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Dietary assessment in minority ethnic groups: A systematic review of portion size estimation instruments relevant for the UKAlmiron-Roig, Eva; Aitken, Amanda; Galloway, Catherine; Ellahi, Basma; MRC Elsie Widdowson Laboratory, Cambridge, UK. Centre for Nutrition Research, University of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. Faculty of Health and Social Care, University of Chester, Chester, UK (Oxford University Press, 2016-03-14)Context: Dietary assessment in minority ethnic groups is critical for surveillance programmes and for implementing effective interventions. A major challenge is the accurate estimation of portion sizes for traditional foods/dishes. Objective: To systematically review published records up to 2014 describing a portion size estimation element (PSEE) applicable to dietary assessment of UK-residing ethnic minorities. Data sources, selection, extraction: Electronic databases, internet sites, and theses repositories were searched generating 5683 titles from which 57 eligible full-text records were reviewed. Data analysis: Forty-two publications aimed at minority ethnic groups (n=20) or autochthonous populations (n=22) were included. The most common PSEE (47%) were combination tools (e.g. food models and portion size lists); followed by portion size lists in questionnaires/guides (19%); image-based and volumetric tools (17% each). Only 17% PSEE had been validated against weighed data. Conclusions: When developing ethnic-specific dietary assessment tools it is important to consider customary portion sizes by sex and age; traditional household utensil usage and population literacy levels. Combining multiple PSEE may increase accuracy but such tools need validating.