• Pain

      Barber, Paul; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-03-17)
      This book chapter discusses pain theories, physiology of pain, pain assessment, pharmacology, and alternative approaches to pain control.
    • Palliative care and the person with cancer

      Wyatt, Debbie; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-15)
      This book chapter discusses the relationship between palliative care and the person with cancer. The general principles of palliative care apply to those with cancer but there are a number of palliative care issues specific to the group or those caring for them.
    • Palliative care education

      Manford-Walley, Karen; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-15)
      This book chapter discusses how education for palliative care encompasses a wide variety of concepts and skills needed to match the diverse nature of care delivery. The education can be delivered at higher education institutions or in specialist settings in hospitals or within the community.
    • 'Paperwork': Its implications for community mental health nurses' practice

      Deacon, Maureen; University of Chester (University of Chester, 2011-09)
      This study aims to examine the real life documentary practices of community mental health nurses to enable a better understanding of the impact of paperwork on their nursing practice.
    • ‘Paradigm shift? Biomedical science and social work thinking’

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-07-17)
      This chapter examines the relationship between biomedical science and social work thinking. It looks at the similarities and differences between two unique but increasingly closely associated ‘helping professions’. As part of the discussion, the role of paradigm, power and ideological disparities and distinct traditions are stressed, as well as the impact of ongoing policy-led reforms which continue to bring each profession closer together.
    • Parental leave: Bad for breastfeeding?

      Wyndham, Delyth; University of Chester (Childhood Remixed, University Campus Suffolk, 2016-02)
      The latest UK parental leave reform introduced by the Children and Families Act 2014 could have an unintended impact on breastfeeding outcomes. The revised provision of up to 50 weeks shared leave was introduced in April 2015, with a view to encouraging parents to share infant care responsibilities more equally. This paper explores issues with definitions, policy shifts leading to the incremental change in entitlement and the potential for cascading policy failure.
    • Participatory action research: Moving beyond the mental health ‘service user’ identity

      Hutchinson, Andre; Lovell, Andy; Betsi Cadwaladr University Health Board ; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012-11-21)
      Contemporary models of involvement within statutory services pay little regard to the identity of individuals beyond the ‘service user’ label and in doing so unwittingly perpetuate and sustain the negative impact of mental illness. The aim of this paper is to discuss the process of a 3-year participatory action research study facilitated by a mental health nurse. It highlights the perspective of those involved as co-researchers, all having experience of accessing statutory mental health services. It identifies both the process and the impact of this type of involvement on them illustrating their move beyond an illness identity. The study involved them undertaking a series of interviews with other service users in relation to their life stories. They subsequently mapped and analysed the transcripts. In order that the people were enabled to undertake these roles the study included a process of interviewing and appointing service user researchers followed by a programme of training workshops, supervision and discussion group/ peer support. The accounts provided reflect the six researchers’ attempts to make sense of their experience and reveal the path of transformation through collaboration.
    • Peer mentoring and the role of the voluntary sector in [re]producing ‘desistance’: identity, agency, values, change and power

      Buck, Gillian; Keele University (Keele University, 2016-06-22)
      Despite much enthusiasm for the practice of peer mentoring by ex-offenders it has received very little empirical scrutiny. This thesis examines the micro dynamics and intimate interactions within these relationships. In doing so it highlights how mentors are often much more than functional additions to existing criminal justice systems. They are also presented as teachers, co-operators and critical agents. The narratives in this study highlight how dominant forms of knowledge often minimise or miss the lived experiences of crime and change. In contrast, peer mentors place lived experiences at the centre of their approach and in doing so they critically question exclusionary practices and re-humanise themselves and their peers. The work of peer mentors also highlights and at times challenges the hidden power dynamics that are subsumed when ‘regular’ interventions take place. But, mentoring cannot avoid or operate outside of these power relationships. It can and does generate other power dynamics. Whilst many of these complex relations remain hidden in current evaluations of the practice they are rendered visible here. Data were obtained from qualitative interviews with eighteen peer mentors, twenty peer mentees, four service coordinators and two Probation officers, who were drawn from a range of voluntary sector providers in the North of England. Observations of practice were also carried out, including: volunteer recruitment processes; training courses; and formal supervision sessions. Where possible mentors were also observed facilitating group work with their peers. The analysis of the data drew upon techniques of thematic analysis and critical discourse analysis focusing upon how mentoring was described, performed and justified by participants. As a result of this analysis five overarching themes emerged. These are: identity, agency, values, change and power.
    • The penal voluntary sector: a hybrid sociology

