• The handbook of midwifery research

      Steen, Mary; Roberts, Taniya; University of Chester (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011-03-04)
      Part 1 - starts with a chapter on Introduction to Midwifery Research which sets the scene and covers an understanding of the general principles of research, the importance of the research question, the approaches that can be undertaken, the differences between these and the importance of applying evidence to midwifery practice. Chapter 2 - Finding the Evidence, explains in detail how to undertake a literature review, the sources of evidence available, how to use a search strategy and gives useful examples. In addition, midwifery related structured and systematic reviews are described and discussed in an attempt to promote a better understanding of how to undertake these aspects of research. Chapter 3 — Making Sense of the Evidence, covers the critiquing aspects of research evidence, gives an insight into how evidence is graded and clearly differentiates the differences between qualitative and quantitative approaches. Part 2 —focuses on how to undertake research and includes four chapters. Data collection techniques cover both qualitative and quantitative methods and are the focus of chapter 4. This chapter gives specific details on how to undertake a research interview and how to design a questionnaire as these will be the most likely data collection tools a midwife or student will make use of. Chapter 5 - ethics and research governance introduces the role of ethics when undertaking research and discusses the importance of research governance. Ethical issues relating to midwifery research are considered and specific details on how to obtain ethical approval is addressed to help midwives and students achieve this successfully. Data analysis is the focus of chapter 6. An introduction to data analysis which is followed by specific sections of both qualitative and quantitative analysis methods is covered and a basic understanding of statistics is also included to help midwives and students link the type of data collected with the appropriate statistical test required to analyse a specific type of data (fit for purpose). Finally, dissemination and the research dissertation/thesis are the focus of chapter 7. Writing skills and how to structure your dissertation/thesis is described and discussed. Guidelines and advice on how to get your work published and presenting a conference paper are given. A specific section on useful resources and becoming a researcher brings the book to a close.
    • Health inequalities as a foundation for embodying knowledge within public health teaching: a qualitative study

      Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; University of Chester (BioMed Central, 2013-06-28)
      Introduction: Recent UK health policies identified nurses as key contributors to the social justice agenda of reducing health inequalities, on the assumption that all nurses understand and wish to contribute to public health. Following this policy shift, public health content within pre-registration nursing curricula increased. However, public health nurse educators (PHNEs) had various backgrounds, and some had limited formal public health training, or involvement in or understanding of policy required to contribute effectively to it. Their knowledge of this subject, their understanding and interpretation of how it could be taught, was not fully understood. Methodology This research aimed to understand how public health nurse educators’ professional knowledge could be conceptualised and to develop a substantive theory of their knowledge of teaching public health, using a qualitative data analysis approach. Qualitative in-depth semi-structured interviews (n=26) were conducted with eleven university-based PHNEs. Results Integrating public health into all aspects of life was seen as central to the knowing and teaching of public health; this was conceptualised as ‘embodying knowledge’. Participants identified the meaning of embodying knowledge for teaching public health as: (a) possessing a wider vision of health; (b) reflecting and learning from experience; and (c) engaging in appropriate pedagogical practices. Conclusion The concept of public health can mean different things to different people. The variations of meaning ascribed to public health reflect the various backgrounds from which the public health workforce is drawn. The analysis indicates that PHNEs are embodying knowledge for teaching through critical pedagogy, which involves them engaging in transformative, interpretive and integrative processes to refashion public health concepts; this requires PHNEs who possess a vision of what to teach, know how to teach, and are able to learn from experience. Their vision of public health is influenced by social justice principles in that health inequalities, socioeconomic determinants of health, epidemiology, and policy and politics are seen as essential areas of the public health curriculum. They believe in forms of teaching that achieve social transformation at individual, behavioural and societal levels, while also enabling learners to recognise their capacity to effect change.
    • Health literacy: The public health perspective

      Horah, Mike; Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; Department of Health ; University of Chester (SAGE, 2008-11-20)
      This book chapter discusses health literary and how general literacy as a key determinant of health.
    • Health professionals’ responses to women’s disclosure of domestic violence

