• Eight simple rules for writing in health and social care

      Chapman, Hazel M.; Keeling, June J.; Williams, Julie; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      Writing is a creative process. It transforms your own view of the world and enables you to grow and develop. This is why it is so commonly used as an assessment method, as educationalists use it to help you develop a more sophisticated understanding of your field in health and social care. In this book we have attempted to provide you with simple tools to improve your writing skills and achieve your professional goals. We have aimed to inspire you with insights into how you can use writing to help you think more deeply and flexibly about the world and how that knowledge can improve you as a practitioner. While writing and learning are refined over many years, there are some ideas in this book that can change your thoughts, feelings and behaviours quite simply and quickly, and open your mind to the simple pleasure of writing. In this concluding chapter we highlight a few of these hints and tips, and guide you to the relevant chapters to read more about them. We have identified eight simple rules for writing in health and social care. help you develop a more sophisticated understanding of your field in health and social care. In this book we have attempted to provide you with simple tools to improve your writing skills and achieve your professional goals. We have aimed to inspire you with insights into how you can use writing to help you think more deeply and flexibly about the world and how that knowledge can improve you as a practitioner. While writing and learning are refined over many years, there are some ideas in this book that can change your thoughts, feelings and behaviours quite simply and quickly, and open your mind to the simple pleasure of writing. In this concluding chapter we highlight a few of these hints and tips, and guide you to the relevant chapters to read more about them. We have identified eight simple rules for writing in health and social care.
    • Preparing to write

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (McGraw-Hill / Open University Press, 2013-09-03)
      This chapter explores the following topics: • The psychology of writing • How to reduce stress and anxiety • Why writing is important for learning • Why do you want to write well? • A space of one’s own • Getting started and finishing well • Reading for writing – and other learning resources • Using feedback and accessing support This chapter begins by looking at how your thoughts and feelings about writing, especially writing for assessment, can affect your behaviour. Through understanding what makes you write or prevents you from writing, you can gain control over your writing behaviours, the behaviours that are key to your ultimate performance. This chapter shows the small, simple steps you can take in order to achieve your writing potential. By exploring how to break down the barriers to writing, such as stress and anxiety, this chapter shows how writing can eventually become just another activity, and even an enjoyable habit. We discuss the reasons why writing is important for helping you to learn, and help you to explore your own reasons for wanting to write. This will help you to keep writing, even when you are finding it challenging. The environment you work in is important for developing good writing habits and enabling you to write well, so the chapter discusses how you can create your own writing den and find your favourite writing haunts. Practical tips, such as where to find your ideas from, how to start writing, how to finish your writing session, and how to plan writing for assessment are included. Suggestions on using different sources of information and inspiration for your writing, how to use feedback to improve your writing, and how to get the most from university student support services are given. Writing is an important part of your life when you are studying in health and social care. This chapter helps you to put it into perspective alongside the rest of your life, so that you can approach the act of writing without fear, and develop your writing skills to achieve your full potential in your chosen field within health and social care.
    • Reablement and support workers

      Dibsdall, L; Clampin, A.; Chapman, Hazel M.; Ebrahimi, V.A.; University of Chester (Macmillan, 2018-03-30)
      Chapter outline Support workers are key to the delivery of reablement services as they are the people who work on a day-to-day basis with service users. Support workers may join reablement teams without any experience in working in health and social care. More commonly, support workers move into reablement teams from therapy assistant roles or from working in a home care service. These support workers bring a wealth of experience to the role, but differences in both the process and the outcome of reablement and home care can offset the benefits of this experience. Reablement is a change in approach to care from being ‘task-led’ to a ‘doing with’, person-centred and outcomes-based approach. This holistic view of working with people who use these services has been largely welcomed by support workers who enjoy supporting them to do more for themselves. This chapter will consider some key skills and techniques used by support workers in reablement services, such as use of equipment, activity analysis and energy conservation. Support workers need appropriate training and education in reablement so that practice is meaningful, and the concept of reablement is clearly understood and articulated. This is fundamental to an inclusive approach to interacting with the service user, enabling them to grow in confidence and autonomy, and engage in the process of reablement. Suggested topics for inclusion in reablement training are included in this chapter and it is argued that occupational therapists (OT) are suitably experienced, and well placed, to provide this training. Before reading any further, you may want to recap on the concept discussed in Chapter 1 in the section ‘Defining occupation, activity and task (OAT) for reablement interventions’. Chapter objectives By the end of this chapter you should be able to: ➢➢ Outline the development of the reablement support worker role ➢➢ Compare and contrast ‘doing to’ and ‘doing with’ support worker approaches ➢➢ Explain the role of the support worker ➢➢ Evaluate equipment and reablement techniques support workers may use ➢➢ Describe the training requirements for being a support worker ➢➢ Consider the opportunities and challenges of being a support worker
    • Reablement services in health and social care

      Ebrahimi, V.A.; Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Macmillan, 2018-03-30)
      Edited book with concluding remarks written by the editors.
    • Taking Control: The Psychosocial Benefits of Reablement

