• Dame Maria Matilda Ogilvie Gordon, A Britisher and a woman at that (1864-1939)

      Burek, Cynthia V. (Earth Science Teachers' Association, 2005)
      This article discusses the life and work of Dame Maria Matilda Ogilvie Gordon (1864-1939).
    • Detection of irradiated food by immunoassay - development and optimization of an ELISA for dihydrothymidine in irradiated prawns

      Tyreman, Anne L.; Bonwick, Graham A.; Smith, Christopher J.; Coleman, Robert C.; Beaumont, Paul C.; Williams, John H. H.; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; University of Chester ; Homerton College, Cambridge ; University of Chester (Blackwell, 12/11/2013)
      This article discribes the development and use of a competitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) to detect prawns which have been irradiated.
    • The development of a facial expression scale using footrot and mastitis as models of pain in sheep

      McLennan, Krista M.; Rebelo, Carlos J. B.; Corke, Murray J.; Holmes, Mark A.; Leach, Matthew C.; Constantino-Casas, Fernando; University of Chester; University of Cambridge; Newcastle University (Elsevier, 19/01/2016)
      Management of pain in sheep is limited by the challenges of recognising and accurately quantifying 35 pain in this species. The use of facial expression scoring to assess pain is a well-utilised, practical tool 36 in both humans and non-human animals. The objective of this study was to develop a standardised 37 facial expression pain scale for adult sheep, that could be used reliably and accurately to detect pain 38 associated with naturally occurring painful diseases, such as footrot and mastitis. We also investigated 39 whether the scale could be reliably and accurately utilised by observers after training, enabling the 40 development of an on-farm pain assessment tool. The Sheep Pain Facial Expression Scale (SPFES) 41 was able to correctly identify sheep suffering from disease with a high degree of accuracy (AUC; 42 Footrot: 0.81, Mastitis: 0.80). Diseased sheep scored higher on the scale than controls on the day of 43 disease identification (P<0.05) and diseased sheep showed changes in their facial expression after 44 treatment (P<0.001). The abnormal facial expressions of diseased sheep reduced over time, and at 45 recovery were in line with control sheep. Control sheep did not change their facial expression over 46 time. Five scorers who were trained to use the developed scale also assessed the facial expressions of 47 sheep. The scorers were blind to treatment and session. Scorers reliably (ICC: 0.86) and accurately (α 48 = 0.86) identified changes in the facial expression of sheep with footrot over time (P<0.05), and 49 scored control sheep consistently low over time. The SPFES offers a reliable and effective method of 50 assessing pain in sheep after minimal training.
    • Development of an Automated Pain Facial Expression Detection System for Sheep (Ovis Aries).

      McLennan, Krista M.; Mahmoud, Marwa; University of Chester; University of Cambridge (MDPI, 25/04/2019)
      Detecting signs of pain in sheep is a challenging problem, as they are a prey species and would usually try to hide any signs that they are unwell or injured. This means that treating ill or injured sheep and preventing any further spread of contagious diseases such as footrot can be slow. The recent development and publication of a Sheep Pain Facial Expression Scale (SPFES) has provided a tool to reliably detect pain in this species. However, due to the increase in intensification in farming and larger flock sizes being cared for by individual farmers, there is less time to spend monitoring sheep for changes in behaviour that may indicate illness or injury. Having an automated system that could detect changes in the facial expression of individual sheep would mean that farmers could receive information directly about particular individuals that need assessment. This would allow treatment to be provided in a timely and direct manner, reducing suffering. We have been developing the SPFES further in order for it to become an automated system. In this paper, we present our novel framework that integrates SPFES concepts with automatic facial expression analysis technologies.
    • The development of immunoassays to identify and quantify species source of gum Arabic

