• Universal credit, lone mothers and poverty: some ethical challenges for social work with children and families

      Carey, Malcolm; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2021-06-22)
      This article critically evaluates and contests the flagship benefit delivery system Universal Credit for lone mothers by focusing on some of the ethical challenges it poses, as well as some key implications it holds for social work with lone mothers and their children. Universal Credit was first introduced in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2008, and echoes conditionality-based welfare policies adopted by neoliberal governments internationally on the assumption that paid employment offers a route out of poverty for citizens. However, research evidence suggests that the risks of conditionality polices for lone parents can often include increased poverty, a deterioration in mental health or even destitution posed by paternalistic sanctions or precarious low-paid employment, which can undermine parenting capacities and children’s well-being. The article also critically appraises and questions challenges posed by an increased reliance upon contractual ethics by governments, alongside the wider behaviour modifying policies of the workfare-orientated state. This includes that working-class lone mothers can erroneously be stigmatised as representing a morally challenged dependent burden through activation policies and risk-averse social work practices.
    • Employing with conviction: The experiences of employers who actively recruit criminalised people

      Atherton, Peter; Buck, Gillian; University of Chester (SAGE Publications, 2021-05-03)
      In England and Wales, criminal reoffending costs £18 billion annually. Securing employment can support desistance from crime, but only 17% of ex-prisoners are employed a year after release. Understanding the motivations of employers who do recruit criminalised people therefore represents an important area of inquiry. This article draws upon qualitative interviews with twelve business leaders in England who proactively employ criminalised people. Findings reveal that inclusive recruitment can be (indirectly) encouraged by planning policies aimed to improve social and environmental well-being and that employers often work creatively to meet employees’ additional needs, resulting in commercial benefits and (re)settlement opportunities.
    • Critical analysis of the Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust Aged Veterans Fund

      Di Lemma, Lisa C G; orcid: 0000-0001-9161-1779; Finnegan, A; orcid: 0000-0002-2189-4926; Howe, S (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-03-30)
      Background: Relatively little research is available regarding the specific needs of older military veterans and the services introduced to support them. In 2016, the Armed Forces Covenant Fund Trust launched the Aged Veterans Fund (AVF), to understand the impact that military service may have on ageing, and to support initiatives targeting their health and well-being. This fund was financed for 5 years and included 19 UK portfolio projects. Method: The paper presents a retrospective evaluation on the processes and impact of the AVF, with the intent of informing policy, educational services, service providers and stakeholders of the lessons learnt. The inclusion criteria was veterans and their families aged 65 years of age or over. In 2019, data were drawn from documentary evidence related to the programmes. Qualitative analysis were performed on 78 eligible sources and 10 themes were identified. Results: Programmes were rolled out via collaborative partnerships referrals, focusing on person-centred or skill-exchange approaches. Challenges were encountered, such as capacity and timelines issues. A limited amount of associated cost-savings was observed, even if examples of sustainability and high satisfaction were reported. Evidence was found of programmes boosting health and well-being outcomes, in raising awareness, and in positively impacting on clinical practice, such as re-admission rates. Conclusion: The AVF programmes were successful in their intent to provide support to older veterans and their families. The findings provide indicators of the next steps required for the support of ageing veterans. Further investigation of the cost-effectiveness of age-friendly veterans’ services is needed.
    • The Teaching of Psychological Theory in the Undergraduate Pre-Registration Nurse Training Curriculum: Systematic, Integrative Literature Review

      Mitchell, Andrew E P; University of Chester (Nova Science Publishers, 2021-03-30)
      Aims and objectives. To establish how best to integrate psychology education into the pre-registration nurse training curriculum to enhance clinical practice. Background. Educational psychology focuses on applications of science to understand and improve how students learn and how they are taught. A key challenge for academics is integrating psychological theory within teaching sessions and clinical practice. Didactic teaching methods have had limited success as students do not see the direct relevance of psychological theory for clinical practice. Problem-based learning and simulation sessions may enhance the perceived importance for clinical practice. Design. Systematic, integrative literature review. Methods. A systematic search of the literature using multiple databases and search engines between the years 2010-2020 was undertaken using keywords and PICO algorithm. For this study, the following keywords were utilised; student nurse, pre-registration, education, problem-based learning, practice skills, simulation, psychology and learning theory. PICO identifiers were (Participants) pre-registration students, (Intervention) – psychology and psychological learning theory, (Comparison) – didactic taught sessions with problem-based and simulation, (Outcome) - improvement in theory or practice-based assessment. Results. Eleven studies were included. Evidence for traditional didactic teaching is limited. There is evidence that problem and simulation-based learning has shown success in demonstrating clinical practice implications. Conclusions. The findings reveal that psychology education is considered a central aspect of nurse training. Observational research is required to understand better the link between psychological knowledge and clinical practice. Relevance to clinical practice. There should be a strategic focus on the development and implementation of a coherent psychological theory in the pre-registration nurse training curriculum. Coherent and applied psychology curricula may have clear benefits for nurse education and clinical practice.
    • The use of photo elicitation to explore the impact of social work student’s perceptions of placements on social work tutors and consider their role in practice learning

