherine; University of Chester; Cheshire Wildlife Trust; Eni UK Ltd (British Herpetological Society, 2020-07-31)
      Genetic monitoring is an important, but frequently lacking, component of management actions to support long-term persistence in reintroduced populations. Populations that remain small, due to demographic processes and genetic diversity, are more likely to experience a second extinction event. The natterjack toad (Epidelea calamita) is legally protected in Britain and was the subject of a reintroduction programme in the 1990s. However, subsequent genetic assessment has been mostly lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the genetic diversity of two reintroduced populations of natterjack toads in order to inform conservation management. Adults were sampled and nine microsatellites amplified to assess neutral genetic variation within each site and for comparison with the source population. Inbreeding was observed at the reintroduction sites, as evidenced by high FIS values (0.43 and 0.72), low observed compared to expected heterozygosities, and significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Observed heterozygosity is currently lower in the reintroduction sites than it was in the source population at the time of the reintroductions (Red Rocks: 0.15±0.20; Talacre: 0.12±0.20; Ainsdale (source): 0.29). Evidence for a bottleneck was not found, although this is likely a result of sampling overlapping generations. No within-site population structuring was observed. Such low genetic diversity has not previously been recorded in any natterjack population. Genetic rescue, combined with pool creation, is the most viable option for safeguarding the species at these sites into the future. Our work highlights the importance of ongoing genetic monitoring, in collaboration with conservation organisations, to support conservation management.
    • The importance of quaternary geoconservation

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (Quarternary Research Association, 2012)
    • The importance of research applicability

      McLennan, Krista M.; University of Chester (The Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy, 2019-06-30)
      Marino & Merskin’s (2019) review contains key information about the complexity of sheep and their intelligence level, but lacks practical application. The key to making any long-term changes to sheep welfare at an industry level is by generating research that is practically relevant to the sector. The practical application of research should be considered at the design stage and in consultation with producers. Additionally, thought needs to be given to how the practical application of the research will be transferred to those people directly involved in animal care (e.g. producers, stockpersons, etc.). Focusing on the practical relevance and application of research at all stages of the process will foster changes to long-held beliefs and attitudes.