      Ireland, H. Elyse; Clutterbuck, Abigail L.; Cloquet, Jean-Phillipe; Thurston, Miranda; Williams, Peter A.; Cronk, Quentin C.; Dewey, France M.; Williams, John H. H.; University College Chester (Ireland, Thurston, Williams, J H H) (American Chemical Society, 2004)
    • Development of independence from the mother in Gorilla gorilla gorilla

      Nowell, Angela A.; Fletcher, Alison W.; University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2007-04)
      This article investigates the development of independence in a population of wild western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Mbeli Bai, Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, Republic of Congo.
    • Dickkopf-1 as a potential therapeutic target in Paget's disease of bone

      McCarthy, Helen S.; Marshall, Michael J.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry / University of Chester ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust in Oswestry (Ashley, 2010-02)
      This article discusses Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), which is a soluble inhibitor of Wnt signalling and its excessive expression contributes to bone loss in rheumatoid arthritis and multiple myeloma. New therapeutics have been developed for treatment of these conditions that target DKK-1 expression. DKK-1 is elevated in serum of patients with Paget's disease of the bone (PDB) and evidence is accumulating for a role of DKK-1 in PDB. At present there is no cure for PDB and the current treatment of choice are bisphosphonates. These treat the resorptive phase of PDB but do not prevent its return. This article offers a new perspective on the aetiology of PDB and speculate on DKK-1 as a therapeutic target.
    • Dietary energy density and body weight: Is there a relationship?

      Drewnowski, Adam; Almiron-Roig, Eva; Marmonier, Corinne; Lluch, Anne; University of Washington : University of Washington ; Danone Research Centre, France ; Danone Research Centre, France (Blackwell, 2004-11)
      This article critically evaluates evidence linking dietary energy density with body weight.
    • Direct and indirect causal effects of heterozygosity on fitness-related traits in Alpine ibex

      Brambilla, Alice; Biebach, Iris; Bassano, Bruno; Bogliani, Giuseppe; von Hardenberg, Achaz; Università di Pavia, Italy; University of Zurich, Switzerland; Gran Paradiso National Park, Italy; University of Chester, UK (The Royal Society, 07/01/2015)
      Heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFCs) are a useful tool to investigate the effects of inbreeding in wild populations, but are not informative in distinguishing between direct and indirect effects of heterozygosity on fitness-related traits. We tested HFCs in male Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) in a free-ranging population (which suffered a severe bottleneck at the end of the eighteenth century) and used confirmatory path analysis to disentangle the causal relationships between heterozygosity and fitness-related traits. We tested HFCs in 149 male individuals born between 1985 and 2009. We found that standardized multi-locus heterozygosity (MLH), calculated from 37 microsatellite loci, was related to body mass and horn growth, which are known to be important fitness-related traits, and to faecal egg counts (FECs) of nematode eggs, a proxy of parasite resistance. Then, using confirmatory path analysis, we were able to show that the effect of MLH on horn growth was not direct but mediated by body mass and FEC. HFCs do not necessarily imply direct genetic effects on fitness-related traits, which instead can be mediated by other traits in complex and unexpected ways.
    • Disease risk analysis – A tool for policy making when evidence is lacking: Import of rabies-susceptible zoo mammals as a model.

      Hartley, Matt; Roberts, Helen; Zoo and Wildlife Solution Ltd and Animal Plant and Health Agency (American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, 2015-09)
      Disease control management relies on the development of policy supported by an evidence base. The evidence base for disease in zoo animals is often absent or incomplete. Resources for disease research in these species are limited and so in order to develop effective policies, novel approaches to extrapolating knowledge and dealing with uncertainty need to be developed. This paper demonstrates how qualitative risk analysis techniques can be used to aide decision-making in circumstances where there is a lack of specific evidence using the import of rabies susceptible zoo mammals into the United Kingdom as a model.
    • Distinguishing dengue fever from other infections on the basis of simple clinical and laboratory features: Application of logistic regression analysis