      Caffrey, Bridget; Fruin, Helen; Bailey-McHale, Julie; Ridgeway, Victoria; Bailey-McHale, Bex; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2020-12-22)
      The importance of learning in practice is acknowledged across health and social care professions. Social work students’ experiences in practice settings has attracted some attention in academic literature, and the role and impact of the Practice Educator (PE) on student learning is increasingly recognised. However, there is a paucity of research examining the role of the social work tutor generally and particularly within practice learning settings. This paper presents a small-scale qualitative study exploring the impact of visual images produced by social work students reflecting their practice experiences on six social work tutors. Photo elicitation prompted discussion in a focus group setting which was subsequently thematically analysed, with four themes emerging. These were dichotomous relationships, difference and diversity, tutor brokerage skills, and student support. The images encouraged tutors to reflect upon the complexity of their relationship with social work students and question whether they were professionally equipped to support students in complex placement situations. In addition, the effectiveness of the curriculum in preparing social work students for practice was considered, particularly space afforded to students to reflect on practice learning in a safe environment. Opportunities to support SW tutors in their role and SW students in practice are deliberated.
    • Population Health Screening after Environmental Pollution

      Stewart, Alex G.; orcid: 0000-0002-4931-5340; email: dragonsteeth@doctors.org.uk; Wilkinson, Ewan; orcid: 0000-0002-2167-8756; email: ewilkinson@chester.ac.uk (MDPI, 2020-11-24)
      Following environmental pollution exposure, calls to screen the population for disease or disease markers are often made. Population screening is a cross-sectional review of a population to find latent cases or biomarkers of disease that indicate the possibility of disease development; it differs from environmental screening or an epidemiological survey. Recognized standard approaches have been developed over 60 years to ensure quality and effectiveness in complex programs. We surveyed the literature for papers on health screening following environmental exposures and checked them for reference to accepted criteria such as those of Wilson and Jungner. We applied these criteria to three situations covering source/hazard (arsenic contaminated land), pathway/exposure (radiation release), and receptor/disease (lead poisoning). We identified 36 relevant papers. Although across the papers the whole range of criteria were addressed, no paper or program utilized recognized criteria. Issues and gaps identified included limited strategic approaches, lack of treatment, environmental prevention being seen as the screening outcome instead of treatment of identified individuals, and programs which did not fit the World Health Organization screening description. Robust discussion in the literature is needed to consider the organization and role of health screening following environmental exposures.
    • The cat is out of the bag – point-of-care testing (POCT) is here to stay

      Phin, Nick; Poutanen, Susan M (European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC), 2020-11-05)
    • Problem Joints and Their Clinical and Humanistic Burden in Children and Adults with Moderate and Severe Hemophilia a: CHESS Paediatrics and CHESS II