      Keeling, June J.; Fisher, Colleen; University of Chester ; University of Western Australia (SAGE, 2014-10-20)
      This study explored women’s experiences of their responses from health professionals following disclosure of domestic violence within a health setting. The existence of health based policies guiding professionals in the provision of appropriate support following disclosure of domestic violence is only effective if health professionals understand the dynamics of violent relationships. This paper focuses on the findings from the interviews conducted with fifteen women living in the UK who disclosed their experiences of domestic violence when accessing healthcare. Following thematic analysis, themes emerged that rotated around their disclosure and the responses they received from health professionals. The first two themes revealed the repudiation of, or recognition of and failure to act upon, domestic violence. A description of how the health professional’s behaviour became analogous with that of the perpetrator is discussed. The final theme illuminated women’s’ receipt of appropriate and sensitive support, leading to a positive trajectory away from a violent relationship. The findings suggest that the implicit understanding of the dynamics of violent relationships and the behaviours of the perpetrator of domestic violence are essential components of health care provision to avoid inadvertent inappropriate interactions with women.
    • Health Promoting Behaviours and Lifestyle Characteristics of Students at Seven Universities in the UK

      El Ansari, Walid; Stock, Christiane; John, Jill; Deeny, Pat; Phillips, Ceri; Snelgrove, Sherrill; Adetunji, Hamed; Hu, Xiaoling; Parke, Sian; Stoate, Mary; et al. (PMID, 2011-12-01)
      AIMS: University students' wellbeing and health promoting and damaging behaviours are important and comprise many parameters. The purpose of this study was to assess a range of health behaviours and lifestyle characteristics of 3,706 undergraduate students from seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. We compared differences in these parameters between males and females, and across the participating universities. METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information (e.g., gender, age), nutrition, dietary intake and food consumption patterns, as well as the importance of healthy eating, three levels of physical activity, restful sleep, tobacco smoking, use of illicit substance (recreational drugs), frequency of binge drinking and problem drinking. The data was collected in 2007-2008. RESULTS: While females generally reported lower use of tobacco, illicit substances and alcohol (binge drinking/problem drinking) and consumed more fruits and vegetables, male students had a higher level of physical activity, consumed less sweets and had more restful sleep. When lifestyle characteristics of students were compared between the different universities we observed some 'clustering' of the parameters under study, whereby favourable health practices would be exhibited at some universities; and conversely, the clustering of less favourable practices exhibited at other participating sites. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that only a minority of students exhibited positive health practices above recommended levels and the level of binge drinking and problem drinking was high. This calls for increased awareness of university administrators, leaders and policy makers to the risky health habits of their students. The observed clustering effects also indicate the need for local (university-specific) health profiles as basis and guidance for relevant health promotion programmes at universities
    • The Healthy Futures Project

      Rabie, Gabrielle; Evers, Jean; Olsen, Veronica; Byrne, Kevin; University of Chester (Gay Rabie, Jean Evers, Veronica Olsen, K.Byrne, 2017)
      This article discusses the formation of the Healthy Futures Network which is an informal network of schools in the North West who began meeting over a period of several months seeking to address issues relating to the Health and Wellbeing of young people. The health focus was mainly on Obesity and Physical activity. There was however a recognition of the need to address underlying contribution factors relating to health and wellbeing. In 2014, this informal “Network” became the ‘Healthy Futures Network’, a cross-sector partnership between the University of Chester and 8 schools from the North West of England funded by Health Education England (North). The Project was designed to assess how a collaborative network of schools at a regional/sub-regional level could work together to promote health and wellbeing, and to improve emotional health and wellbeing of their pupils. This project was also part of an engagement strategy for raising aspiration and awareness of potential career education opportunities within the NHS.
    • Historical developments

      Whitehead, Elizabeth; Carlisle, Caroline; Watkins, Caroline; Mason, Tom; Chester College of Higher Education ; University of Liverpool ; Manchester University ; Caswell Clinic/University of Glamorgan (Routledge, 2001-07-12)
      This book chapter discusses stigma and social exclusion within a historical context, focusing on the work of Durkheim, Goffman, Edward Jones, & Scambler.
    • Holism