      Chadwick, David; Arch, Barbara N.; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Paton, Nicholas; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore/ Department of Infection and Travel Medicine, The James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough ; University of Liverpool ; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore; Department of Infectious Diseases, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore (Elsevier, 2006-02)
      The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and laboratory features of dengue fever and other common febrile illnesses in Singapore.
    • Do mothers prefer helpers or smaller litters? Birth sex-ratio and litter size adjustment in cotton-top tamarins

      Boulton, Rebecca A.; Fletcher, Alison W.; University of Chester (Wiley & Sons, 08/01/2015)
      Sex allocation theory has been a remarkably productive field in behavioural ecology with empirical evidence regularly supporting quantitative theoretical predictions. Across mammals in general and primates in particular however, support for the various hypotheses has been more equivocal. Population level sex ratio biases have often been interpreted as supportive, but evidence for small scale facultative adjustment has rarely been found. The helper repayment (HR) also named the local resource enhancement (LRE) hypothesis predicts that, in cooperatively breeding species, mothers invest more in the sex which assists with rearing future offspring, and that this bias will be more pronounced in mothers who require extra assistance (i.e. due to inexperience or a lack of available alloparents). We tested these hypotheses in captive cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) utilising the international studbook and birth records obtained through a questionnaire from ISIS registered institutions. Infant sex, litter size, mother’s age, parity and group composition (presence of non-reproductive subordinate males and females) were determined from these records. The HR hypothesis was supported over the entire population, which was significantly biased towards males (the ‘helpful’ sex). We found little support for helper repayment at the individual level, as primiparous females and those in groups without alloparents did not exhibit more extreme tendencies to produce male infants. Primiparous females were, however, more likely to produce singleton litters. Singleton births were more likely to be male, which suggests that there may be an interaction between litter size adjustment and sex allocation. This may be interpreted as supportive of the HR hypothesis, but alternative explanations at both the proximate and ultimate levels are possible. These possibilities warrant further consideration when attempting to understand the ambiguous results of primate sex ratio studies so far.
    • Do we need a national GAP?

      Burek, Cynthia V.; University of Chester (English Nature, 2005)
      This journal article discusses the need to produce a national geodiversity action plan.
    • The effect of rainfall upon the behaviour and use of under-road culverts in four amphibian species

      Gleeson, Timothy; Petrovan, Silviu; Muir, Anna P.; University of Chester (Oxford Academic, 29/04/2019)
      Habitat fragmentation and road mortalities are major contributors towards declines in amphibian populations. This has seen the introduction of culverts, passages that run under roads and provide safe passage for amphibians. Research investigating the effects of rainfall upon amphibian culvert use is limited. This study, conducted at Frankfield Loch in Glasgow, assesses how time elapsed since rainfall influences migration behaviour and the use of culverts across four different species; common toads (Bufo bufo), common frogs (Rana temporaria and newts, a group composed of smooth newts (Lissotriton vulgaris) and palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus). Analysis of images taken by a custom made, time lapse camera found that significantly fewer common toads (r = 0.148, n = 468, p = 0.001) and common frogs (r = −0.175, n = 106, p = 0.037) used the culvert as time since rainfall increased. This may have been caused by the culvert not maintaining wet enough conditions for amphi- bians. The study also found that more newts (r = 0.272, n = 92, p = 0.004) and common toads (r = 0.531, n = 19, p = 0.010) were using the culvert to move away from Frankfield Loch as time since rainfall increased. An increase in juvenile newts was also observed as time since rainfall increased (r = 0.214, n = 92, p = 0.020). This may have been caused by a decrease in baro- metric pressure, which follows a decrease in rainfall, acting as a cue for migration and juvenile dispersal. The study recom- mends careful consideration of the design of each culvert, incorporating species-specific preferences and the requirements of juveniles. The study also suggests that where possible the culvert should be designed to hold water for longer.
    • The effects of a high carbohydrate diet on cortisol and salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) during a period of increase exercise workload amongst Olympic and ironman triathletes