      McLaughlin, Paul; Hermans, Cedric; Asghar, Sohaib; Burke, Tom; Nissen, Francis; Aizenas, Martynas; Meier, Oliver; Dhillon, Harpal; O'Hara, Jamie (American Society of Hematology, 2020-11-05)
      Introduction Severe hemophilia A (SHA) is characterized by spontaneous (non-trauma related) bleeding episodes into the joint space and muscle tissue, leading to progressive joint deterioration and chronic pain. Chronic joint damage is most often associated with severe hemophilia, however more recent research has illustrated that people with moderate hemophilia A (MHA) also experience hemophilic arthropathy and functional impairment. The need to measure joint health in children as well as adults, is underscored by findings from the Joint Outcome Continuation Study, which found that FVIII prophylaxis was insufficient to protect joints from damage, from childhood through adolescence in severe HA (Warren et al., 2020). The objective of this analysis is to gain a more patient-centric understanding of the clinical, economic and humanistic burden associated with 'Problem Joints', a measure of joint morbidity developed in consultation with an expert panel to overcome limitations with existing measures, in people with MHA and SHA. Methods A descriptive cohort analysis was conducted, utilizing retrospective, cross-sectional real-world data from the 'Cost of Haemophilia in Europe: a Socioeconomic Survey' (CHESS Paeds and CHESS II), studies of adult and pediatric persons with hemophilia. The analysis population is comprised of children (17 and below) with MHA or SHA in CHESS Paeds, and adults aged 20 and over with MHA or SHA in CHESS II. To account for the possibility that persons aged 18 or 19 in CHESS II may have participated in CHESS Paeds, these individuals were excluded from the analysis. Physician-reported clinical outcome data and patient/caregiver-reported quality of life were analyzed. A problem joint (PJ) is defined as having chronic joint pain and/or limited range of movement due to compromised joint integrity (i.e. chronic synovitis and/or hemophilic arthropathy). Analyses were stratified by number of PJs: none, 1 PJ, and 2+ PJs. We report retrospective data of the 12 months prior to study enrollment, on annualized bleeding rate (ABR), prevalence of target joints (TJ), as defined by the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis, and EQ-5D-/5L/Y/Proxy score. Results are presented as mean (standard deviation) or N (%). Results Among 785 participants (N = 464 SHA; N = 321 MHA) in CHESS Paeds, mean age and BMI were 10.33 (4.63) and 22.50 (17.07), respectively. Of 493 participants (aged 20 and above) in CHESS II (N = 298 SHA; N = 195 MHA), the mean age and BMI were 38.61 (14.06) and 24.55 (2.92), respectively. Current inhibitor to FVIII replacement was more prevalent in children than in adults (10% vs. 5%). In CHESS II, approximately 40% of people with MHA and 49% with SHA had one or more PJs, respectively [1 PJ (23% vs. 28%); 2+ PJs (16% vs. 21%)]. In CHESS Paeds, approximately 14% of children with MHA and 18% with SHA had at least one PJ, respectively [1 PJ (9% vs. 14%); 2+ PJs (5% vs. 3%)]. TJs were less prevalent with MHA in comparison to SHA, in both adults (24% vs. 45%) and children (13% vs. 22%). Clinical burden was higher among both children and adults with PJs compared to those with no PJs. ABR correlates with the number of PJs, in those with MHA and SHA in CHESS II (Figure 1). Similarly, PJs were associated with higher ABR across MHA and SHA in CHESS Paeds (Figure 2). Hemophilia-related hospitalizations were higher in both adult and pediatric participants with PJs. In CHESS II, MHA with no PJs had fewer [0.73 (1.23)] hospitalizations compared to having those with 1 PJ [1.38 (1.11)] or 2+ PJs [1.28 (1.25)]. Similarly, children with MHA with 2+ PJs had 1.60 (1.92) hemophilia-related hospitalizations, compared to 1.38 (1.92) with 1 PJ and 0.71 (1.14) with no PJs. PJs were associated with impaired quality of life. In CHESS II, MHA and SHA EQ-5D-5L values in persons with no PJs were 0.81 (0.19) and 0.79 (0.18), respectively, compared to 0.65 (0.16) and 0.62 (0.23) with 1 PJ, and 0.65 (0.14) and 0.51 (0.33) in with 2+ PJs. A similar trend was observed in EQ-5D-Y and EQ-5D-proxy scores in CHESS Paeds. Conclusions Data from CHESS Paeds and CHESS II demonstrate an association between chronic joint damage, as measured by the 'problem joint' definition, and worsening clinical and quality of life outcomes, across both MHA and SHA. Further analyses will seek to expand upon the initial results presented here, to investigate the wider elements of burden associated with compromised long-term joint health. Disclosures McLaughlin: BioMarin: Consultancy; Novo Nordisk: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Sobi: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Roche/Chugai: Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Speakers Bureau. Hermans:Novo Nordisk: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Roche: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Sobi: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Biogen: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; CAF-DCF: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; CSL Behring: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Shire, a Takeda company: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Pfizer: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Bayer: Consultancy, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; WFH: Other; EAHAD: Other; Octapharma: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Kedrion: Speakers Bureau; LFB: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau. Asghar:HCD Economics: Current Employment. Burke:HCD Economics: Current Employment; University of Chester: Current Employment; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Consultancy. Nissen:GSK: Research Funding; Novartis: Research Funding; Actelion: Consultancy; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Current Employment. Aizenas:F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Meier:F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Dhillon:HCD Economics: Current Employment; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Other: All authors received editorial support for this abstract, furnished by Scott Battle, funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Basel, Switzerland. . O'Hara:F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Consultancy; HCD Economics: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company.
    • Examination and Validation of a Patient-Centric Joint Metric: "Problem Joint"; Empirical Evidence from the CHESS US Dataset

