• User involvement

      Dulson, Julie; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-03-17)
      This book chapter discusses user involvement policy, the user involvement continuum, and barriers to user involvement and their solutions.
    • Using and developing evidence in health and social care practice

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Sage, 2020-03)
      [A] Overview This chapter outlines the processes of developing evidence-based practice and carrying out research and highlights the similarities and differences between the two. This chapter aims to increase your skills and motivation in utilising research evidence to improve your practice, introduce you to the process of research and develop your research skills. [A] Learning Outcomes At the end of this chapter you will be able to: • Critique research papers. • Share best practice with your colleagues. • Assist with research in practice. • Develop your research skills with a view to becoming a researcher.
    • Using codes of ethics for disabled children who communicate non-verbally - some challenges and implications for social workers

      Carey, Malcolm; Prynallt-Jones, Katherine A.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-02-09)
      This article evaluates the use of professional codes of ethics by social workers specialising in work with disabled children who communicate non-verbally. It draws upon phenomenological interviews and other studies to highlight challenges faced by practitioners in a complex role which demands high-levels of skills and knowledge. Supporting other research, codes of ethics were rarely utilised by practitioners who typically maintain a vague appreciation while often compelled to focus upon pragmatic and quick responses to a complex role. Despite this, it is argued that principle-based frameworks embedded within codes of ethics carry important political implications. These include the potential to strengthen existing utilitarian and bioethical discourses embedded in policy or dominant professional narratives, and which can at times marginalise or exclude disabled children.
    • Using consultative methods to investigate professional–client interaction as an aspect of process evaluation

      Hogard, Elaine; University of Chester (American Evaluation Association, 2007-07-01)
      This article discusses a consultative method called reconstitutive ethnography, which is considered useful for the in-depth description and analysis of the interaction between a professional and client in the delivery of a health or social care program.
    • Using visual methodology: Social work student's perceptions of practice and the impact on practice educators.

      Bailey-McHale, Julie; Bailey-McHale, Rebecca; Caffrey, Bridget; Macleand, Siobhan; Ridgway, Victoria; University of Chester; Kirwin Maclean Associates (Taylor & Francis, 2018-06-21)
      Practice learning within social work education plays a significant part in students’ educational journey. Little is understood about the emotional climate of placements. This paper presents a small scale qualitative study of 13 social work students’ perceptions of their relationship with a practice educator (PE) and 6 PE’s perceptions of these emotional experiences. Visual methodology was employed over a two-phased research project, first social work students were asked to draw an image of what they thought practice education looked like, phase two used photo eliciation, PEs were then asked to explore the meaning of these images. Results demonstrated that social work students focused on their own professional discourse, the identity of PEs, power relationship and dynamics between themselves and PEs, the disjointed journey and practice education in its entirity. Whilst the PEs shared their personal views of practice education and reflected on this, both groups had a shared understanding of practice education including its values and frustrations. Keywords: social work placements, visual methodology, practice educators
    • Vaginal breech birth or Caesarean?

      Steen, Mary; Kingdon, Carol; Royal College of Midwives/University of Central Lancashire (2007-11-08)
      This presentation will firstly explore the evidence in supporting the phenomenal shift in clinical practice from vaginal breech birth to routine caesarean breech birth, in particular the impact of a single research trial, the Term Breech Trial (TBT) on current worldwide policy and practice. Secondly, will explore the best available evidence for the use of External Cephalic Version (ECV)and moxibustion to turn a breech baby to a cephalic presentation as this may reduce a woman’s risk of having a caesarean section.
    • Vaginal or caesarean delivery? How research has turned breech birth around