      Baldwin, Moyra A.; Greenwood, Joanne M.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-15)
      This book chapter discusses how holism relates to the whole person.
    • Homeopathic remedies for self-adminstration during childbirth

      Calvert, Jan; Steen, Mary; Leeds Complementary Therapy Centre; Royal College of Midwives/University of Central Lancashire (Mark Allen Publishing, 2007-03)
      The first of two articles. This article discusses a study that assessed the usage and impact of providing a self-administered kit of homeopathic remedies at the end of pregnancy, childbirth, and post-childbirth. The study was undertaken at the hospital and at home. Nineteen women in south Leeds participated in this study between September 2005 and February 2006.
    • Homeopathy for childbirth: Remedies and research

      Steen, Mary; Calvert, Jan; University of Central Lancashire; Royal College of Midwives (2006-11)
      This article discusses the use of homeopathy during childbirth with an overview of a multidisciplinary research study.
    • Hospice movement and evolution of palliative care

      Baldwin, Moyra A.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-15)
      This book chapter discusses the evolution of palliative care from a service based in hospices to a multi-disciplinary community-wide service incorporating both orthodox and complementary interventions.
    • Household and market survey on availability of adequately iodized salt in the Volta region, Ghana

      Agbozo, Faith; Der, Joyce B.; Glover, Nutifafa J.; Ellahi, Basma; University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana; Volta Regional Health Directorate, Ghana Health Service; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2016-10-27)
      Consumption of adequately iodized salt (AIS) ≥15ppm is one of the criteria for measuring progress towards universal salt iodization (USI) and sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency disorders. After series of health promotion activities, this survey was conducted to evaluate the extent to which USI was achieved. Cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1,961 households and 350 markets to estimate the iodine levels of salt consumed or sold. Three degrees of iodization were estimated from fine, coarse and granular texture salt using MBI rapid field test kits. Differences in iodization levels were determined using Bonferroni test in STATA. Determinants for household utilization of AIS were identified using regression analysis and reported as odds ratio (OR). Availability of AIS in households (24.5%) and markets (30.9%) was far below the 90% recommendation. No differences where observed in urban (26.8%) and rural (24.1%) households. Households that used fine-texture salt (OR: 40.13; CI: 30.1-53.4) or stored salt in original packs (OR: 8.02; CI: 6.01-10.70) were more likely to consume AIS. Across districts, highest household availability of AIS was 51.7% while the least was 7.5%. The district with the highest market availability of AIS was 85.7% while the least was 8.3%. Almost 32% of the traders were aware that selling non-iodized salt was unauthorized but out of this, only 12% sold AIS. Public education should emphasis appropriate handling and storage of salt throughout the supply chain. To ensure adequate salt fortification with iodine, improved surveillance of factories and mining sites is recommended.
    • How Do I Look? Body Image Perceptions among University Students from England and Denmark

      El Ansari, Walid; Vodder Clausen, Susanne; Mabhala, Mzwandile A.; Stockton, Christine; University of Gloucestershire; University of Chester; Benfield University (MDPI, 2010-02-21)
      This study examined differences in body image perception between university students in two European countries, United Kingdom and Denmark. A total of 816 British and 548 Danish university students participated in a cross-sectional survey. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information, body image perception (as “too thin”, “just right” or “too fat”), and the association of related factors with body image perception (nutrition behaviour, social support, perceived stressors and quality of life). The proportions of students who perceived themselves as “too thin”, “just right”, or “too fat” were 8.6%, 37.7%, and 53.7% respectively. Multi-factorial logistic regression analysis showed that students who perceived themselves as “too fat” were more likely to be from the British university, to be females, to be older than 30 years, to report stress due to their financial situation and were less likely to have a high quality of life. The findings highlight the need for interventions with focus on healthy food choices whilst acknowledging financial stressors and quality of life.
    • How to choose the right antimalarial

      Khan, Nahim; University of Chester (2016-06-08)
      This is a small case study on the appropriateness of mefloquine in a patient with a co-existing psychiatric disorder. It also includes a question on prescribing advice and other methods of reducing mosquito bites.
    • How to encourage a woman to remain active in labour

