• Working through interpreters in old age psychiatry: a literature review

      Farooq, Saeed; Kingston, Paul; Regan, Jemma; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (Emerald, 2015-03-09)
      Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to systematically appraise the effect of use of interpreters for mental health problems in old age. The primary objective of the review is to assess the impact of a language barrier for assessment and management in relation to mental health problems in the old age. The secondary objectives are to assess the effect of the use of interpreters on patient satisfaction and quality of care, identify good practice and make recommendations for research and practice in the old age mental health. Design/methodology/approach – The following data sources were searched for publications between 1966 and 2011: PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. The authors found in previous reviews that a substantial number of papers from developing and non-English speaking countries are published in journals not indexed in mainstream databases, and devised a search strategy using Google which identified a number of papers, which could not be found when the search was limited to scientific data bases only (Farooq et al., 2009). The strategy was considered especially important for this review which focuses on communication across many different languages. Thus, the authors conducted a search of the World Wide Web using Google Scholar, employing the search term Medical Interpreters and Mental Health. The search included literature in all languages. The authors also searched the reference lists of included and excluded studies for additional relevant papers. Bibliographies of systematic review articles published in the last five years were also examined to identify pertinent studies. Findings – Only four publications related specifically to “old age” and 33 addressed “interpreting” and “psychiatry” generally. Four articles presented original research (Parnes and Westfall, 2003; Hasset and George, 2002; Sadavoy et al., 2004; Van de Mieroop et al., 2012). One article (Shah, 1997) reports an “anecdotal descriptive account” of interviewing elderly people from ethnic backgrounds in a psychogeriatric service in Melbourne and does not report any data. Therefore, only four papers met the inclusion and exclusion criteria and present original research in the field of “old age”, “psychiatry” and “interpreting”. None of these papers present UK-based research. One is a quantitative study from Australia (Hasset and George, 2002), the second is a qualitative study from Canada (Sadavoy et al., 2004), in the third paper Van de Mieroop et al. (2012) describe community interpreting in a Belgian old home and the final paper is an American case study (Parnes and Westfall, 2003). Practical implications – Interviewing older patients for constructs like cognitive function and decision-making capacity through interpreters can pose significant clinical and legal problems. There is urgent need for training mental health professionals for developing skills to overcome the language barrier and for interpreters to be trained for work in psychogeriatrics. Social implications – The literature on working through interpreters is limited to a few empirical studies. This has serious consequences for service users such as lack of trust in services, clinical errors and neglect of human rights. Further studies are needed to understand the extent of problem and how effective interpreting and translating services can be provided in the routine clinical practice. It is also essential to develop a standard of translation services in mental health that can be measured for their quality and also efficiency. At present such a quality standard is not available in the UK, unlike Sweden (see www.regeringen.se/sb/d/3288/a/19564). This omission is disturbing – especially when decisions on human rights are being considered as part of the Mental Health Act. Such a standard can best be achieved by collaboration between medical profession and linguists’ professional associations (Cambridge et al., 2012). Originality/value – Whilst translation/interpretation has been addressed more generally in mental health: specific considerations related to old age psychiatry are almost absent. This needs urgent rectification given that a large proportion of older people from BME communities will require translation and interpretation services.
    • Working with family carers

      Gant, Valerie; University of Chester (Critical Publishing, 2018-06-06)
      Care-giving transcends race, gender and age and most people will be a care giver or receiver (often both) at some point in their lives. This book explores the extent of caregiving in the UK and discusses its impact on individuals, groups and communities, as well as health and social care professionals. The book covers ways of identifying carers and providing information and advice and, given the likelihood of practitioners themselves providing care, a discussion regarding maintaining resilience and the extent to which personal experiences guide and inform practitioners response to work with carers is included. Exercises allow the reader to explore ways practitioners can engage with and support carers. The recent legislative changes brought about by the Care Act 2014 is discussed, as well as relevant policies. Caregiving has the potential to transcend disciplines, so this text will appeal to students of a variety of undergraduate and postgraduate programmes, and across the professional arena including social work, nursing, occupational and physiotherapy. The author is donating her royalties on this book to Carers UK and Carers Trust
    • Working with people with learning disabilities in varying degrees of security: nurses' perceptions of competencies

      Lovell, Andy; Bailey, Jan; Kingdon, Anne; Gentile, Domenica; University of Chester (Wiley, 2014-02-07)
      This article reports on a three year study conducted into the competencies qualified nurses working with people with learning disabilities and a background of offending behaviour within a range of secure settings (community, low, medium and high), perceived as being crucial to their role. A qualitative approach was taken and data were collected via a series of focus groups and individual interviews. Focus groups were initially conducted in each setting to inform the construction of a semi-structured interview schedule. Thirty-nine interviews were subsequently undertaken with nurses from each setting to develop a fuller understanding of the competencies identified from the focus groups and ascertain if these were influenced by the specific setting which the nurses worked. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic analysis and four competencies encompassing the skills and knowledge nurses perceive as essential to their role emerged: knowledge assimilation and application; team working; communication skills; and decision making. The secure setting influenced how the competencies were manifest in nurses’ practice and experience and practise emerged as crucial variables in how effectively they were applied. Recommendations for application of the research findings in nurse education and further research are made.
    • Workplace Health and Well-Being

      Massey, Alan; University of Chester (Springer Nature, 2019-10-01)
      The problems related to the process of industrialisation such as biodiversity depletion, climate change and a worsening of health and living conditions, especially but not only in developing countries, intensify. This chapter looks at the role of workplaces in the drive for global sustainability through the World Health Organisations healthy workplace framework
    • Workshops for community health professionals to enhance knowledge of respiratory infections

      Kamil-Thomas, Zalihe (MA Healthcare, 2018-07-02)
      This article presents finding from a Knowledge Transfer funded project that was developed in partnership with Western Cheshire Clinical Commissioning Group and NHS Countess Of Chester Hospital Trust to enhance practitioners’ knowledge and understanding of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children. The findings suggest that attendees were aware of the need to improve their knowledge and skills in the assessment and management of deteriorating children with LRTI. Feedback from attendees demonstrated that the workshop was well received and was useful in terms of updating and enhancing professionals’ knowledge and skills. The workshop team received the Journal of Health Visiting 2018 Award for Contribution to Health Visiting Education.
    • Wound care in mental health

      Shorney, Louise; Shorney, Richard; University of Chester ; Real Healthcare Solutions (SAGE, 2013-01-15)
      This book chapter aims to describe the anatomy and physiology of the skin and the process of wound healing; explain wound assessment strategies; discuss the management of acute and chronic wounds; and consider individuals with pressure ulcers and those who self-harm.
    • Writing for practice

      Talbot, Pat; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      This chapter explores how writing for practice is different from academic writing, why it is important that records are well written, what a record is, what should be recorded and how that information should be recorded. The chapter goes on to address confidentiality, access and disclosure along with the roles records have in complaints and legal claims before finally looking at writing a report or statement.