• Depicting the dead: Commemoration through cists, cairns and symbols in early medieval Britain

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2007-06-01)
      This article argues that early medieval cairns and mounds served to commemorate concepts of gender and geneology. Excavations at Lundin Links in Fife are used as exemplar.
    • Developing computational approaches for the study of movement: assessing the role of visibility and landscape markers in terrestrial navigation during Iberian Late Prehistory

      Murrieta-Flores, Patricia; University of Chester (DE GRUYTER, 2014-01-01)
      The topic of movement in archaeology has been extensively studied. Research on human movement during prehistory has become in archaeology and anthropology one of the bases for understanding the dynamics of social and economic relationships, technology, social identity and territoriality, among many other important themes. Although archaeological investigations related to movement have increased in the last decade, the majority have usually relied on “static” evidence, that is, on the analysis of the materials or objects that are found in specific sites, establishing the relationship between them and their points of origin or destination (Branting 2004). In recent years, using spatial technologies, more research has aimed to investigate movement from a landscape perspective, in which more attention has been paid to the processes that may have happened on journeys. Some of these studies have directly or indirectly analysed the possible factors influencing the decisions about which paths to take, the mechanics of movement and the archaeological evidence related to it (Llobera 2000; Fairén Jiménez 2004; Cruz Berrocal 2004; Fábrega Alvarez 2006; Fábrega Alvarez / Parcero Oubiña 2007; Llobera / Slukin 2007; Fiz / Orengo 2008; Murrieta-Flores 2010, 2012a; Mlekuzˇ 2010; in the current volume, Lock et al. and Mlekuzˇ among others). In the specific case of Iberia, megalithic monuments are among the archaeological elements at a landscape scale that have been linked to potential patterns of movement, and it has been argued that, besides their symbolic and funerary meanings, they may also have been utilized as landscape markers.
    • Dialogues with early medieval ‘warriors’

      Williams, Howard; Alexander, Rachel; University of Chester (Archaeopress, 2019-11-21)
      How are early medieval graves interpreted by community archaeology projects? This chapter considers how the well-known and innovative Operational Nightingale project has distinctively deployed the excavation and analysis of early Anglo-Saxon (later 5th and 6th-century AD) furnished graves, including those containing weaponry, in its practice and public engagement. In light of recent discussions regarding the ideological, social, educational and emotional significances of the archaeological dead, we consider Operation Nightingale’s well-received practical and interpretative dialogues with the dead during the investigation of an early medieval cemetery at Barrow Clump, Figheldean, on Salisbury Plain, Wiltshire. Our focus is upon the project’s assertions of parity and affinity between early Anglo-Saxon weapon burials and the experiences of modern military personnel: dialogues with early medieval ‘warriors’.
    • Dialogues with the dead in Vikings

      Williams, Howard; Klevnäs, Alison; University of Chester; Stockholm University (McFarland, 2019-11-30)
      Moving pictures continue to transform popular engagements with the human past for early 21st-century audiences as for 20th-century audiences, via cinema, television and the internet. While there is a long tradition of filmic representations of the Vikings, the History Channel series Vikings (2013–) is to date a unique instance of a multi-season popular English- language drama portraying the Viking Age in pre–Christian Scandinavia. The story and settings are fictional and sometimes fantastical, yet they are richly and imaginatively informed by a mixture of literary, historical and archaeological sources. This chapter reviews the dialogues with dead bodies and body-parts depicted in the show.
    • Displaying the Dark Ages in Museums

      Williams, Howard; Clarke, Pauline; Bratton, Sarah; University of Chester (Archaeopress, 2020-03-02)
      How museums and heritage sites in England display the early medieval past is the focus of academic and public interest and debate. Despite ever-pressured budgets and limited resources, the stories told about the early medieval past in these environments are of key importance for the story of this island, and have become increasingly important in the context of political and cultural crises of English identity, and extremist appropriations of the Early Middle Ages. Reviewing current and past displays of early medieval material culture at the Museum of Liverpool, the World Museum (also in Liverpool), and Chester’s Grosvenor Museum, this chapter evaluates the Early Middle Ages in city museums serving multicultural regions in the English North West and West Midlands. Consequently, we identify recommendations for potential future museum engagement with the ‘Dark Ages’.
    • Displaying the deviant: Sutton Hoo’s sand bodies

      Williams, Howard; Walsh, Madeline; University of Chester (Equinox, 2019-01-01)
      The interpretation of early medieval deviant burials has come to the fore in recent mortuary archaeology debates. Yet, critical discussion of how early medieval execution cemeteries are portrayed in museums and other media has received no critical attention. Using the prominent case study of Sutton Hoo, Suffolk, this chapter reveals the interpretative and ethical challenges inherent in narrating and visualizing later Anglo- Saxon judicial killing in the absence of well-preserved human remains, but instead through the recording and interpretation of carefully excavated “sand bodies.”
    • Disrupting the Rituals of Grief: Conflict, Covid-19 and the Fracturing of Funerary Tradition

