• Forensic services

      Lovell, Andy; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-02-15)
      This book chapter offers an overview of the changing context of forensic learning disability services and a discussion of the relationship between learning disability and crime.
    • Foster care matters

      Harlow, Elizabeth; University of Chester (Whiting & Birch, 2011-08-05)
    • Fostering matters: A foster carer's perspective

      Harlow, Elizabeth; Blackburn, Foluke; University of Chester ; University of Salford (Whiting & Birch, 2011-08-05)
      This book chapter explores the symposium 'Fostering Matters' which took place at the University of Salford in March 2007 before then addressing training for foster care, assessing and supporting foster carers and final discussion and concluding statements on the matters.
    • The fragmentation of social work and social care: some ramifications and a critique

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Oxford University Press, 2015-09-29)
      This paper critically appraises the impact of the fragmentation of social care and social work. In particular it examines the impact of splintered services and roles upon employees, service users and carers. The article concentrates upon three inter-related areas as part of a more general critique: first, reliability of services; second, relations with stakeholders; and finally, the identity of employees. Despite differences across sectors and some largely collateral benefits it is proposed that fragmentation has promoted inconsistent and unreliable services, the development of superficial relations with users and carers and the loss of belonging and fractured identities of social care employees. Fragmentation regularly spoils professional identities and generates uncertainty amidst attempts to provide effective or reliable services. Indeed fragmented, disorganised or reductive provisions often generate new risks for the recipients of services.
    • Fruit and vegetables on prescription: A brief intervention in primary care

      Buyuktuncer, Zehra; Kearney, Matt; Ryan, Christine L.; Thurston, Miranda; Ellahi, Basma; University of Chester/Haccettepe University, Turkey; Department of Health; University of Chester; University of Chester/Hedmark University College, Norway (Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 2014-05-07)
      Background Increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a goal for the UK. Therefore, the effectiveness of a fruit and vegetable voucher scheme coupled with key ‘5-a-day’ consumption messages as a brief intervention in primary care consultations was assessed in this study. Methods 1188 vouchers as a prescription for fruits and vegetables were routinely distributed to patients attending a primary health care centre in a deprived area, and 124 volunteer patients routinely attending the centre were included. Telephone based questionnaires were used to examine changes in consumption in the short and medium term. Other key aspects assessed in the evaluation related to fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviour, knowledge relating to what constitutes a portion size, the relationship between food and health, and barriers to consumption. Results Although 76.2% of participants used the prescription vouchers when purchasing fruits and vegetables, a significant change in the consumption or purchasing behaviour was not observed (p0.05). Participants’ level of knowledge relating to number of portions recommended and the portion size of different fruits and vegetables showed moderate increase from baseline to short term and to medium term. The primary barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption were reported as ‘the quality of fresh fruits and vegetables’ and ‘the money available to spend on food’. Conclusion The use of “the fruit and vegetable on prescription” scheme was an effective method of engaging participants in improving awareness of key diet related health messages. However, further intervention is required to produce a significant impact on the actual behaviour change. Keywords fruit and vegetable prescription, mainstreaming prevention, health settings
    • FTO gene-lifestyle interactions on serum adiponectin concentrations and central obesity in a Turkish population

      Isgin-Atici, Kubra; Alsulami, Sooad; Turan-Demirci, Busra; Surendran, Shelini; Sendur, Suleyman Nahit; Lay5, Incilay; Karabulut, Erdem; Ellahi, Basma; Lovegrove, Julie; Alikasifoglu, Mehmet; et al.
      The aim of the study was to investigate whether lifestyle factors modify the association fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and obesity in a Turkish population. The study included 400 unrelated individuals, aged 24-50 years recruited in a hospital setting. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall and self-report questionnaire, respectively. A genetic risk score (GRS) was developed using FTO SNPs, rs9939609 and rs10163409. Body mass index and fat mass index were significantly associated with FTO SNP rs9939609 (P=0.001 and P=0.002, respectively) and GRS (P=0.002 and P=0.003, respectively). The interactions between SNP rs9939609 and physical activity on adiponectin concentrations, and SNP rs10163409 and dietary protein intake on increased waist circumference were statistically significant (Pinteraction=0.027 and Pinteraction=0.044, respectively). This study demonstrated that the association between FTO SNPs and central obesity might be modified by lifestyle factors in this Turkish population.
    • Funerals

      Woodhouse, Jan; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-15)
      This book chapter discusses the role of health care professionals in funeral arrangements.
    • Further essentials of pharmacology for nurses

      Barber, Paul; Parkes, Joy; Blundell, Diane; University of Chester (Open University Press, 2013-07-08)
      This book is aimed at pre-registration nursing students who want an accessible guide to drug groups that goes beyond the essentials. It covers cardiovascular drugs, gastrointestinal drugs, drugs used in cancer, drugs used in nausea and vomiting, anaesthesia, fluid, and topical medicines.
    • The future of nursing: Career choices in potential student nurses