      Burke, Tom; Rodriguez Santana, Idaira; Chowdary, Pratima; Curtis, Randall; Khair, Kate; Laffan, Michael; McLaughlin, Paul; Noone, Declan; O'Mahony, Brian; Pasi, John; et al. (American Society of Hematology, 2020-11-05)
      Introduction Severe hemophilia (FVIII/FIX level <1%) is characterized by spontaneous hemarthrosis leading to progressive joint deterioration and chronic pain in the affected individual. Unless these recurrent hemarthroses can be prevented, e.g. with the use of prophylactic factor replacement therapy, these patients will develop chronic synovitis, pain, and eventually destruction of the joint. Current metrics such as 'Target joint' and other clinical measures of joint morbidity are prevalent and widely accepted. Measures focused solely on bleeding activity, such as the 'Target joint' metric, are arguably becoming less sensitive as current treatment strategies look to significantly reduce or eradicate joint bleeds, though they maintain clinically relevant and complementary to delivery of comprehensive hemophilia care. Key opinion leaders in the haemophilia field have debated the need for a more patient relevant measure of haemophilia-related joint morbidity. 'Problem Joint' (PJ), which is defined as having chronic joint pain and/or limited range of movement due to compromised joint integrity (chronic synovitis and/or haemophilic arthropathy), with or without persistent bleeding was derived through consensus. The objectives of this working group are to examine the usefulness and validity of the PJ metric. Initial research presented here was used to test the sensitivity of PJ as a patient relevant metric with respect to key outcomes for US haemophilia patients. Methods Data on PJs, as well as demographic, clinical and socio-economic variables was captured within the 'Cost of Haemophilia Across Europe: A Socioeconomic Survey' datasets (CHESS: I, II, Paediatric, and US studies). These data contain a total of 992 paediatric (age 1-17) and 2,437 adults (age 18+) with haemophilia from eight European countries and the US. Statistical analysis explored the association of PJ count and location with respect to two key outcomes: quality of life, as measured by an EQ-5D score, and overall work impairment, measured by the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI). Those with current inhibitors were excluded from the analysis, and the US cohort comprised the focus of this initial research into the topic. Results The US cohort contained information on 345 people with haemophilia (PwH) and captured adults only, with a mean age of 35 years. Approximately, 43% of PwH had one or more PJs. Lower body PJs were more prevalent than upper body: 40% had one or more lower body PJs vs. 27% upper body. The majority of PJs were located in the ankles, knees and elbows. The relationship between EQ-5D and number of PJs showed a negative trend (see Figure 1): the average EQ-5D score was: 0.81 for those with zero PJs (N=197); 0.79 for those with one PJ (N=24); 0.70 for two PJs (N=29); 0.68 for three PJs (N=24) and 0.49 for those patients with four of more PJs (N=59). Similarly, an increase in number of PJs meant greater work productivity impairment versus no PJs recorded: 30.08% (N=102) vs. 19.51% (N=137), respectively. Discussion Results from the US cohort found that an increase in the number of PJs was associated with an increasing humanistic burden in PwH. The proposed Problem Joint definition takes a holistic viewpoint and provides a patient relevant perspective. Further work is planned to evaluate the appropriateness of the measure, and test the sensitivity in European and pediatric cohorts. Disclosures Burke: HCD Economics: Current Employment; University of Chester: Current Employment; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Consultancy. Rodriguez Santana:HCD Economics: Current Employment. Chowdary:Pfizer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Sobi: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Roche: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Sanofi: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Shire (Baxalta): Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Spark: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; BioMarin: Honoraria; Novo Nordisk: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; CSL Behring: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Chugai: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Speakers Bureau; Freeline: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding; Bayer: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding. Curtis:Bayer: Consultancy; Novo Nordisk: Consultancy; Patient Reported Outcomes, Burdens and Experiences: Consultancy; USC Hemophilia Utilization Group Study (HUGS): Consultancy. Khair:Haemnet: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Biomarin: Consultancy; HCD Economics: Consultancy; Novo Nordisk: Consultancy, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Medikhair: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Sobi: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; CSL Behring: Honoraria, Research Funding; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Honoraria, Research Funding; Takeda: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Bayer: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau. Laffan:Shire: Consultancy; LFB: Consultancy; Roche: Consultancy; Sobi: Consultancy; Pfizer: Consultancy; CSL: Consultancy; Pfizer: Speakers Bureau; Bayer: Speakers Bureau; Roche-Chugai: Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Speakers Bureau; Leo-Pharma: Speakers Bureau; Octapharma: Consultancy. McLaughlin:BioMarin: Consultancy; Novo Nordisk: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Sobi: Consultancy, Speakers Bureau; Roche/Chugai: Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Speakers Bureau. Noone:European Haemophilia Consortium: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Research Investigator PROBE: Research Funding; Healthcare Decision Consultants: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. O'Mahony:Biomarin: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Freeline: Honoraria; UniQure: Honoraria. Pasi:BioMarin: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Grants, personal fees, and nonfinancial support; honoraria as member of scientific advisory boards and symposia; uniQure: Other: Grants and nonfinancial support , Research Funding; ApcinteX: Consultancy, Other: Personal fees ; Octapharma: Honoraria, Other: Personal fees and nonfinancial support; honoraria as member of scientific advisory boards and symposia , Speakers Bureau; Novo Nordisk: Honoraria, Other: Personal fees and nonfinancial support; honoraria as member of scientific advisory boards and symposia ; Catalyst Biosciences: Consultancy, Other: Personal fees and nonfinancial support; honoraria as member of scientific advisory boards and symposia; Biotest: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Personal fees and nonfinancial support; honoraria as member of scientific advisory boards and symposia; Alnylam (Sanofi): Other: Personal fees and nonfinancial support ; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other: Personal fees; honoraria as member of scientific advisory boards and symposia ; Sanofi: Honoraria, Other: Personal fees and nonfinancial support; honoraria as member of scientific advisory boards and symposia, Research Funding; Sigilon: Research Funding; Tremeau: Research Funding; Sobi: Consultancy, Honoraria, Other; Roche: Honoraria, Other; Pfizer: Other. Skinner:Genentech: Consultancy, Honoraria; Spark Therapeutics: Other, Speakers Bureau; Pfizer: Other, Speakers Bureau; Takeda: Honoraria, Research Funding; uniQure: Research Funding; Biomarin: Consultancy, Research Funding; CSL Behring: Research Funding; Freeline Therapeutics: Research Funding; Novo Nordisk: Honoraria, Research Funding; Roche: Honoraria, Research Funding; Sanofi: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; Sobi: Research Funding; Bayer: Consultancy, Research Funding. O'Hara:HCD Economics: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Consultancy.
    • Evidence of a Hemophilia Employment Gap: Comparing Data from CHESS US+ and the 2019 Current Population Survey

