• Religion, Devotion and Medicine in North India. The Healing Power of Sitala

      Ferrari, Fabrizio M.; University of Chester (Bloomsbury, 2014-11-20)
      This volume examines notions of health and illness in North Indian devotional culture, with particular attention paid to the worship of the goddess Sitala, the Cold Lady. Consistently portrayed in colonial and postcolonial literature as the ambiguous 'smallpox goddess', Sitala is here discussed as a protector of children and women, a portrayal that emerges from textual sources as well as material culture. The eradication of smallpox did not pose a threat to Sitala and her worship. She continues to be an extremely popular goddess. Religion, Devotion and Medicine in North India critically examines the rise and affirmation of the 'smallpox myth' in India and beyond, and explains how Indian narratives, ritual texts and devotional songs have celebrated Sitala as a loving mother who protects her children from the effects, and the fear, of poxes, fevers and infantile disorders but also all sorts of new threats (such as global pandemics, addictions and environmental catastrophes). The book explores a wide range of ritual and devotional practices, including scheduled festivals, songs, vows, pageants, austerities, possession, animal sacrifices and various forms of offering. Built on extensive fieldwork and a close textual analysis of sources in Sanskrit and vernacular languages (Hindi, Bhojpuri and Bengali) as well as on a rich bibliography on the struggle against smallpox in colonial and post-colonial India, the book reflects on the ambiguous nature of Sitala as a phenomenon largely dependent on the enduring fascination with the exotic, and the horrific, that has pervaded public renditions of Indian culture in indigenous fiction, colonial reports, medical literature and now global culture. To aid study, the volume includes images, web links, appendixes and a filmography.
    • The use of snuhī in Indian medical and liturgical literature, with a note on Bengali Śaktism

      Ferrari, Fabrizio M.; University of Chester (2017-10-10)
      The name snuhī is attested since the first centuries CE in the materia medica of early āyurvedic compendia where its leaves, roots and, particularly, its milky exudation are used in preparations against a wide range of conditions. Identified with various Euphorbiaceae, oft confused with cacti, and known in English as the spurge tree, snuhī is also described as a lesser poison (upaviṣa) and used in alchemical processes to purify metals. Finally, the spurge tree is also present in vernacular traditions, where it is associated to few gods and goddesses and is used by folk healers to develop antidotes against poisonous animals. Moving from an analysis of Picchilātantra, a short premodern Bengali Śākta ritual manual, I discuss how the snuhī-tree (B. sij, siju, manasā) came to be associated to the goddess Śītalā (protector of children from fever and poxes) and her cohort in a way that is not confirmed by other textual evidence or current ritual praxis. The present study, thought based on a minor text, reflects on how scientific knowledge has informed ritual and devotional culture and on the natural permeability of liturgical praxis in vernacular traditions.