      Whitehead, Elizabeth; Mason, Tom; Ellis, Jackie; University of Chester (Mark Allen, 2007-04-01)
      Young people leaving schools and sixth-form colleges have the opportunity to choose a career path from an increasing number of courses in colleges of further and higher education. Nursing studies are now competing with a range of health-related disciplines such as health studies, psychology and complementary therapy. Compared with nursing studies, many of these courses appear more exciting and appealing to studnets who are in the process of choosing a career or programme of study. while the increased choice is a positive move for students it may contribute to the shortage of students currently entering some areas of nursing. Indeed, some specialities in nursing, including mental health and learning disabilities, are so depleted in students that they are reaching a point of crisis. There is also concern that recruitment into nursing remains predominantly female and White British. Given the diversity of the UK population and the reliance on school leavers as a potential source of supply, it is important to understand why male students and those from multiracial and multicultural environments choose, or do not choose, nursing studies. This research study involved a sample of 106 16-year old students from three secondary schools in the North-West and South-East of England. The questionnaire results, collected in schools, revealed that students held tradtional views or knew very little about the nursing profession.
    • Gaining employment: The experience of students at a further education college for individuals with learning disabilities

      Skellern, Joanne; Astbury, Geoff; University of Chester (Wiley, 2012-01-02)
      Employment is widely acknowledged as a key factor to social inclusion, but it is estimated that <7% of people with learning disabilities are in paid employment. It was the aim of the research study to critically examine the experience of gaining employment from the perspectives of students with learning disabilities, parents, education staff and employers. All participants were recruited from one collaborating UK organisation, a college offering further education for young people with learning disabilities. Twenty-three interviews were conducted. Analysis of the data identified three themes surrounding the perceived roles of: Protector, Rescuer and Worker. Recommendations are discussed to improve collaborative working between student, parent, education staff and employer to overcome some of the difficulties influencing employment rates and contribute to the empowerment and inclusion of people with learning disabilities in society.
    • A genetic approach to examine the relationship between vitamin B12 status and metabolic traits in a South Asian population

      Surendran, S; Alsulami, S; Lankeshwara, R; Jayawardena, R; Wetthasinghe, K; Sarkar, S; Ellahi, B; Lovegrove, JA; Anthony, D; Vimaleswaran, KS; et al.
      Background: Observational studies in South Asian populations have suggested an association between vitamin B12 status and metabolic traits; however, the findings have been inconclusive. Hence, the aim of the present study was to use a genetic approach to explore the relationship between metabolic traits and vitamin B12 status in a Sri Lankan population and to investigate whether these relationships were modified by dietary intake. Methods: A total of 109 Sinhalese adults (61 men and 48 women aged 25-50 years), from Colombo city underwent anthropometric, biochemical, dietary intake analysis and genetic tests. Genetic risk scores (GRS) based on 10 metabolic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (metabolic-GRS) and 10 vitamin B12 SNPs (B12-GRS) were constructed. Results: The B12-GRS was significantly associated with serum vitamin B12 (P=0.008), but not with metabolic traits (P>0.05); whereas, the metabolic-GRS had no effect on metabolic traits (P>0.05) and vitamin B12 concentrations (P>0.05). An interaction was observed between B12-GRS and protein energy intake (%) on waist circumference (P=0.002). Interactions were also seen between the metabolic-GRS and carbohydrate energy intake (%) on waist to hip ratio (P=0.015). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a genetically lowered vitamin B12 concentration may have an impact on central obesity in the presence of a dietary influence; however, our study failed to provide evidence for an impact of metabolic-GRS on lowering B12 concentrations. Given that our study has a small sample size, further large studies are required to confirm our findings.
    • The Global Mental Health Assessment Tool Primary Care and General Health Setting Version (GMHAT/PC) – Spanish version: A validity and feasibility study

      Tejada, Paola A.; Jaramillo, Luís Eduardo; Marulanda, Jefferson; Sharma, Vimal; University of Chester; National University of Colombia; Cheshire and Wirral NHS Foundation Trust (University of Zaragoza, 2016-08-31)
      The study aims to assess the feasibility of using a computer assisted diagnostic interview by GPs and to examine the level of agreement between the Spanish version GMHAT/PC diagnosis and psychiatrists' ICD-10 based clinical diagnosis. Participants in the study ranged from those who were in remission to others who had different mental illnesses. They were recruited from inpatient and outpatient mental health settings. All consecutive patients were interviewed using Spanish version of GMHAT/PC and they were assessed independently by psychiatrists to in order to get their ICD-10 based diagnosis. Two hundred ninety-nine patients participated in the study. The mean duration of interview was 12.5 minutes. There is an acceptable to good level of agreement between the GP’s (GMHAT/PC) diagnoses and the psychiatrists’ (clinical) diagnoses of any mental illness, Kappa 0.58 95% C.I (0.46, 0.72). There is good level of sensitivity (81%) and specificity (92%), with GPs correctly identifying 242 out of the 250 participants diagnosed with mental illness and 27 out of 35 of those without. The finding of the study suggest that GMHAT/PC Spanish version used by GPs detected mental disorders accurately and it was feasible to use GMHAT/PC (Spanish version) in Latin America settings.
    • Good death