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-03-30)
      This chapter discusses the psychosocial theories that underpin the philosophy and practice of reablement services. Prior to a long-term condition an older person will have fulfilled a role (indeed several) and will have taken an active part in community life (Coulter, Roberts and Dixon 2013). When a person is incapacitated by impairment, disability and pain the natural consequence is that they become a ‘user’ of health and/or social care services. This change is often dramatic and involves some distress, often associated with the level of importance an individual places on the activities they are no longer able to carry out. In addition, inpatient care can reduce mobility (Merreywether and Chapman 2013), as well as creating dependence on others for personal care and daily activities (see Chapter 4). Alternatively, and with reablement, a person can regain a sense of control over their lives, which includes psychological, social and physical recovery. There is a need for the person to be engaged in a meaningful process which genuinely advances independent living. However, loss of confidence, feelings of helplessness and an altered self-concept create barriers to regaining control. Societal expectations of recovery (including those of acute health services) can make long-term illness and disability discreditable experiences, inhibiting social engagement and increasing feelings of helplessness. Together with the person, the attitude of reablement workers (anyone who works with a service user in a reablement capacity) is thus a critical factor in social inclusion (In Control 2015) and reablement. Concordance, the respectful partnership between service user and service provider in planning and achieving essential aspects of the reablement process, is a fundamental requirement of reablement. It involves valuing the person and acknowledging the human relationship, promoting self-esteem, a sense of control and confidence to try, without worrying about failure. Immanuel Kant, the eighteenth-century philosopher, identified the importance of treating people as ends in themselves, rather than as means to an end (McCormack and McCance 2010), with important implications for the rights of human beings, irrespective of their earning potential, cognitive abilities, appearance, morality or other attributes of difference. Kant also identified the importance of autonomy, and behaving in ways that protected it, in order to promote respect for the self and for other human beings (Gregor 1997). His view of autonomy was that the individual should be free to make a moral choice, rather than come under the influence of more powerful others, and it is from this that the principle of informed consent in modern health and social care is derived (Lysaught 2004). So, in order to respect the service user, we need to support them to make fully informed choices about their reablement plan and then enable them to pursue those choices, even if we would make different ones. Respect for self and others is strongly echoed in the humanistic values of unconditional positive regard, congruence (or authenticity) and empathy, to promote personal growth or self-actualisation. Unconditional positive regard means valuing the person as an end in themselves, regardless of their status or personal characteristics. Congruence means that a person’s view of themselves as they are (self-image) and the way they would like to be (ideal self) are very similar, so the person feels happy with who they are. Empathy means understanding the world from the other person’s view in order to relate to their emotional feelings and needs. Self-actualisation, or personal growth, is the process of leading a life in which the person feels happy within themselves but looks forward to the next challenge or opportunity for self-development. These values are fundamental to the person-centred therapy of Carl Rogers (1961) and are used to promote the development of cognitive and emotional adjustment. Thus, the person sees themselves as worthy of respect and is able to plan a future that involves growth and development. Differing terms are used for the role of the service user in working with health professionals: adherence, compliance and concordance. Compliance suggests unwilling or unthinking obedience, but not taking medicines or following advice, which affects health outcomes and costs, can be a mechanism by which the service user is blamed for any failure to recover (Bissell, May and Noyce 2004), sometimes earning them the label of being ‘non-compliant’. Adherence means the active choice to follow the advice or prescription of a health professional, and is the term generally used in relation to pharmacological interventions, while concordance is agreement upon a plan of action or care management which incorporates the knowledge and views of the person and the professional (Horne et al. 2005). Outmoded emphasis on the importance of compliance with health and social care professionals, which creates a barrier to open communication, undermines the value of the individual and reinforces their view of themselves as helpless, leading to dependence and disability. These psychoemotional dimensions of disability that oppress people are described by Thomas (2004, p. 38) as ‘being made to feel of lesser value, worthless, unattractive, or disgusting’ and can affect both their self-concept and their understanding of their relationships with others. Consequently, it is essential for all health and social care professionals and support workers who work in reablement to understand these ideas and to value and respect the humanity of the service users with whom they interact. This chapter will provide an explanation and synthesis of key theoretical concepts that underpin a psychosocial understanding of the issues associated with disability, ageing and long-term conditions. Initially, it will explore the idea of the self, and how the psychology of the self influences human thoughts, feelings and behaviours within, and as a result of, the reablement interaction. This will be followed by a broad discussion of ageing theories such as disengagement, active ageing and gerotranscendence as well as elements of positive psychology. Understanding stigma will enable understanding of personal values in order to develop non-stigmatising attitudes and behaviour. Centrally, the need to facilitate the personal motivation and self-efficacy of service users, while enabling them to feel secure and confident, will illustrate the complexity of working with individuals within the context of reablement. Chapter objectives By the end of this chapter you should be able to: • Determine what self-concept is and how it affects the success of reablement and is in turn affected by it • Recognise learned helplessness and how it is reinforced by a loss of control • Outline the ways in which stigma acts as a barrier to reablement • Appraise psychosocial theories of ageing and their implications for reablement • Describe person-centred therapeutic relationships as the foundation of reablement practice
    • Using and developing evidence in health and social care practice

      Chapman, Hazel M.; University of Chester (Sage, 2020)
      [A] Overview This chapter outlines the processes of developing evidence-based practice and carrying out research and highlights the similarities and differences between the two. This chapter aims to increase your skills and motivation in utilising research evidence to improve your practice, introduce you to the process of research and develop your research skills. [A] Learning Outcomes At the end of this chapter you will be able to: • Critique research papers. • Share best practice with your colleagues. • Assist with research in practice. • Develop your research skills with a view to becoming a researcher.