      Asghar, Sohaib; Burke, Tom; Misciattelli, Natalia; Kar, Sharmila; Morgan, George; O'Hara, Jamie (American Society of Hematology, 2020-11-05)
      INTRODUCTION Severe hemophilia A (<1% normal FVIII activity) and B (<1% normal FIX activity) are congenital bleeding disorders characterized by uncontrolled bleeding, either spontaneously or in response to trauma or surgery. Recent commentary has identified a number of patient-important and patient-relevant outcomes that have been understudied, namely the challenges faced by people living with hemophilia to participate in the labor force. The socio-economic impact of hemophilia is comparatively less well understood than clinical outcomes and therapy-related costs. Under-employment and under-utilization have long-term consequences to individuals' job prospects and psychosocial health, as well as an economic cost to the society. The objective of the analysis is to compare labor market participation, among people with severe hemophilia from the US and the general population. This analysis draws on household data derived from the 2019 Current Population Survey (CPS), and on patient-reported data from a patient-centric study conducted in 2019 of people with severe hemophilia, in the US: the 'Cost of Severe Hemophilia Across the US: A Socioeconomic Survey' (CHESS US+). METHODS A patient-centric framework informed the design of CHESS US+ a retrospective (12 months prior to study enrollment), cross-sectional dataset of adults with severe hemophilia in the US. Conducted in 2019, the study used a patient-completed questionnaire to collect data on patient-relevant clinical, economic, and humanistic outcomes. This analysis examines labor market participation (full-time, part-time, unemployed), and corresponding general population data derived from the 2019 Current Population Survey (CPS). Data on the general population were sourced from the 2019 CPS 'Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population'. Persons 'not in the labor force' in the 2019 CPS and retired persons in CHESS US+ were not included in the analysis. We present data on the civilian labor force, in CHESS US+ and in the 2019 CPS. Results are presented as mean (standard deviation) or N (%). RESULTS Of 356 patients profiled in the CHESS US+ study, 97 (27%) had severe hemophilia B and 257 (73%) had severe hemophilia A. Mean age and weight (kg) of the cohort was 34.99 (12.15) and 85.71 (22.81), respectively. The labor force participation rates of non-retired people with severe hemophilia in CHESS US+ (N = 340) and the general population (161,458) are described in Table 1. Examining aggregate data on employment status observed a higher proportion of people with severe hemophilia in part-time employment (24.4% vs. 15.7%). Differences in the labor force participation of people living with severe hemophilia compared to the general population were most pronounced in the full-time employment rate and the unemployment rate. Compared to 80.7% of the general population (Table 1), only 53.5% of people with severe hemophilia in CHESS US+ had a full-time job. Moreover, the unemployment rate (Table 1) in the 2019 CPS compared with the rate observed in CHESS US+ (3.7% vs. 22.1%) provides a stark contrast in the employment experiences of people living with severe hemophilia relative to the general population. CONCLUSIONS This analysis of CHESS US+ illustrates the impact of severe hemophilia on labor force participation. People with severe hemophilia were more likely than the general population to be unemployed, or in part-time employment. A notable contrast was observed in the rate of full-time employment and unemployment, among the general population compared to people living with severe hemophilia. These data illustrate the need to quantify the impact of hemophilia using a holistic approach that considers the cost of involuntary illness-related part-time and unemployment. Disclosures Asghar: HCD Economics: Current Employment. Burke:HCD Economics: Current Employment; F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Consultancy; University of Chester: Current Employment. Misciattelli:Freeline: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Kar:Freeline: Current Employment, Current equity holder in publicly-traded company. Morgan:HCD Economics: Current Employment; uniQure: Consultancy. O'Hara:F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd: Consultancy; HCD Economics: Current Employment, Current equity holder in private company.
    • Including public health considerations in trade and investment agreements

