• Teaching styles

      Gidman, Janice; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-29)
      This book chapter discusses teaching styles and how they need to be appropriate for the content of the session and the nature of the group of students.
    • Teamwork

      Gee, Alan; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-03-17)
      This book chapter discusses the role of the team in the healthcare profession.
    • The Care Act 2014: a new legal framework for safeguarding adults in civil society

      Penhale, Bridget; Brammer, Alison; Morgan, Pete; Kingston, Paul; Preston-Shoot, Michael (Emerald, 2017-08-14)
    • The cat is out of the bag – point-of-care testing (POCT) is here to stay

      Phin, Nick; Poutanen, Susan M (European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC), 2020-11-05)
    • The clusters and frequencies of adverse social conditions amongst the homeless people

      Mabhala, Mzwandile A. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-11-13)
      Abstract Background A growing body of evidence identifies interconnected social indicators that can lead to homelessness. Several studies identify a catalogue of social disadvantages that starts from childhood and persist throughout the life course that leads to homelessness. Qualitative evidence indicates that their adverse childhood experiences(ACEs) and damage that occurred to them as children had major influences on their ability to negotiate their way through the education system, gain and sustain employment, make appropriate choices of social networks, and form and maintain healthy relationships as adults. However, very little research seeks to objectively investigate these issues. This study aims to use the cross-sectional study to document the cluster and frequency of adverse social conditions amongst the homeless people in North West England in 2019. Methods The study design was cross-sectional. We used IBM SPSS 21, with a significance level set at p < 0.05, CI 95% to analyse the data. Results The mean age was 39.12, range 21-64, 90.5% male. 52%(χ2= 33.4, df = 1, p = 0.001) described their health as poor, 90% (χ2= 61.85, df = 2, p = 0.001) smoked cigarette daily, 83.3% (χ2= 76.4, df = 3, p = 0.001) used drugs daily, 78.6% (χ2= 13.7, df = 1, p = 0.001) saw a doctor in preceding 6 months, 63.4% (χ2= 73.8, df = 3, p = 0.001) left school before age 16; 26.2% (χ2= 37.7, df = 3, p = 0.001) left school at 16, 11.9% (χ2= 33.1, df = 10, p = 0.001) encounterd criminal justice system at the age of 11, 28.6% (χ2= 60.8, df = 8, p = 0.001) had reprimand/caution or conviction at 17. ACES: 57% (χ2= 34.7, df = 3, p = 0.001) experienced humiliation by adults in their household; 54% (χ2= 30.7, df = 3, p = 0.001) threatening behaviour, 50% (χ2= 26.0, df = 3, p = 0.001) physical violence in their household. Conclusions These early stage preliminary results indicate that adverse social circumstances that occur in childhood are disproportionately represented in homeless population. Key messages Homelessness is more complex than the absence of accomodation. Adverse social circumstances that occur in childhood are disproportionately represented in homeless population.
    • The emergence of accelerated resolution therapy for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder: A review and new subgroup analyses

      Kip, Kevin; Berumen, Jessica; Zeidan, Amina R.; Hernandez, Diego; Finnegan, Alan (Wiley, 2019-01-25)

      Bailey, Jan; Kingston, Paul; Taylor, Louise; Eost-Telling, Charlotte (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-11-08)
      Abstract This presentation will offer new and alternate insights into ‘scams’ and the health effects of fraud on older people. It reports data captured from a Mass Observation Project “Directive” focusing on scams and their impact on individuals. Eighty “Observers’” aged 50 and over responded to the “Directive”. Responses indicate that falling victim to a scam may have negative impacts on individuals’ mental wellbeing, self-esteem and relationships with others. Data analysis also identified that fear of victimisation can also affect individuals, resulting in worry, anxiety and maladaptive coping strategies. Offering a sociology of health perspective, we will focus is on these health impacts of scams and the legitimisation of the issue as a socio-political problem. We will also highlight additional important areas for consideration, such as the absence of a common understanding of the concept and nomenclature of ‘scam’, and the ‘vagaries of scams’ by presenting a typology of scams.
    • The impact of factor infusion frequency on health-related quality of life in people with haemophilia