      Tomczak, Philippa; Buck, Gillian; University of Nottingham; University of Chester (Oxford Academic, 2019-01-09)
      The penal voluntary sector (PVS) is an important, complex, under-theorised area. Its non-profit, non-statutory organisations are highly significant in the operation of punishment around the world, yet ill-understood. Burgeoning scholarship has begun to examine specific parts of the sector, particularly individualised service delivery. We offer a five paradigm framework which more fully conceptualises the PVS, including different types of service delivery and important campaigning work. Our hybrid framework applies and extends Burrell and Morgan’s (1979) influential four paradigm model of social theory, which maps the theoretical diversity underpinning varying organisational activities. Our framework i) provides ideal-types which illustrate the range, fluidity and hybridity of PVS programmes and practices, and ii) highlights the (potential) roles of brokers in (re)directing activity.
    • People with learning disabilities who engage in self-injury

      Lovell, Andy; University College Chester (Mark Allen Publishing, 2004-07-01)
      This journal article represents some of the findings of the author's research into the relationship between self-injury and learning disability. It identifies the key theoretical discourses associated with the phenomenon, before elaborating on the main principles of each and identifying resultant intervention strategies. These interventions, psychotropic medication, mechanical restraint, and the behavioural approach are subsequently described. Case-study methodology was employed since this enabled the examination over time of these intervention strategies in the lives of individuals fulfilling the necessary criteria of persistent self-injury and significant communication difficulties. The findings of the research suggest a frequently piecemeal approach to self-injury, with arbitrary selection of behavioural intervention approaches, a continued reliance on powerful medication, and ambivalence concerning the use of mechanical restraint. Nurses were often skilled in working from a behavioural perspective, but were hindered by complex family circumstances and a failure to gain the confidence of direct care staff. There was also a lack of appreciation about the relationship between the individual and his/her self-injury, and recognition of the nature of the intransigence.
    • The perceived psychological stressors and coping behaviours in university students, on a pre-registration programme.

      Mitchell, Andrew E. P.; University of Chester (Emerald Publishing, 2020-05-20)
      The purpose was to investigate perceived stressors and coping behaviours in student nurses on a pre-registration programme of study. Stress in student nurses has been identified with decreased emotional well-being and poor academic achievement. The significance of stress and coping behaviours in students during training has implications for education and practice. The present study recruited eighty seven pre-registration student nurses in a cross sectional design. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the differences in field and year of study and the students’ perceived stress and coping behaviours. The findings showed that stress is a significant issue in nurse training. Fifty-three percent of the participants had levels higher than the mean. Interestingly, the present study found that high perceived stress was associated with avoidance behaviours. The most common type of perceived stress and ranked by highest factor were from written assignments and a lack of professional skills and knowledge. Their peer group and everyday life activities were shown as potential ways of coping with stressors. Thus, it seems reasonable to focus support on decreasing avoidant and enhancing stress-reducing behaviours. Psychological stress and coping behaviours must be considered together as perceived stress is bound by the ability to ameliorate stress by managing helpful and unhelpful behaviours. The findings may suggest that a potential benefit could come from the provision of helpful strategies such as peer group support and reduction of avoidant behaviours. Also, there seems to be a need for greater mental health literacy in dealing with stress during training.
    • PERCEPTIONS OF DEMENTIA

      Kingston, Paul; Taylor, Louise; Eost-Telling, Charlotte; Bailey, and Jan (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-11-08)
      Abstract This paper considers narratives of 143 respondents (“Observers”) to a Mass Observation Project Directive exploring individuals’ perceptions of dementia. Perceptions of dementia held by “Observers” with experience of dementia and those without differed sharply. “Observers” with experience of dementia offered insight into living with and caring for a person with dementia, and the impact this had on their lives and personal relationships. Whereas, “Observers” with no direct experience of dementia focused more on common disease symptoms such as memory loss and reflected idealised views of care. “Observers” often feared being diagnosed with dementia themselves. This suggests education to facilitate care planning and ameliorate fears held by the public is required.
    • Perineal tears and episiotomy: How do wounds heal?

