• Employment

      Skellern, Joanne; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-02-28)
      This book chapter discusses people with learning disabilites and employment, including the benefits and risks of the workplace for those with learning disabilities.
    • Empowerment

      Bryan, Ann; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-03-17)
      This book chapter discusses enpowerment at organisational, individual, and community levels.
    • Engaging fathers in childbirth: A meta synthesis

      Steen, Mary; Downe, Soo; Bamford, Nicola; Edozien, Leroy; University of Chester ; University of Central Lancashire ; University of Manchester/St Mary's University Hospital (2012-04-26)
      This presentation explores the evidence from a meta synthesis undertaken as part of a programme of work entitled, Engaging Fathers in Childbirth (EPIC). There is growing evidence that active involvement of fathers in maternity care is associated with many health and social benefits for the mother and baby. However, maternity care expectations and experiences of expectant and new fathers have received little attention from policy makers and maternity service providers. Twenty three papers were included in the meta-synthesis and studies where undertaken in 9 countries (7 UK, 5 Australia, 4 Sweden, 2 USA, 1 Japan, 1 Taiwan, 1 South Africa, 1 Finland, 1 New Zealand). Ten of these focused on the prenatal period (prenatal diagnosis, A/N education & care), 5 focused on the intrapartum period (place of birth, premature birth & experiences),8 focussed on the postnatal period (transition to fatherhood & post-traumatic stress disorder). Six themes emerged from the included studies: risk and uncertainty,exclusion, fear and frustration, the ideal and the reality, issues of support, experiencing transition. 'As Partner and Parent’ fathers experience as not-patient and not-visitor situates them in an interstitial and undefined space with the consequence that many feel excluded and fearful. They cannot support their partner effectively unless they are themselves supported, included, and prepared for the reality of risk and uncertainty in pregnancy, labour and parenthood and for their role in this context.
    • Enhancing practice teachers’ knowledge and skills using collaborative action learning sets

      Haydock, Deborah; Evers, Jean; University of Chester (Community Practitioner, 2014-06-23)
      This research project was designed to enhance the critical thinking and problem-solving skills of practice teachers (PTs) and promote role modelling to specialist community public health nursing (SCPHN) students. This paper explores the impact of action learning sets (ALS) on the trainee PT role and associated students and stakeholders. Pre- and post-intervention surveys were completed by eight trainee PTs and three focus groups were held consisting of trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and students. Three focus groups for the trainee PTs, practice education facilitators and allocated students were held. Findings are presented in relation to three themes: knowledge, skills and role modelling in practice; dedicated practice teacher development; and ALS in practice. Data analysis demonstrated that the PTs valued the dedicated module and ALS enhanced their knowledge and skills. These skills were role modelled to students to guide reflection and knowledge acquisition. All participants intended to develop ALS as part of continued professional development. The paper concludes with recommendations to improve the educational development of both trainee and experienced PTs through the integration of ALS as part of PT development.
    • Environment

      Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-03-17)
      This book chapter discusses the different enviroments involved in nursing, in particular clean enviroments, inequalities in health, challenges to contemporary nursing practice, and the nurse's role in developing healthy environments.
    • Epidermolysis bullosa: how social support affects quality of life

      Butterworth, Sondra; Mitchell, Andrew E. P.; Mason-Whitehead, Elizabeth; Martin, Kate; University of Chester (EMAP, 2019-05-01)
      Measuring quality of life has become an increasingly important method of evaluating the effect of health and social care interventions. The rare genetic condition epidermolysis bullosa is known to have a deep social impact on people’s quality of life, but most research into the condition is focused on its biomedical aspects and attempts to find a cure. A literature review has explored the relationship between social support and quality of life in people with epidermolysis bullosa. It concludes that, while more research is needed, social support does have a positive impact on quality of life and that professionals should adopt a bio-psychosocial approach to management.
    • Essentials of Medicines Management for Mental Health Nurses

      Robertson, Deborah A. F.; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2016-08-01)
      Introduction Pharmacology and medicines management is something my student nurses tell me all the time, that is very important to them. They also tell me that the subject of psychopharmacology is daunting and often find the textbooks dedicated to it ‘overwhelming’, ‘difficult to understand’, ‘over our heads’, ‘not real life’ and ‘expensive’. I don’t know that I can say this book solves all of those issues, but I know that writing this book, with students (and nurses in general) in mind, has made me very aware of those issues when deciding how to lay out chapters and to display information. It also informed the choice of inclusion of case studies, clinical tips and applied scenarios. Nurses need to understand pharmacology and medicines management, yes, no question. But they also need to know how to apply this knowledge to the patients in their care. This book links theory to practice in every chapter and helps nurses transfer their learning from the page to the practice situation. Nurses often say they wish there was more pharmacology taught at undergraduate level, but as an educator I understand the pressures of a nursing programme and the importance of all the other subjects taught. However as a nurse and pharmacologist I see and understand their point. As educators we instil the importance of pharmacological knowledge and teach the basics of pharmacology to give students the ‘building blocks’ of knowledge. But each student and their experience in practice is very different, so knowing where to find and how to use information is still one of the best skills we can teach. Combine this with enthusiasm for a subject and a lifelong learner is born. Learning about medicines as a nurse is fundamental to a major component of the role they will play [medicines management] and the care they will deliver, so motivating students to learn about drugs in an easy, accessible and applicable format is essential. This book is written with that purpose in mind. There is a proverb which sums this up well for me ‘Give a man a fish, and you feed him for a day; show him how to catch fish, and you feed him for a lifetime’. This book does not give you all the snapshots of pharmacological information for you to pick and eat for the day you want. It gives you basic knowledge, clinical understanding and the tools to find and apply information that will have you ‘fishing’ for pharmacological knowledge every day for the rest of your career.
    • Essentials of pharmacology for nurses