      Costa, Ricardo J. S.; Jones, G. E.; Coleman, Robert C.; Lamb, Kevin L.; Williams, John H. H. (Georg Thieme Verlag, 2005)
      This article discusses a study of the effects of a 6-day high carbohydrate (H-CHO) diet on salivary cortisol and IgA during a period of increased exercise workload with thirty-two competitively trained male triathletes.
    • Effects of dissociated glucocorticoids on OPG and RANKL in osteoblastic cells

      Humphrey, E. L.; Williams, John H. H.; Davie, Michael W. J.; Marshall, Michael J.; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; University College Chester ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry ; Charles Salt Centre, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry (Elsevier, 2006-05)
      This article demonstrates that dexamethasone, prednisolone, deflazacort and the dissociated glucocorticoids, RU24858, RU40066, RU24782, AL438-F1 and ZK216348 significantly inhibit osteoprotegerin (OPG) production in two human osteoblastic cell lines (MG63 and hFOB).
    • Effects of transportation, transport medium and re-housing on Xenopus laevis (Daudin)

      Holmes, Andrew M.; Emmans, Christopher J.; Coleman, Robert C.; Smith, Tessa E.; Hosie, Charlotte A.; University of Chester (Elsevier, 12/03/2018)
      Understanding the immediate and longer-term effects of transportation and re-housing in a laboratory species is crucial in order to refine the transfer process, enable the optimal introduction of new animals to a novel environment and to provide a sufficient acclimatisation period before usage. Whilst consideration of animal welfare in most model vertebrate species has received attention, little quantitative evidence exists for the optimal care of the common laboratory amphibian Xenopus laevis. Techniques for the non-invasive welfare assessment of amphibians are also limited and here a non-invasive physiological assay was developed to investigate the impacts of transportation, transport medium and re-housing on X. laevis. First the impacts of transportation and transport medium (water, damp sponge or damp sphagnum moss) were investigated. Transportation caused an increase in waterborne corticosterone regardless of transport medium. Frogs transported in damp sphagnum moss also had a greater decrease in body mass in comparison to frogs not transported, suggesting that this is the least suitable transport medium for X. laevis. Next the prolonged impacts of transportation and re-housing were investigated. Frogs were transported between research facilities with different housing protocols. Samples were collected prior to and immediately following transportation, as well as 1 day, 7 days and 35 days after re-housing. Water-borne corticosterone increased following transportation and remained high for at least 7 days, decreasing to baseline levels by 35 days. Body mass decreased following transportation and remained lower than baseline levels across the entire 35 day observation period. These findings suggest the process of transportation and re-housing is stressful in this species. Together these findings have important relevance for both improving animal welfare and ensuring optimal and efficient scientific research.
    • Emily Dix, palaeobotanist - a promising career cut short

      Burek, Cynthia V. (Blackwell, 2005-07)
      This article discusses the life and career of British palaeobotanist Emily Dix (1904-1972).
    • Endocrinology and Behaviour: A stress-free approach to improving animal welfare

      Smith, Tessa E.; University of Chester (Society for Endocrinology, 2016-12)
      Following implementation of the UK Animal Procedures Scientific Act (1986) there has been a plethora of research combining endocrine titres with behavioural measures to address applied questions in the field of animal welfare science. The goal of these studies has been to measure and optimize animal welfare. An eloquent example is the reduced welfare observed in collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) as indicated by high glucocorticoid (GC) levels and negative judgment bias in behavioural tests. The latter is associated with space restriction but alleviated by the provision of enrichment. Good animal welfare is essential not only from an ethical standpoint but also to ensure valid scientific outcomes. Animals with good welfare produce more reliable, biologically valid, robust, repeatable scientific data compared to their counterparts with poorer welfare. ‘Happy’ animals live longer, can be used repeatedly and need replacing less often. This leads to a ‘reduction’ of animal use and satisfaction of one of the 3Rs: the guiding principles for the use of animals in research2.