      Thow, A; Garde, A; Mabhala, M; Smith, R; Kingston, P; Manning, P; Hunter, D; Winters, L A; Lincoln, P; Parish, R (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2020-09-30)
      Abstract There is widespread recognition that trade and investment agreements (TIAs) can affect health services, access to medicines, NCD prevention (particularly related to tobacco, alcohol and unhealthy food) and health systems structures. In addition, these binding international economic agreements can constrain the policy space available for innovative, evidence-based health policymaking. Although TIAs can have positive outcomes for employment and economic growth, these benefits are only likely to accrue when governments are pro-active in implementing complementary policies to mitigate impacts on other sectors and to address potential inequalities arising. The aim of this panel session is to examine the ways in which TIAs can be designed to achieve economic goals while also protecting public health, and identify complementary policy measures that may be needed as well as strategies for strategic policy engagement. This panel will be hosted by the UK-PRP PETRA Network (Prevention of noncommunicable disease using trade agreements). The UK will be negotiating a range of new TIAs over the coming years, representing a window of opportunity for strategic engagement with policymakers regarding how public health can be protected and promoted within these agreements. There is an emerging global body of evidence regarding how consideration of health can be integrated into TIAs, both textually and through strategic engagement with policymakers before and during the negotiation phase. Experience to date indicates common global challenges and opportunities for health and trade, as well as significant potential for cross country learning regarding trade and health. The panel discussion will use the UK experience as a springboard to address these global issues.
    • Prevalence of treatment resistance and clozapine use in early intervention services.

      Stokes, Imogen; Griffiths, Siân Lowri; orcid: 0000-0003-0031-7174; Jones, Rowena; Everard, Linda; Jones, Peter B; Fowler, David; Hodgekins, Joanne; Amos, Tim; Freemantle, Nick; Sharma, Vimal; et al. (2020-09-17)
      Treatment resistance causes significant burden in psychosis. Clozapine is the only evidence-based pharmacologic intervention available for people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia; current guidelines recommend commencement after two unsuccessful trials of standard antipsychotics. This paper aims to explore the prevalence of treatment resistance and pathways to commencement of clozapine in UK early intervention in psychosis (EIP) services. Data were taken from the National Evaluation of the Development and Impact of Early Intervention Services study (N = 1027) and included demographics, medication history and psychosis symptoms measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Prescribing patterns and pathways to clozapine were examined. We adopted a strict criterion for treatment resistance, defined as persistent elevated positive symptoms (a PANSS positive score ≥16, equating to at least two items of at least moderate severity), across three time points. A total of 143 (18.1%) participants met the definition of treatment resistance of having continuous positive symptoms over 12 months, despite treatment in EIP services. Sixty-one (7.7%) participants were treatment resistant and eligible for clozapine, having had two trials of standard antipsychotics; however, only 25 (2.4%) were prescribed clozapine over the 12-month study period. Treatment-resistant participants were more likely to be prescribed additional antipsychotic medication and polypharmacy, instead of clozapine. Prevalent treatment resistance was observed in UK EIP services, but prescription of polypharmacy was much more common than clozapine. Significant delays in the commencement of clozapine may reflect a missed opportunity to promote recovery in this critical period.
    • The impact of factor infusion frequency on health-related quality of life in people with haemophilia

      Pedra, Gabriel; Christoffersen, Pia; Khair, Kate; Lee, Xin Ying; O’Hara, Sonia; O’Hara, Jamie; Pasi, John (Haemnet, 2020-08-15)
      Background. Some studies suggest that people with haemophilia (PwH) who use prophylaxis value low frequency of clotting factor administration more than a lower risk of bleeding. However, more frequent infusions offer the potential of reducing joint disease and pain, which in turn may improve functioning and quality of life.AimsTo explore the impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) aspects of haemophilia associated with adherence and annual infusion rate in the context of factors influencing treatment that are important to patients, including prophylaxis, chronic pain, concomitant conditions and hospital admission.Materials and methodsHRQoL was assessed in participants with severe haemophilia in the ‘Cost of Haemophilia in Europe: a Socioeconomic Survey’ (CHESS) study who were using prophylaxis. Patients using on-demand treatment were excluded. This multivariate analysis examined the interaction between factors potentially influencing treatment and HRQoL, and minor and major bleeds.ResultsFrom the total CHESS population (n=1,285), 338 (26%) participants provided responses for major and minor bleeds and target joints, and 145 (11%) provided EQ-5D-3L responses. Major and minor bleeds were associated with pain. Patients with severe chronic pain reported a substantial negative impact on HRQoL; but this was significantly improved by increases in the annual infusion rate. This was not apparent in participants with mild or moderate pain.ConclusionIncreasing the frequency of prophylaxis infusions is associated with improved quality of life in PwH who have severe chronic pain. However, increasing the number of infusions per week in those with mild or moderate chronic pain with the intention of improving prophylactic effect may not have the same effect.
    • Supporting nursing students from diverse cultural backgrounds.