      Baldwin, Moyra A.; Woodhouse, Jan; University of Chester (2010-10-15)
      This book chapter discusses the concept of a good death.
    • GP practice pharmacist collaboration

      Khan, Nahim; University of Chester (Chemist and Druggist, 2016-06-11)
      This is a short case study how community pharmacy and pharmacists part of the NHS England GP Practice Pharmacy Pilot can work together to each others' benefit.
    • Guest editorial

      Skellern, Joanne; University of Chester (Emerald, 2016-06-13)
      This is the editorial for a special edition entitled 'Intellectual Disabilities: Nursing' of the Journal of Intellectual Disabilities and Offending Behaviour.
    • Guest Editorial

      Harlow, Elizabeth; Izod, Karen; University of Chester; University of the West of England (Taylor and Francis, 2015-06-01)
      This guest editorial introduces the special edition on the supervision of social work practice
    • The handbook of midwifery research

      Steen, Mary; Roberts, Taniya; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011-03-04)
      Part 1 - starts with a chapter on Introduction to Midwifery Research which sets the scene and covers an understanding of the general principles of research, the importance of the research question, the approaches that can be undertaken, the differences between these and the importance of applying evidence to midwifery practice. Chapter 2 - Finding the Evidence, explains in detail how to undertake a literature review, the sources of evidence available, how to use a search strategy and gives useful examples. In addition, midwifery related structured and systematic reviews are described and discussed in an attempt to promote a better understanding of how to undertake these aspects of research. Chapter 3 — Making Sense of the Evidence, covers the critiquing aspects of research evidence, gives an insight into how evidence is graded and clearly differentiates the differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches. Part 2 —focuses on how to undertake research and includes four chapters. Data collection techniques cover both qualitative and quantitative methods and are the focus of chapter 4. This chapter gives specific details on how to undertake a research interview and how to design a questionnaire as these will be the most likely data collection tools a midwife or student will make use of. Chapter 5 - ethics and research governance introduces the role of ethics when undertaking research and discusses the importance of research governance. Ethical issues relating to midwifery research are considered and specific details on how to obtain ethical approval is addressed to help midwives and students achieve this successfully. Data analysis is the focus of chapter 6. An introduction to data analysis which is followed by specific sections of both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods is covered and a basic understanding of statistics is also included to help midwives and students link the type of data collected with the appropriate statistical test required to analyse a specific type of data (fit for purpose). Finally, dissemination and the research dissertation/thesis are the focus of chapter 7. Writing skills and how to structure your dissertation/thesis is described and discussed. Guidelines and advice on how to get your work published and presenting a conference paper are given. A specific section on useful resources and becoming a researcher brings the book to a close.
    • Health inequalities as a foundation for embodying knowledge within public health teaching: a qualitative study

      Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; University of Chester (BioMed Central, 2013-06-28)
      Introduction: Recent UK health policies identified nurses as key contributors to the social justice agenda of reducing health inequalities, on the assumption that all nurses understand and wish to contribute to public health. Following this policy shift, public health content within pre-registration nursing curricula increased. However, public health nurse educators (PHNEs) had various backgrounds, and some had limited formal public health training, or involvement in or understanding of policy required to contribute effectively to it. Their knowledge of this subject, their understanding and interpretation of how it could be taught, was not fully understood. Methodology This research aimed to understand how public health nurse educators’ professional knowledge could be conceptualised and to develop a substantive theory of their knowledge of teaching public health, using a qualitative data analysis approach. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews (n=26) were conducted with eleven university-based PHNEs. Results Integrating public health into all aspects of life was seen as central to the knowing and teaching of public health; this was conceptualised as ‘embodying knowledge’. Participants identified the meaning of embodying knowledge for teaching public health as: (a) possessing a wider vision of health; (b) reflecting and learning from experience; and (c) engaging in appropriate pedagogical practices. Conclusion The concept of public health can mean different things to different people. The variations of meaning ascribed to public health reflect the various backgrounds from which the public health workforce is drawn. The analysis indicates that PHNEs are embodying knowledge for teaching through critical pedagogy, which involves them engaging in transformative, interpretive and integrative processes to refashion public health concepts; this requires PHNEs who possess a vision of what to teach, know how to teach, and are able to learn from experience. Their vision of public health is influenced by social justice principles in that health inequalities, socioeconomic determinants of health, epidemiology, and policy and politics are seen as essential areas of the public health curriculum. They believe in forms of teaching that achieve social transformation at individual, behavioural and societal levels, while also enabling learners to recognise their capacity to effect change.
    • Health literacy: The public health perspective

      Horah, Mike; Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; Department of Health ; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses health literary and how general literacy as a key determinant of health.