      Barber, Paul; Robertson, Deborah A. F.; University of Chester (Open University Press, 2012)
      This book is intended for undergraduate nursing students and covers the major drug groups with drug calculations.
    • Ethics of public health

      McCarthy, Jill; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses public health ethics, in particular professional ethics and applied ethics.
    • Evaluating public health programmes

      Hogard, Elaine; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses how public health programmes can be evaluated by professional evaluators.
    • Evaluating serious stress in military veterans, their carers and families: a protocol

      Finnegan, Alan; Di Lemma, Lisa; McGhee, Stephen; Watson, Roger; University of Chester; University of Chester; University of Miami; University of Hull
      In 2018, the Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust (ACFT) allocated approximately £4M to seven UK projects to address serious stress in military veterans, their carers and families. These programmes commenced between May and October 2019 and will conclude in August 2021. This paper outlines the protocol for the evalu- ation of the Serious Stress programme and the novel support provided to grant holders. Entry into the programmes was through multiple routes, including self-referrals with an antic- ipated sample of approximately 2000 partic- ipants. A common outcomes framework was designed to measure outcomes. Grant holders accepted ownership for data collection and quality and were supported through accompa- nying guidance material. Veterans were often reluctant to seek support, and the anonymous and confidential nature of the evaluation plus the study team’s mili- tary background helped address this. Partic- ipants’ voices were a key part in developing the protocol, leading to results to inform policy and highlight success, efficiency and cost effectiveness, and providing markers for future development. The study provided a reservoir of informa- tion. Interim reports indicated compliance with performance indicators and provided timely evidence. Shared learning provided grant holders with an indication of what was helping the beneficiaries and what needed to be improved. The combination of all data sets provided the ACFT with a resource to demonstrate success and insight into projects where improvement was required, and indi- cators of how to redress these problems. The study protocol provided a platform for building lasting partnerships.
    • Evaluating the support to the front line managers of social work

      Harlow, Elizabeth; University of Chester (2011-07-01)
    • Evaluating the Use of Vitamin D Supplementation to Improve Glycaemic Outcome in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients: A Systematic Review of Evidence

      Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; Babanumi, Adetoyosi; Olagunju, Anthony; Akata, Eloho; Yohannes, Asmait; Universty of Chester; Mount Sinai Hospital, Ambulatory Surgery Centre (Scientific Research Publishing, 2017-09-22)
      Background: The evidence indicates that vitamin D [25(OH)D] improves glycaemic outcomes in type 2 Diabetes mellitus patients. The outcome measures used to determine the accuracy of this hypothesis are: glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis which included all previous randomised controlled trial (RCT) studies that assessed the effects of vitamin D on glucose metabolism. We carried out an extensive electronic database search of published and unpublished RCTs, evaluating the association between vitamin D and glycaemic outcomes in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We searched Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, MEDLINE, BioMed Central, Turning Research Into Practice (TRIP), Health Technology Assessment (HTA), and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILIACS) between the years 2005 and 2016. The full texts of relevant studies were retrieved and a snowballing technique was used to discover further studies missed from the initial database search. This was done by hand-searching for references within the retrieved articles. Results: A total of 17 studies were included in the review. The pooled effect of 15 studies that measured HbA1c showed an insignificant effect of vitamin D on HbA1c (Mean difference (MD) = −0.06 mmol/l; 95% CI = −0.26 to 0.14; I2 = 76%). A pooled analysis of seven studies that measured the effect of vitamin D on blood glucose also found no significant effect of vitamin D on T2DM (MD = −0.03 mmol/l; 95% CI = −0.69 to 0.63; I2 = 76%). Three studies that analysed the effect of vitamin D on insulin sensitivity also observed no significant effect (MD = −1.51 mmol/l; 95% CI = −3.61 to 0.60; I2 = 67%). Conclusion: In conclusion, although vitamin D has been extensively studied in relation to some glycaemic outcomes and some indications that increased plasma vitamin D concentrations might be linked to prevention of T2DM, firm universal conclusions about its benefits cannot be drawn. Further studies with better designed trials and larger sample sizes are needed to draw firmer conclusions
    • Evaluation and communication: Using a communication audit to evaluate organizational communication

      Hogard, Elaine; Ellis, Roger; University of Chester (SAGE, 2006-04-01)
      Within evaluation studies the process of programme delivery is relatively neglected and within that there has been little or no attention to communication as an aspect of process. This article identifies this lacuna and proposes the technique known as 'communication audit' as a way to address this gap. The use of the method is exemplified through several programme evaluations.
    • An evaluation and critical analysis of the impact of the Aged Veterans Fund