      Wiredu, Immanuel; Roberts, Debbie; email: debbie.roberts@chester.ac.uk (2020-07-30)
    • Interaction between Metabolic Genetic Risk Score and Dietary Fatty Acid Intake on Central Obesity in a Ghanaian Population

      Alsulami, Sooad; Nyakotey, David; Dudek, Kamila; Bawah, Abdul-Malik; Lovegrove, Julie; Annan, Reggie; Ellahi, Basma; Karani, Santhanakrishnan Vimaleswaran; University of Reading, University of Chester and Kumasi University (MDPI, 2020-07-27)
      Obesity is a multifactorial condition arising from the interaction between genetic and lifestyle factors. We aimed to assess the impact of lifestyle and genetic factors on obesity-related traits in 302 healthy Ghanaian adults. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using a 3 day repeated 24 h dietary recall and global physical activity questionnaire, respectively. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to construct 4-SNP, 8-SNP and 12-SNP genetic risk scores (GRSs). The 4-SNP GRS showed significant interactions with dietary fat intakes on waist circumference (WC) (Total fat, Pinteraction = 0.01; saturated fatty acids (SFA), Pinteraction = 0.02; polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), Pinteraction = 0.01 and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), Pinteraction = 0.01). Among individuals with higher intakes of total fat (>47 g/d), SFA (>14 g/d), PUFA (>16 g/d) and MUFA (>16 g/d), individuals with ≥3 risk alleles had a significantly higher WC compared to those with <3 risk alleles. This is the first study of its kind in this population, suggesting that a higher consumption of dietary fatty acid may have the potential to increase the genetic susceptibility of becoming centrally obese. These results support the general dietary recommendations to decrease the intakes of total fat and SFA, to reduce the risk of obesity, particularly in individuals with a higher genetic predisposition to central obesity.
    • A systematic review of the organizational, environmental, professional and child and family factors influencing the timing of admission to hospital for children with serious infectious illness

      editor: Ho, Jacqueline J.; Carter, Bernie; orcid: 0000-0001-5226-9878; email: bernie.carter@edgehill.ac.uk; Roland, Damian; orcid: 0000-0001-9334-5144; Bray, Lucy; Harris, Jane; orcid: 0000-0001-6584-1642; Pandey, Poornima; Fox, Jo; Carrol, Enitan D.; Neill, Sarah; orcid: 0000-0001-9699-078X (Public Library of Science, 2020-07-23)
      Background: Infection, particularly in the first 5 years of life, is a major cause of childhood deaths globally, many deaths from infections such as pneumonia and meningococcal disease are avoidable, if treated in time. Some factors that contribute to morbidity and mortality can be modified. These include organisational and environmental factors as well as those related to the child, family or professional. Objective: Examine what organizational and environmental factors and individual child, family and professional factors affect timing of admission to hospital for children with a serious infectious illness. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: Key search terms were identified and used to search CINAHL Plus, Medline, ASSIA, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute Database of Systematic Review. Study appraisal methods: Primary research (e.g. quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies) and literature reviews (e.g., systematic, scoping and narrative) were included if participants included or were restricted to children under 5 years of age with serious infectious illnesses, included parents and/or first contact health care professionals in primary care, urgent and emergency care and where the research had been conducted in OECD high income countries. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used to review the methodological quality of the studies. Main findings: Thirty-six papers were selected for full text review; 12 studies fitted the inclusion criteria. Factors influencing the timing of admission to hospital included the variability in children’s illness trajectories and pathways to hospital, parental recognition of symptoms and clinicians non-recognition of illness severity, parental help-seeking behaviour and clinician responses, access to services, use and non-use of ‘gut feeling’ by clinicians, and sub-optimal management within primary, secondary and tertiary services. Conclusions: The pathways taken by children with a serious infectious illness to hospital are complex and influenced by a variety of potentially modifiable individual, organisational, environmental and contextual factors. Supportive, accessible, respectful services that provide continuity, clear communication, advice and safety-netting are important as is improved training for clinicians and a mandate to attend to ‘gut feeling’. Implications: Relatively simple interventions such as improved communication have the potential to improve the quality of care and reduce morbidity and mortality in children with a serious infectious illness.
    • Cost of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in Europe and the USA: The GAIN study.

      O'Hara, Jamie; Finnegan, Alan; Dhillon, Harpal; Ruiz-Casas, Leonardo; Pedra, Gabriel; Franks, Bethany; Morgan, George; Hebditch, Vanessa; Jönsson, Bengt; Mabhala, Mzwandile; et al. (2020-07-15)
      Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) leads to cirrhosis and is associated with a substantial socioeconomic burden, which, coupled with rising prevalence, is a growing public health challenge. However, there are few real-world data available describing the impact of NASH. The Global Assessment of the Impact of NASH (GAIN) study is a prevalence-based burden of illness study across Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) and the USA. Physicians provided demographic, clinical, and economic patient information via an online survey. In total, 3,754 patients found to have NASH on liver biopsy were stratified by fibrosis score and by biomarkers as either early or advanced fibrosis. Per-patient costs were estimated using national unit price data and extrapolated to the population level to calculate the economic burden. Of the patients, 767 (20%) provided information on indirect costs and health-related quality of life using the EuroQOL 5-D (EQ-5D; n = 749) and Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire - Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (CLDQ-NAFLD) (n = 723). Mean EQ-5D and CLDQ-NAFLD index scores were 0.75 and 4.9, respectively. For 2018, the mean total annual per patient cost of NASH was €2,763, €4,917, and €5,509 for direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs, respectively. National per-patient cost was highest in the USA and lowest in France. Costs increased with fibrosis and decompensation, driven by hospitalisation and comorbidities. Indirect costs were driven by work loss. The GAIN study provides real-world data on the direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs associated with NASH, including patient-reported outcomes in Europe and the USA, showing a substantial burden on health services and individuals. There has been little research into the socioeconomic burden associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The GAIN study provides real-world data on the direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect costs associated with NASH, including patient-reported outcomes in five European countries (UK, France, Germany, Spain, and Italy) and the USA. Mean total annual per patient cost of NASH was estimated at €2,763, €4,917, and €5,509 for the direct medical, direct non-medical, and indirect cost categories, respectively. [Abstract copyright: © 2020 The Author(s).]
    • Stigma: the representation of anorexia nervosa in UK newspaper Twitter feeds.