      Steen, Mary; Kingdon, Carol; RCM/UCLan ; UCLan (T G Scott, 2008-09)
      Background: Breech presentation, where a baby is buttocks or feet first rather than head occurs in about 3 to 4% of singleton pregnancies at term. Worldwide, the vast majority of babies identified as breech are now delivered by planned caesarean section. Aim: to identify relevant published research evidence relating to vaginal and caesarean breech birth and then to discuss the evidence, subsequent controversy and clinical implications that have influence an ongoing obstetrical debate. Method: A structured literature review was undertaken using the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, EMBASE and MEDLINE databases. Different permutations of 'breech' ('frank' or 'complete' or 'extended' or 'flexed') and 'vaginal' or 'caesarean' ('cesarean' or 'cesarian' or 'caesarean') and 'term' and 'singleton' in the title, key words or abstracts were the terms used. Results: Over the last 50 years, there has been an increasing trend toward the routine use of caesarean section as a preventive way of reducing the poor outcomes associated with breech presentation. Research evidence has also played a pivotal role in influencing the routine use of caesarean breech birth and, in particular, a single research trial, the Term Breech Trial (TBT) has substantially influenced current policy and practice. There is no other area of research that has such an impact upon clinical practice in such a short period of time. Conclusions: The speed and extent to which the recommendations of the TBT were implemented has given rise to new controversy surrounding the safety of breech birth, while raising important questions about how the findings of research are used in practice.
    • The value of embedded secondary-care-based psychology services in rheumatology: an exemplar for long-term conditions

      Barnes, Theresa; Taylor, Lou; Eost-Telling, Charlotte; Joy, Thomas; Countess of Chester Hospital; University of Chester; University of Chester; Cheshire and Wirral Partnership (Royal College of Physicians, 2020-02-29)
      Rheumatoid arthritis is an exemplar long term condition, complicated by pain, disability, co-morbidities and long term medication use. It has significant effects on mobility, work performance, social role, sexual function and relationships. It is commonly associated with fatigue and mood disturbance as a result of complex interactions of physical (disease related) and psychosocial factors. NICE guidance recommends the availability of psychological support for these patients. We have implemented a psychology service for our patients with chronic rheumatological conditions. This study was set up to capture the value of this service.
    • Value of life

      Baldwin, Moyra A.; Greenwood, Joanne M.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-15)
      This book chapter explores the concept of the value of life.
    • Views of old age psychiatrists on use of community treatment orders in ageing population in England and Wales - a pilot study

      Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Bailey, Jan; Khan, Farooq; Kingston, Paul; Tadros, George; University of Chester (2017-05-31)
      Background Community Treatment orders (CTO) were introduced in England and Wales during the 2008 reformation of mental health legislation. There is scant research evidence regarding the use of CTOs with older adults (people aged 65 and over). Aims The aims were to explore old age psychiatrists’ rationale for using CTOs with older adults and its efficacy. Method A mixed-method approach with a quantitative questionnaire followed by a series of one-to-one semi-structured interviews was utilised. Results About half of respondents had used a CTO with an older adult and more than half reported they would be comfortable using CTOs with older adults. Data showed that CTOs were predominantly used with patients diagnosed with relapsing mental illnesses with few respondents considering its use in people with dementia. There was also evidence that older people were viewed as being compliant with treatment, which may reflect reality or a stereotype of older people. Conclusions Evidence suggested that old age psychiatrists perceived CTOs to have limited efficacy with older people, considering other legislation more appropriate to their care. Further research is recommended to explore whether CTOs are appropriate for older adults and whether respondents’ perception of treatment compliance is accurate.
    • Violence and under-reporting: Learning disability nursing and the impact of environment, experience and banding