      Steen, Mary; University of Chester (Redactive, 2012-03)
      This article gives an insight into how to encourage a woman to remain active in labour. There is substantial evidence that demonstrates being active during labour is beneficial and a range of different positions can be adopted. Good preparation during pregnancy is essential as this will assist women to become confident and believe in their ability to be active during labour. Ideally, upright positions in first and second stage should be encouraged and the use of props such as a chair, bean bag or birth ball. The impact of water immersion during labour should also be highlighted as an effective birthing option.
    • Humanist learning theories

      McIntosh, Annette; University of Chester (SAGE, 2010-10-29)
      This book chapter discusses humanist learning theories and the education of healthcare professionals.
    • I can't sit down - easing genital tract trauma

      Steen, Mary; Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, (Mark Allen, 2005-05-01)
      This article discusses the high prevalence of genital tract trauma and its many negative consequences for women, such as being unable to sit down comfortably. Its highlights how suture technique and suture material can significantly contribute to the severity of perineal pain and discomfort and the importance of asking women about their ‘pain experience’. Treatments to alleviate the pain and discomfort are then reviewed. In conclusion, it would appear that a combination of systemic and localised treatments is necessary to achieve adequate pain relief which will meet individual women’s needs.
    • I wanted to feel the way they did: Mimesis as a situational dynamic of peer mentoring by ex-offenders

      Buck, Gillian; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-10-10)
      Despite growing enthusiasm for peer mentoring as a criminal justice intervention, very little is known about what actually happens within these relationships. Drawing on an ethnographic study of peer mentoring in the North of England this article will foreground the concept of inspiration” in these settings. It will argue that Rene Girard’s theory of mimesis offers a framework with which to analyze role modeling in mentoring relationships and that a Girardian reading also offers interesting insights into the unresolved problem of the origins of personal change.
    • Ice packs and cooling gel pads versus no localised treatment for relief of perineal pain: A randomised controlled trial

      Steen, Mary; Marchant, Paul; Royal College of Midwives/University of Central Lancashire ; Leeds Metropolitan University (TenAlps, 2007-06-01)
      Background: Trauma to the perineum is extremely common during childbirth and the intensity of perineal pain has been reported to vary from being mild to very severe in nature. Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of two localised cooling treatments (ice pack and cooling gel pad) compared with a no localised treatment group at relieving perineal pain. Method: A randomised controlled trial conducted in a large maternity unit in the north of England and followed up in women's own homes in which 450 women who had either undergone a normal or instrumental delivery that required suturing of an episiotomy or second-degree tear were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Results: The response rate was 316 out of 450(71%). Perineal pain was most severe when sitting compared to lying down or walking and there was a significant difference between the three groups in estimates of overall pain when sitting on day four (Kruskal-Wallis test,df=2 p=0.01). Estimates of overall pain were lower in the gel pad group, and the difference between the three groups was significant at days five and day ten (Kruskal-Wallis test,df=2 p=0.02, p=0.01). On days two, three and five, significance was measured when making a binary comparison of reported 'moderate' or 'severe' pain with 'none' or 'mild' (chi-square test, p=0.04,p=0.04, p=0.02). Using a summary pain measurement, mothers experienced fewer painful days in the gel pad group but this did not reach statistical significance (Kruskal-Wallis test, df=2 p=0.26). The use of analgesia was reported to be similar in all three groups. Maternal satisfaction with their overall care was rated more highly in the gel pad group when compared to the two other groups (Kruskal-Wallis test, df=2 p>0.001). Conclusions: Cooling treatments can alleviate pain when compared to no localised treatment. Women appeared to find the cooling gel pad to be a more acceptable treatment.
    • Impact & interpretation: Museums and universities in collaboration

      McKay, Ian S. H.; University of Chester (2012-10-03)
      This presentation gives feedback on a conference called "Impact and interpretation: Museums and universities in collaboration" held at the Thackeray Museum in colloboration with the University of Leeds.