• Psychological distress in student nurses undertaking an educational programme with professional registration as a nurse: their perceived barriers and facilitators in seeking psychological support

      Mitchell, Andrew E. P.; University of Chester (Wiley, 2018-03-06)
      Introduction. The present study adds to the existing international evidence on psychological distress in the student population by focusing on student nurses. It quantitatively assesses psychological distress with comparative norms and investigates service uptake in in a single study. Aim. Investigate the level of psychological distress in students and compare this with population norms and highlight potential facilitators and barriers to help seeking. Methods. This study recruited N=121 student nurses from one university in a cross sectional design. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, independent t-tests and one-way ANOVA’s. Findings. The key findings show high levels of psychological distress which is above levels seen in the general population. The main barriers to seeking support was fear of disclosure and the perceived impact on their suitability as a student nurse. Discussion. The study highlights that high levels of distress identified in the literature are seen in student nurses and that fear of disclosure may account for some not seeking support. Relevance. The fear of disclosure and low levels of seeking support suggest there is a need for mental health nurses and academics to play a key role in mental health literacy and evidence-based interventions such as mindfulness to combat these issues.
    • Public acceptability of public health policy to improve population health: A population‐based survey

      Bellis, Mark A.; Hughes, Karen; Di Lemma, Lisa; Public Health Collaborating Unit, School of Health Sciences, Bangor University, Wrexham; Public Health Wales; University of Chester
      Background: For public health policies to be effective, it is critical that they are acceptable to the public as acceptance levels impact success rate. Objective: To explore public acceptance of public health statements and examine differences in acceptability across socio-demographics, health behaviours (physical activity, diet, binge drinking and smoking), health status and well-being. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a nationally representative sample (N = 1001) using a random stratified sampling method. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at homes of residents in Wales aged 16+ years. Individuals reported whether they agreed, had no opinion, or disagreed with 12 public health statements. Results: More than half of the sample were supportive of 10 out of 12 statements. The three statements with the greatest support (>80% agreement) reflected the importance of: a safe and loving childhood to becoming a healthy adult, schools teaching about health, and healthier foods costing less. Individuals who engaged in unhealthy behaviours were less likely to agree with some of the statements (eg 39.8% of binge drinkers agreed alcohol adverts should be banned compared to 57.6% of those who never binge drink; P < .001). Conclusions: Findings show an appetite for public health policies among the majority of the public. The relationship between supporting policies and engaging in healthy behaviours suggests a feedback loop that is potentially capable of shifting both public opinion and the opportunities for policy intervention. If a nation becomes healthier, this could illicit greater support for stronger policies which could encourage more people to move in a healthier direction.
    • Public health and adults

      Phillips, Sue; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses the range of activities and professions involved in public health.
    • Public health and contemporary health issues

      Thomas, Mike; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses contemporary public health issues.
    • Public health and health promotion

      Wilson, Frances; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses health promotion as a unique discipline within modern public health.
    • Public health and mental health

      Coyle, David L.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses mental health issues.
    • Public health and population dynamics

      Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; El Ansari, Walid; University of Chester ; University of Gloucestershire (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses the effect that population growth will have on the health of the population, and on the economy and the environment.
    • Public health and the natural environment

      Greening, Kim; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses how nature and the natural environment impact on public health.
    • Public health and the older person

      Cooke, Irene; Mannix, Jean; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses the diverse social, personal, and healthcare needs of older people.
    • Public health and the pre-school child

      Mannix, Jean; Horley, John; University of Chester (SAGE, 2009-11-19)
      This book chapter discusses child public health.
    • Public health and the schools community

      Rabie, Gabrielle; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses how the school acts as a 'key setting' for the health and education of children and young people, in particular the National Healthy School Programme.
    • Public health and young people

      Rabie, Gabrielle; Cooke, Irene; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses health problems and long-term health conditions associated with youth.
    • Public health in nurse education

      Mabhala, Mzwandile; University of Chester
      This study is about PHNEs’ knowledge of teaching public health, and therefore it was considered worthwhile to explore the literature relating to the pedagogies used generally in nursing education, and to teach public health in particular. The exploration of literature revealed two broad pedagogic approaches that underpin nursing education: conventional and interpretive pedagogies. This section presents three examples of interpretive pedagogies – narrative, critical and transformative –that were found to be commonly used in public health nursing.
    • Public health in the workplace

      Massey, Alan; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses how health can be improved in the workplace.
    • Public health nurse educators’ Conceptualisation of public health as a strategy to reduce health inequalities: A qualitative study

      Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; University of Chester (BioMed Central, 2015-02-03)
      Background Nurses have long been identified as key contributors to strategies to reduce health inequalities. However, health inequalities are increasing in the UK despite policy measures put in place to reduce them. This raises questions about: convergence between policy makers’ and nurses’ understanding of how inequalities in health are created and sustained and educational preparation for the role as contributors in reducing health inequalities. Aim The aim of this qualitative research project is to determine public health nurse educators’ understanding of public health as a strategy to reduce health inequalities. Method 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted with higher education institution-based public health nurse educators. Findings Public health nurse educators described health inequalities as the foundation on which a public health framework should be built. Two distinct views emerged of how health inequalities should be tackled: some proposed a population approach focusing on upstream preventive strategies, whilst others proposed behavioural approaches focusing on empowering vulnerable individuals to improve their own health. Conclusion Despite upstream interventions to reduce inequalities in health being proved to have more leverage than individual behavioural interventions in tackling the fundamental causes of health inequalities, some nurses have a better understanding of individual interventions than take population approaches.
    • Public health theories

      Bryan, Ann; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses the value and limitations of the traditional theory base of public health.
    • Publication Preview Source Effectiveness of nitric oxide agents in preventing the early onset of pre-eclampsia and possible modification of metabolic factors in high-risk pregnancies: a systematic review protocol

      Nnate, Daniel A; Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; Massey, Alan; University of Chester
      Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of nitric oxide agents in modifying the metabolic factors of pre-eclampsia and its effectiveness in preventing the onset of pre-eclampsia in high-risk pregnancies. Introduction: Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of maternal death during the prenatal and neonatal periods. Nitric oxide is a vasodilator and platelet aggregation inhibitor responsible for the vascular adaptation of the placenta. Although various studies have established that nitric oxide is effective in preventing complications from pre-eclampsia, there is limited evidence to show that administering nitric oxide agents to the high-risk women before 20 weeks’ gestation will prevent the onset of pre-eclampsia. Inclusion criteria: This review will consider randomized controlled trials that compare nitric oxide donors and precursors with a placebo or no intervention on pregnant women (18 to 44 years) with ≤ 20-week gestational age that are at high risk of pre-eclampsia. The primary outcome of interest will be the onset of pre-eclampsia. Secondary outcomes include increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, elevated asymmetric dimethylarginine levels, decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, reduced maternal placental vasculature, and abnormal Doppler ultrasound waveforms. Methods: Data sources will be drawn up from MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest (Health and Medicine) and Web of Science from inception till current date. No language restrictions will be applied in the search strategy. Selected studies will be assessed against the JBI critical appraisal checklist, and the certainty of evidence and strength of recommendations from findings will also be ascertained. Systematic review registration number: CRD42018099298
    • Purpose and method for the evaluation of interpersonal process in health and social care

      Hogard, Elaine; University of Chester (Elsevier, 2007-10-11)
      This article is based on a comprehensive review of the published studies of interpersonal process in programme evaluation.
    • Pushing boundaries and making it happen

      Steen, Mary; University of Chester (Redactive Media Group, 2012-06-01)
      This paper describes and discusses one midwife’s journey of becoming and being a professor of midwifery. The main focus is on pushing the boundaries and making it happen. The author’s nursing and midwifery career is the case study and the past, present and future are the three destinations en route that are explored through personal reflections and aspirations. The content will demonstrate that ‘the journey is the reward’ and enjoying the adventure and having lots of creative ideas and vision helps along the way. Nevertheless, the journey can be challenging and sometimes the path chosen is not the most direct route. It highlights the important role that others can play when supporting and encouraging you to find your way and ultimately meet your goals. It also discusses how you will meet people along the way who will join you on your journey and some who will not. People make systems work, so you have to know how to motivate and encourage others. Research has played an important role throughout the journey and the author demonstrates how the dissemination of research findings ultimately can make a difference. In addition, the importance of communication, collaboration and networking should never be under-estimated as these aspects will help to push the boundaries and make it happen.
    • A qualitative investigation into nurses’ perceptions of factors influencing staff injuries sustained during physical interventions employed in response to service user violence within one secure learning disability service

      Lovell, Andy; Smith, Debra; Johnson, Paula; University of Chester; Calderstones Partnership NHS Foundation Trust (Wiley, 2015-04-29)
      Aims: The aim of the study was to examine learning disability nurses’ perceptions of incidents involving physical intervention, particularly factors contributing to injuries sustained by this group. Background: This article reports on a qualitative study undertaken within one secure NHS Trust to respond to concerns about staff injuries sustained during physical interventions to prevent incidents of service user violence from escalating out of control. The context of the study relates to increasing debate about the most effective approaches to incidents of violence and aggression. Design: A qualitative research design was utilized for the study. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 20 participants, 2 from each of the 10 incidents involving staff injury sustained during physical intervention. Results: Four themes were produced by the analysis, the first, knowledge and understanding, contextualized the other three, which related to the physical intervention techniques employed, the interpretation of the incident and the impact on staff. Conclusion: Service user violence consistently poses nurses with the challenge of balancing the need to respond in order to maintain the safety of everyone whilst simultaneous supporting and caring for people with complex needs. This study highlights the need for further exploration of the contributory factors to the escalation of potentially violent situations.