      Lovell, Andy; Skellern, Joanne; Mason, Tom; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011-11-23)
      The study explores the implications of a survey into the discrepancy between actual and reported incidents of violence, perpetrated by service users, within the learning disability division of one mental health NHS Trust. Violence within the NHS continues to constitute a significant issue, especially within mental health and learning disability services where incidence remains disproportionately high despite the context of zero tolerance. A whole-population survey of 411 nurses working within a variety of settings within the learning disability division of one mental health NHS Trust. A questionnaire was administered to learning disability nursing staff working in community, respite, residential, assessment and treatment and medium secure settings, yielding a response rate of approximately 40%. There were distinct differences in the levels of violence reported within specific specialist services along with variation between these areas according to clinical environment, years of experience and nursing band. The study does not support previous findings whereby unqualified nurses experienced more incidents of violence than qualified nurses. The situation was less clear, complicated by the interrelationship between years of nursing experience, nursing band and clinical environment. The conclusions suggest that the increased emphasis on reducing violent incidents has been fairly successful with staff reporting adequate preparation for responding to specific incidents and being well supported by colleagues, managers and the organisation. The differences between specific clinical environments, however, constituted a worrying finding with implications for skill mix and staff education. The study raises questions about the relationship between the qualified nurse and the individual with a learning disability in the context of violence and according to specific circumstances of care delivery. The relationship is clearly not a simple one, and this group of nurses’ understanding and expectations of tolerance requires further research; violence is clearly never acceptable, but these nurses appear reluctant to condemn and attribute culpability.
    • Violence in health and social care settings: A training resource package for organisations and individuals

      Skellern, Joanne; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2013-03)
      Violence in health and social care settings is now recognised as a major international concern. Training in the recognition and management of potentially violent situations can assist to prevent situations escalating to the point where violence occurs. This training resource pack contains: • A DVD of 25 simulated scenarios • A training manual on how to use the DVD which also includes a ‘notes for trainers’ section The aim is to provide you with the materials needed to: • Create a forum where violence can be discussed • Encourage reflection on your own and colleagues responses to threatening situations • Facilitate assessment of potentially violent or threatening situations • Enable you and your colleagues to plan for adverse situations • Encourage a review of practices in relation to National and local policies and procedures This training resource package can provide a welcome contribution to induction and training programmes for individuals, managers and trainers working within organisations providing a range of health and social care services.
    • Visual Perceptions of Ageing; A Longitudinal Mixed Methods Study of UK Undergraduate Student Nurses’ Attitudes and Perceptions Towards Older People.

      Ridgway, Victoria; Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; Mcintosh-Scott, Annette; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-09-11)
      Ageism and negative attitudes are said to be institutionally embedded in healthcare during a time when there are unprecedented increases in older population numbers. As nurses’ care for older people in a range of environments it was timely to examine attitudes and perceptions of undergraduate nurses towards older people. A longitudinal mixed methods study in conjunction with a three-year undergraduate UK nursing programme 2009-2012 was conducted with 310 undergraduate nurses. A questionnaire incorporating Kogan’s attitude towards older people scale and a drawing of a person aged 75 years was completed three times, once each year. Thurstone scale and photo elicitation were also employed. Comparisons were made between individual participant’s attitude score and drawing. The study established 75% of participants had moderately positive attitudes towards older people when the programme began, at the programme end this had increased to 98%. Age, gender, educational qualifications, practice learning, nursing field and contact with older people influenced participants’ overall attitude score. Drawings provided a visual narrative of participants’ perceptions of older people, appearance was a dominant discourse and the images were socially constructed. The study established the undergraduate nursing programme influenced attitudes and perceptions towards older people and suggests nurse education can influence changing attitudes. To date there is no known study that has advanced this understanding.
    • Vulnerability

      Hardy, Jan; Barrows, Tina; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses internal and external factors relating to vulnerability, and the concept of risk.
    • Web-Based STAR E-Learning Course Increases Empathy and Understanding in Dementia Caregivers: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