      Pedra, Gabriel; Christoffersen, Pia; Khair, Kate; Lee, Xin Ying; O’Hara, Sonia; O’Hara, Jamie; Pasi, John (Haemnet, 2020-08-15)
      Background. Some studies suggest that people with haemophilia (PwH) who use prophylaxis value low frequency of clotting factor administration more than a lower risk of bleeding. However, more frequent infusions offer the potential of reducing joint disease and pain, which in turn may improve functioning and quality of life.AimsTo explore the impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) aspects of haemophilia associated with adherence and annual infusion rate in the context of factors influencing treatment that are important to patients, including prophylaxis, chronic pain, concomitant conditions and hospital admission.Materials and methodsHRQoL was assessed in participants with severe haemophilia in the ‘Cost of Haemophilia in Europe: a Socioeconomic Survey’ (CHESS) study who were using prophylaxis. Patients using on-demand treatment were excluded. This multivariate analysis examined the interaction between factors potentially influencing treatment and HRQoL, and minor and major bleeds.ResultsFrom the total CHESS population (n=1,285), 338 (26%) participants provided responses for major and minor bleeds and target joints, and 145 (11%) provided EQ-5D-3L responses. Major and minor bleeds were associated with pain. Patients with severe chronic pain reported a substantial negative impact on HRQoL; but this was significantly improved by increases in the annual infusion rate. This was not apparent in participants with mild or moderate pain.ConclusionIncreasing the frequency of prophylaxis infusions is associated with improved quality of life in PwH who have severe chronic pain. However, increasing the number of infusions per week in those with mild or moderate chronic pain with the intention of improving prophylactic effect may not have the same effect.

      Kingston, Paul; Taylor, Louise; Bailey, Jan; Eost-Telling, Charlotte (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-11-08)
      Abstract The Mass Observation Project, established in 1937, documents the lives of ordinary people living in the UK, and explores a wide range of social issues. The Project distributes a set of written questions (“Directives”) to a panel of 500 members of the British public (“Observers”) three times each year; “Observers” respond in writing. From the initial commissioning of a “Directive” to data becoming available for analysis takes between four to six months. This approach offers researchers an opportunity to capture in-depth qualitative data from individuals with a range of demographic backgrounds who live across the UK. As there are no word limits on “Observers’” responses and they remain anonymous, a “Directive” often yields rich, high-quality data. Additionally, compared with alternative methods of collecting large volumes of qualitative data from a heterogeneous population, commissioning a “Directive” is cost-effective in terms of time and resource.
    • The Therapeutic Lie: A reflective account illustrating the potential benefits when nursing an elderly confused patient

      Moncur, Thomas; Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (Australian Nursing & Midwifery Federation, 2018-02-31)
      This article explores, through case study examples from practice, the circumstances when it might be considered appropriate, even beneficial, to lie to patients.
    • Thinking nursing

      Mason, Tom; Whitehead, Elizabeth; University of Chester (Open University Press, 2003)
      This major textbook provides a unique one-stop resource that introduces nursing students to the disciplines that underpin nursing practice. The broad range of subjects covered includes sociology, psychology, anthropology, public health, philosophy, economics, politics and science.
    • This is how it feels: activating lived experience in the penal voluntary sector

      Buck, Gillian; Tomczak, Philippa; Quinn, Kaitlyn; University of Chester; University of Nottingham; University of Toronto (Oxford University Press, 2021-10-21)
      Increasing calls for ‘nothing about us without us’ envision marginalised people as valuable and necessary contributors to policies and practices affecting them. In this paper, we examine what this type of inclusion feels like for criminalised people who share their lived experiences in penal voluntary sector organisations. Focus groups conducted in England and Scotland illustrated how this work was experienced as both safe, inclusionary and rewarding and exclusionary, shame-provoking and precarious. We highlight how these tensions of ‘user involvement’ impact criminalised individuals and compound wider inequalities within this sector. The individual, emotional and structural implications of activating lived experience therefore require careful consideration. We consider how the penal voluntary sector might more meaningfully and supportively engage criminalised individuals in service design and delivery. These considerations are significant for broader criminal justice and social service provision seeking to meaningfully involve those with lived experience.
    • Tolerating violence: A follow up study to a survey identifying the extent of, and reasons for, the non-reporting of incidents of aggression in one NHS Trust

      Lovell, Andy; Skellern, Joanne; University of Chester (Kavanah, 2009-10)
      This paper reports on a study of people in NHS Trusts working with people with learning difficulties where aggression and violence is a concern.
    • ‘Tolerating violence’: A qualitative study into the experience of professionals working in one UK learning disability service

      Lovell, Andy; Skellern, Joanne; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013-05-06)
      This article reports on a qualitative follow-up study to a whole-population survey investigating the underreporting of violence within one learning disability service. The survey had identified a pronounced level of under-reporting but suggested an unexpected degree of complexity around the issue, which warranted further study. Design. A qualitative research design was employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 professionals working in learning disability services; data were subsequently transcribed verbatim and subject to stringent thematic analysis. The findings confirmed that the decision to report an incident or not was complicated by professional interpretation of violence. Three themes were produced by the analysis: the reality of violence, change over time and (zero) tolerance. Conclusion. The study indicates that both experience of violence and ways of understanding it in relation to learning disability are shared across professional groups, although nurses are both more inured and generally more accepting of it. The study suggests that the relationship between learning disability nurses and service users with a propensity for violence is complicated by issues of professional background and concerns about the pertinence of zero tolerance. The availability of effective protocols and procedures is important, but services need also to acknowledge the more ambiguous aspects of the therapeutic relationship to fully understand under-reporting of service user violence in the context of learning disability.
    • A tool for assessing perineal trauma