      Bowen, Matt; Lovell, Andrew; Waller, Rhian; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2020-07-15)
      Background There is evidence that the representation of mental health in newspapers has an influence on readers’ attitudes, however, relatively little is known about how the industry presents accounts of anorexia nervosa. Further, the industry increasingly uses Twitter as a medium for reaching readers and this remains an under-examined area of research. Aims To explore the representation of anorexia nervosa in the UK national press’ Twitter feeds. Method Frame analysis was used to examine the manner in which anorexia nervosa was represented in the Twitter feeds of all national UK newspapers between 2009-2019 (n=332). This qualitative approach used Braun and Clarke’s stages of thematic analysis, while drawing on Van Gorp’s use of a frame matrix to support the definition of the news frames. Results The analysis identified four news frames: social model, illness model, stress-recovery model and clickbait model. Conclusions The newspapers drew on a range of perspectives in their representation of anorexia nervosa, which typically were not stigmatising in their accounts. However, there was a pattern of using sensationalistic images in some of the tweets, which may encourage readers to view people with anorexia nervosa as Other, and as a consequence contribute to stigmatisation.
    • The perceived psychological stressors and coping behaviours in university students, on a pre-registration programme.

      Mitchell, Andrew E. P.; University of Chester (Emerald Publishing, 2020-05-20)
      The purpose was to investigate perceived stressors and coping behaviours in student nurses on a pre-registration programme of study. Stress in student nurses has been identified with decreased emotional well-being and poor academic achievement. The significance of stress and coping behaviours in students during training has implications for education and practice. The present study recruited eighty seven pre-registration student nurses in a cross sectional design. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the differences in field and year of study and the students’ perceived stress and coping behaviours. The findings showed that stress is a significant issue in nurse training. Fifty-three percent of the participants had levels higher than the mean. Interestingly, the present study found that high perceived stress was associated with avoidance behaviours. The most common type of perceived stress and ranked by highest factor were from written assignments and a lack of professional skills and knowledge. Their peer group and everyday life activities were shown as potential ways of coping with stressors. Thus, it seems reasonable to focus support on decreasing avoidant and enhancing stress-reducing behaviours. Psychological stress and coping behaviours must be considered together as perceived stress is bound by the ability to ameliorate stress by managing helpful and unhelpful behaviours. The findings may suggest that a potential benefit could come from the provision of helpful strategies such as peer group support and reduction of avoidant behaviours. Also, there seems to be a need for greater mental health literacy in dealing with stress during training.
    • Understanding minimum and ideal factor levels for participation in physical activities by people with haemophilia: An expert elicitation exercise.

      Martin, Antony P; orcid: 0000-0003-4383-6038; Burke, Tom; Asghar, Sohaib; Noone, Declan; Pedra, Gabriel; orcid: 0000-0002-2023-5224; O'Hara, Jamie (2020-04-08)
      The benefits of physical activity (PA) for people with haemophilia (PWH) may include improvements in joint, bone and muscle health. However, the factor VIII activity level required to avoid a bleeding episode associated with PA is unknown. To elicit the opinion of clinical experts on the minimum level and ideal factor VIII activity ('level') required to avoid a bleeding episode during participation in different types of PA for PWH. Based on the 2017 National Hemophilia Foundation PA descriptions, clinical experts estimated a minimally acceptable and an ideal factor level at which a bleed could be avoided. The uncertainty around estimates was quantified using an approach to construct a probability distribution to represent expert opinion. Minimum and ideal factor level increased with higher risk PA, whether or not joint morbidity was present, as did the experts' uncertainty in their estimates (ie the range between lowest and highest estimates for minimum and ideal levels). Mean minimum levels ranged from 4% to 48% for low to high risk for people without joint morbidity, and from 7% to 47% for those with joint morbidity. For ideal factor levels, corresponding figures were 9%-52% and 12%-64%, respectively. To support a patient-centric outcome, expert opinion indicates that the clinical norm of 0.01 IU/mL (1%) trough level is insufficient. It is anticipated that introducing a more targeted approach to meet the needs of patients who are increasingly physically active will benefit patients further in addition to recent treatment advances. [Abstract copyright: © 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.]