      Hattink, Bart; Meiland, Franka; van der Roest, Henriëtte; Kevern, Peter; Abiuso, Francesca; Bengtsson, Johan; Giuliano, Angele; Duca, Annalise; Sanders, Jennifer; Basnett, Fern; et al. (JMIR Publications, 2015-10-30)
      Background: The doubling of the number of people with dementia in the coming decades coupled with the rapid decline in the working population in our graying society is expected to result in a large decrease in the number of professionals available to provide care to people with dementia. As a result, care will be supplied increasingly by untrained informal caregivers and volunteers. To promote effective care and avoid overburdening of untrained and trained caregivers, they must become properly skilled. To this end, the European Skills Training and Reskilling (STAR) project, which comprised experts from the domains of education, technology, and dementia care from 6 countries (the Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, Malta, Romania, and the United Kingdom), worked together to create and evaluate a multilingual e-learning tool. The STAR training portal provides dementia care training both for informal and formal caregivers. Objective: The objective of the current study was to evaluate the user friendliness, usefulness, and impact of STAR with informal caregivers, volunteers, and professional caregivers. Methods: For 2 to 4 months, the experimental group had access to the STAR training portal, a Web-based portal consisting of 8 modules, 2 of which had a basic level and 6 additional modules at intermediate and advanced levels. The experimental group also had access to online peer and expert communities for support and information exchange. The control group received free access to STAR after the research had ended. The STAR training portal was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial among informal caregivers and volunteers in addition to professional caregivers (N=142) in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Assessments were performed with self-assessed, online, standardized questionnaires at baseline and after 2 to 4 months. Primary outcome measures were user friendliness, usefulness, and impact of STAR on knowledge, attitudes, and approaches of caregivers regarding dementia. Secondary outcome measures were empathy, quality of life, burden, and caregivers’ sense of competence. Results: STAR was rated positively by all user groups on both usefulness and user friendliness. Significant effects were found on a person-centered care approach and on the total score on positive attitudes to dementia; both the experimental and the control group increased in score. Regarding empathy, significant improvements were found in the STAR training group on distress, empathic concern, and taking the perspective of the person with dementia. In the experimental group, however, there was a significant reduction in self-reported sense of competence. Conclusions: The STAR training portal is a useful and user-friendly e-learning method, which has demonstrated its ability to provide significant positive effects on caregiver attitudes and empathy.
    • Welfare conditionality, ethics and social care for older people in the UK: From civic rights to abandonment?

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Oxford University Press, 2021-12-13)
      Welfare systems are becoming ever more conditional, with access to state support increasingly rationed via a legion of legally-defined and financially-driven restrictions and rules. Civic protection and economic rights for older citizens within Western policy systems are subsequently diminishing and continue to give way to neoliberal discursive practices which prioritise welfare activation, autonomy, participation, asset-based yet precarious self-care, the aversion of health-centred risks and much higher levels of eligibility for support. This article looks at welfare conditionality and its relationship to older people, ethics and governance within social care. By using three examples of welfare conditional reforms from the UK, it is highlighted that strains typically persist between the altruistic components of some ethical frameworks and the everyday experiences of many older people. The relative gatekeeping powers of welfare professionals and expectations placed on family members and carers have also increased, especially upon older people with higher needs and who may lack economic and cultural capital. This is despite rhetorical policy-led claims of increasing choice and control, and allowing support to be more asset-based and personalised.
    • Wellbeing and beyond

      Steen, Mary; Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (2007-03-01)
      This article discusses the development of a maternal health, well-being & beyond project in leeds and how large proportions of women have benefited from classes and the support of other mothers in improving their general health through exercise.
    • What is reflective writing?

      Quigley, Jane; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      This chapter explores what reflective writing is, why reflection is important, types of reflection and the reflective models available. The chapter goes on to address critical reflective writing, how to structure a reflective essay and summaries how to write reflectively.
    • What’s in a name? Family violence involving older adults

      Benbow, Susan M.; Bhattacharyya, Sharmi; Kingston, Paul (Emerald, 2018-12-10)
    • When food becomes the enemy: Eating disorders

      Steen, Mary; University of Chester (Redactive Publishers: Royal College of Midwives, 2009-04-01)
      There are several eating disorders that may affect the health and well-being of childbearing women. This articles discusses the role midwives can play in identifying, supporting and caring for women with an eating disorder.