      Steen, Mary; Cooper, Keith; Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust/Leeds Metropolitan University (Macmillan Magazines, 1997-10-02)
      The initial aim of this study was to develop a reliable visual tool to assist in the assessment of the severity of oedema and bruising in perineal trauma, using a categorical scale of `none', `mild', `moderate' and `severe'. A standardised set of photographs was selected by 10 clinically experienced midwives to represent these categories. The tool was tested in a clinical trial involving 77 women, recording and monitoring changes in the level of oedema and bruising during the first 48 hours following suturing of an episiotomy. The results demonstrated a statistically significant change for both oedema and bruising. However, the less experienced assessors reported some uncertainties in assessing a small proportion of women. A combined method, using this tool with a categorical scoring scale, was used to minimise difficulties in the assessment. Two pairs of midwives, one pair very experienced in assessing perineal trauma and the other less experienced, evaluated the combined method. The results showed a high level of agreement. The standard set of photographs and categorical scoring scale together resulted in a reliable and sensitive assessment tool to evaluate severity of perineal trauma.
    • Translating the power of Coverdell fellows to address global nursing challenges

      McGhee, Stephen; Visovsky, Constance; Clochesy, John; Finnegan, Alan; University of South Florida; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2018-03-10)
      Academic opportunities to enter undergraduate nursing should include access for mature, experienced professionals who are prepared to care for an ever more diverse patient population and who can provide nursing expertise in the global arena. The Coverdell Fellowships in nursing are designed to actively support Returned Peace Corps Volunteers (RPCV) in developing nursing skills in such a way that supports the local community. Coverdell Fellows already have the skills and abilities enabling them to communicate with sensitivity and to develop therapeutic relationships with diverse global populations. Many Colleges of Nursing are currently faced with the challenge of providing students with opportunities which will allow them to become more globally aware and culturally competent. Thus, working with the Peace Corps, a highly respected organization with longstanding international experience, is an obvious step not only to bolster the nursing workforce, but also to develop a more globally sensitive and competent nursing workforce in the U.S. and abroad.
    • Trapped in discourse? Obstacles to meaningful social work education, research and practice within the neoliberal university

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester
      This article appraises the role of the neoliberal university in regulating social work education, research and practice. The dominance of governments and employers in determining social work education is highlighted, alongside the ascendancy of skills-based and vocational training. Moreover, it is proposed that research, associated learning, and practice are now more often moulded around essentialist science-based, behavioural or functionalist paradigms, which fit conveniently with free market, politically conservative and authoritarian agendas. The neoliberal university is increasingly able to rationally prepare social workers to fulfil narrow ideological objectives, which includes priority given to attempts to empower, pathologise, and scientifically manage structurally disadvantaged populations from minority groups. Reductive paradigms, nevertheless, can struggle to cope with social fragmentation and diversity, with social work students often ill prepared for many of the complex challenges which they later face as qualified practitioners. Analysis for the article draws from critical theory, and it is concluded that market-based discourses and related professional paradigms - and the symbolically constituted and hyperreal fantasies which they help to maintain - can prove difficult to escape. Social work continues to face a precarious future within university settings in which free market narratives, associated norms, targets, and labour insecurity prevail.
    • The trident: A three-pronged method for evaluating clinical, social and educational innovations

      Ellis, Roger; Hogard, Elaine; University of Chester (SAGE, 2006-07-01)
      This article describes a distinctive approach to programme evalution used in over forty funded evaluations in the Social and Health Evaluation Unit at the University of Chester. It categories the questions asked by evaluators into three main groups: those concerned with outcomes and impact; those concerned with process; and those representing the views of the stakeholders involved in the programme.
    • The trident: a three-pronged method for evaluating programmes and initiatives

      Ellis, Roger; Hogard, Elaine; University of Chester (Chester Academic Press, 2008)
      This book chapter discusses an approach to the evaluation of community safety initiatives.
    • Type 1 diabetes in young people: the impact of social environments on self-management issues from young people’s and parents’ perspectives.

      Spencer, Joy; Cooper, Helen; Milton, Beth; University of Chester; Liverpool University (SB Communications Group, 2014-02-08)
      In the UK, young people with type 1 diabetes generally have poor glycaemic control. Managing type 1 diabetes in young people is complex, and is underpinned by relationships with significant others in the social environments they inhabit. This qualitative study explores the social environments of young people with type 1 diabetes and their potential influence on glycaemic control. Twenty young people with type 1 diabetes and their parents (n=27) were interviewed about their experiences in the environments of the home, with friends (social), at school and in the diabetes clinic. It was found that the diabetes clinic was vital to the medical management of type 1 diabetes, and the family provided stable support for most young people with type 1 diabetes. However, there were barriers to self-management in school and social environments. It was concluded that each family had a unique story about the social factors in the environments they encountered that affected self-management of type 1 diabetes.