      Di Lemma, Lisa; Howe, Sonia; Finnegan, Alan; University of Chester; Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust.
      There has been research on the numbers and needs of an ageing society yet, relatively little is known about the specific needs of older veterans, and the effectiveness of services specifically developed to meet these needs. In 2016 and 2017, the Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust funded invested £30 million to the Aged Veterans Fund (AVF) programme. This consisted of 19 portfolio projects to support health, wellbeing, and social care needs for older veterans (born before 1st January 1950) and their families. This report explores the impact of the AVF, with the intent of informing service providers, stakeholders and policy makers, of the lessons learned and the next steps required for the support of older veterans. A retrospective evaluation focused on both the impact of the processes adopted by the programmes, and the outcomes achieved, was commissioned. Qualitative analysis was performed on 78 eligible source documents, from which 10 recurrent themes were identified. Themes focused on the methodology and evaluations adopted by the projects, the number of beneficiaries reached, challenges encountered, associated costs and savings. In addition, the study identified projects outreach and sustainability, including staff, volunteers and clients perceptions of the services. Finally, there are results regarding the related health and wellbeing benefits, behaviour change and influences on the UK National Health Service (NHS) practice. The findings indicated that project promotion, partnership and collaboration was strong, which provides a foundation for the sustainability and outreach of some of the programmes. The AVF programmes were successfully rolled out via referrals, but this was not without challenges such as capacity, uptake, staffing and timelines issues. Two primary approaches were adopted. The first being a person-centred care approach, that takes into consideration the complex needs of the individual. The second was a skill-exchange model consisting of peers passing on their skills to beneficiaries. The results provided compelling evidence that the AVF initiatives were successful and were positively perceived by beneficiaries, staff and volunteers. Evidence was found on the impact of the fund on boosting resilience in the beneficiaries, by reducing social isolation and improving their health and wellbeing. Additionally, awareness was raised in the wider community, via the delivery of specific educational training to staff. In addition, AVF programmes influenced current health-care practice such as re-admission and discharge rates, via effective signposting and cross-referrals. The lessons learnt lead to recommendations and indicators for the next steps required to support older veterans and their families.
    • An evaluation of cognitive stimulation therapy sessions for people with dementia and a concomitant support group for their carers

      Bailey, Jan; Kingston, Paul; Alford, Simon; Taylor, Louise; Tolhurst, Edward; University of Chester; Staffordshire University (SAGE, 2016-01-18)
      This research aimed to ascertain the impact of a pragmatic Cognitive Stimulation Therapy course of ten sessions on the cognitive function of people living with dementia and whether attending a concomitant carers support group was beneficial to carers. A mixed method quasi-experimental approach was adopted, data was collected pre and post intervention. The quantitative arm utilised three validated questionnaires rated by the carers. Qualitative data was collected via semi-structured interviews with carers regarding their perceptions of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy and the carers support group Quantitative data analysis found no statistically significant differences within or between groups. The qualitative data demonstrated that carers perceived Cognitive Stimulation Therapy had some benefits for the people living with dementia, especially social benefits. Carers also perceived that attending the carers support group was beneficial for them in terms of gaining a better understanding of dementia, developing coping skills and having peer support. The study was limited in scale and further research with a larger sample, using direct measures of the impact of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy with people living with dementia and supplementary research exploring which characteristic of carers support groups are effective would be worthwhile.
    • Evaluation of Hungarian social work and social policy students' work placements in Cheshire

      Watt, Vanessa; Hogard, Elaine; Ellis, Roger; Erdos, Marta; University of Chester ; Univesity of Pecs (Erdos) (University of Chester, 2007-10)
      This report evalutes a scheme whereby six social work or social policy students from the University of Pecs spent a nine month work placement in Cheshire County Council's community service department.
    • Evaluation of the Broseley Health Technology Pilot

      Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; Bailey, Jan; Davies, Miriam; Enyinna, Chinwe; University of Chester
      This document reports on the evaluation of a health technology pilot, which was delivered by Shropshire Council’s Public Health Team. This service evaluation explored the usability and acceptability of three consumer smart devices in a group of older adults who live within the community. The devices are the “Echo Dot”, “Echo Show” and “Fitness Tracker”. The intention of the evaluation was to identify whether these devices meet the needs of its users, their experiences using the equipment and the impact of having and using this equipment.
    • Evaluation of the CWDC’s support to front line managers project

      Harlow, Elizabeth; Blunt, Gordan; Stanley, Nick; University of Chester ; Gordon Blunt Analytics (2011)
    • Evaluation of village and community halls energy consumption in Cheshire and Warrington

      Hellenbach, Michael; Hunt, Tamara; Alexander, Roy; Hogard, Elaine; Ellis, Roger; University of Chester (University of Chester, 2007-03)
      This report discusses public buildings and environmental education, particulary in relation to energy use and efficiency, attitudes to renewable energy, and institutional problems. A number of recommendations are made.