      Steen, Mary; UCLan/Royal College of Midwives (Mark Allen Publishing, 2007-05-01)
      The care of perineal wounds is an important aspect of postnatal care. This article focuses on the healing of perineal wounds, describes tissue trauma, different types of wounds and classification of perineal wounds. Wound healing, factors that can prevent healing and the need to provide adequate pain relief that will have no adverse effect on healing are discussed in detail.
    • Perineal trauma: How do we evaluate its severity?

      Steen, Mary (MIDIRS, 1998-06)
      This article discusses a new tool designed in her unit for assessing the scale of perineal trauma
    • Person-centred healthcare research: A personal influence

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Foundation of Nursing Studies, 2018-05-16)
      Personal commentary on text: McCormack, B., van Dulmen, S., Eide, H., Skovdahl, K., Eide, T. (Ed.) (2017). Person-centred healthcare research. Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell.
    • PERSONAL NARRATIVES OF AGING.

      Taylor, Louise; Bailey, Jan; Kingston, Paul; Eost-Telling, Charlotte (2019-11-08)
      AbstractThis presentation reflects on self-written narratives from respondents to a mass observation directive, focusing on the experiences of growing older. Narrative methods are theoretically and methodologically diverse, and are helpful in social research to understand events or happenings in human lives. This data presents accounts from a heterogeneous sample in the form of self-penned responses. These experience-centred narratives bring stories of personal understanding into being by means of the first person description of past, present, future or imaginary experiences. This presentation will focus on the findings with reference to physical and mental impacts, both real and anticipated. We will also explore themes arising from the data including gender differences, age-cohort effects and stigma. The data can be used to inform Health and Social Care education and practice, particularly in co-producing appropriate person-centred services with older people.
    • The Perspective of Socioeconomic Inequalities and Infectious Disease in 21st Century

      Massey, Alan; Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; University of Chester (OMICS Group International, 2016-04-20)
      At the turn of the new century, the United Nations set a series of global health goals to be achieved by 2015. Amongst the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), goal six aimed to combat HIV, malaria and other diseases.
    • Perspectives on supporting fathers affected by postnatal depression and a history of violence

      Keeling, June J.; Laws, Thomas; University of Chester; University of Salford (Mark Allen Healthcare, 2018-01-23)
      Intimate partner violence during the perinatal period is a significant public health problem that remains under-screened, under-diagnosed and under-treated. The establishment of evidence based guidelines to aid Health Visitors in providing provide support for couples experiencing violence has been hampered by the complex interplay between maternal and paternal mental health problems and violence. Our study explored the experiences of UK fathers voluntarily engaged with services designed to redeem their ideation to violence. The findings indicate that a tendency to violence was increased by stresses associated with the transition to parenthood. Men felt pressured by concerns for their partners' mental health, changes to their relationship with the mother, sleep disturbances and the burden of infant care they assumed when the mother could no longer cope. Health Visitors are ideally situated to assess for factors linked to the emergence of violence and pre-empt the support needed to minimise its occurrence.
    • Phenomenological characteristics of autobiographical memories: responsiveness to an induced negative mood state in those with and without a previous history of depression.

      Mitchell, Andrew E. P.; University of Chester (Vizja Press & IT, 2016-06-30)
      In this study we investigated the relative accessibility of phenomenological characteristics in autobiographical memories of 104 students with and without a previous history of a depression. Participants recalled personal events that were elicited with cue words and then asked to rate these personal events for a number of phenomenological characteristics. The characteristics were typicality, rumination, valence, importance of others, expectancy, desirability, and personal importance. The effects of previous history of depression (without history or with previous history of depression) and self-reported mood (pre- and post-negative mood induction) on autobiographical recall was examined by employing a mixed factor design. Self-reported mood was measured as a manipulation check, before and after Mood Induction Procedure. Typicality, rumination and personal importance showed significant interaction effects in those with a history of depression. Ordinal regression supported the finding that those with a history of depression had a higher chance of typicality and personal importance than those without a history of depression. The results indicate that recall of autobiographical characteristics is in part dependent on induced negative mood state and on previous history of depression. The findings may prompt future research into targeted interventions that reduce individual tendencies for heightened cognitive reactivity in negative mood states for those with a history of depression.
    • Physical health assessment in mental health practice

      Collins, Eve; University of Chester (SAGE, 2013-01-15)
      This book chapter aims to discuss the importance of providing effective physical health assessments for individuals with mental health problems; explain the processes of conducting a comprehensive health history; and identify the health parameters which should be assessed as part of the physical examination for individuals with mental health propblems.