      Critchell, Kara; University of Chester (Peter Lang, 2021-09-01)
      This chapter considers the disruption of the funerary ritual during the Covid-19 pandemic and reflects on the connections between these disruptions and state intervention in funerary practice during the Second World War. Through an analysis of how such intervention has occurred, and the language of sacrifice that has been evoked in both instances, it will be suggested that the fracturing of the formal rituals of death and commemoration has not only led to complicated grief amongst individuals, but that it could also result in long- term societal trauma.
    • Distant readings of the geographies in text corpora: Mapping Norman Nicholson’s poems and letters

      Murrieta-Flores, Patricia; Donaldson, Christopher; Gregory, Ian; University of Chester; Lancaster University (CVCE Workshop Proceedings, 2016)
      This short article summarises a preliminary study of the poetry and correspondence of the English poet Norman Nicholson (1914-1987), undertaken as part of Lancaster University’s Spatial Humanities: Texts, GIS, Places project. In addition to offering a concise explanation of the Spatial Humanities project and the methods it employs, the article explains how working with GIS, visualisation techniques, and distant reading enriches our understanding both of the geography of Nicholson’s poetry and of the spatial dimensions of the network of people with whom he exchanged letters throughout his career.
    • Documents for schools: The letter-books of Sir William Brereton

      Jackson, Maggie; Gaunt, Peter (Cheshire Community Council and Chester College, 1995)
      This article discusses the letter-books of Sir William Brereton, who led the Parliamentary war effort in Cheshire during the English Civil War. The extracts are intended for use at key stage 3 in the national curriculum, unit 2, "the making of the United Kingdom: crowns, Parliaments and peoples, 1500-1750."
    • Dryland Structures

      Taylor, Barry; Milner, Nicky; Conneller, Chantal; University of Chester, University of York, University of Manchester (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      The dryland structures
    • Earls and earldoms during King Stephen's reign

      White, Graeme J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Liverpool University Press, 2000-09-01)
      This book chapter discusses the proliferation of earldoms in the reign of King Stephen and the reasons for their creation.
    • Early Holocene wetland succession at Lake Flixton (UK) and its implications for Mesolithic settlement

      Taylor, Barry; University of Chester (Springer Verlag, 2019-02-28)
      This paper reports on new research into the timing and nature of post-glacial environmental change at Lake Flixton (North Yorkshire, UK). Previous investigations indicate a succession of wetland environments during the early Holocene, ultimately infilling the basin by ca 7,000 cal BP. The expansion of wetland environments, along with early Holocene woodland development, has been linked to changes in the human occupation of this landscape during the Mesolithic (ca 11,300-6,000 cal BP). However, our understanding of the timing and nature of environmental change within the palaeolake is poor, making it difficult to correlate to known patterns of Mesolithic activity. This paper provides a new record for both the chronology and character of environmental change within Lake Flixton, and discusses the implications for the Mesolithic occupation of the surrounding landscape.
    • Early Holocene wetland succession in Lake Flixton.

      Taylor, Barry; University of Chester (Quarternary Research Association, 2017-09-30)
      This chapter discusses the evidence for wetland succession during the early Holocene in lake Flixton
    • The enclosure of West Chester: Keeping ahead of 'champion England'

      White, Graeme J.; University of Chester (University of Chester Press, 2012-10-18)
      This book chapter discusses the enclosure movement in west Cheshire and how the landowners of Cheshire managed to avoid this.
    • Engendered bodies and objects of memory in Final Phase graves

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Oxbow Books, 2010-07-07)
      The grave goods within conversion-period or Final Phase burial rites of the seventh and early eighth centuries AD have received varying explanations by archaeologists. Common interpreative themes include religious conversion, kingdom formation and new ideologies connected to both of these processes. This book chapter presents a distinct but related perspective on the wealthy female assemblages found in some Final Phase graves at Harford Farm, Norfolk.
    • The English civil wars, 1642-1651

      Gaunt, Peter; Chester College of Higher Education (Osprey, 2003-08-20)
      This book discusses the causes, course and consequences of the English Civil War, with particular emphasis on the wars in England and Wales.
    • Envisioning Cremation: Art and Archaeology

      Williams, Howard; Watson, Aaron; University of Chester (Equinox, 2019-01-01)
      Focusing on artist’s impressions of early Anglo-Saxon cremations, we reflect on the potentials and chal- lenges of collaborations between artists and archaeologists to both convey the fiery transformation of the dead in the human past, and provide reflection on our society’s own engagement with mortality in which cremation has become a commonplace dimension. We show the potential of art to challenge pre-conceived notions and understandings of cremation past and present, positioning art as a key dimension of public mortuary archaeology.
    • Envisioning Wat’s Dyke

      Williams, Howard; Swogger, John G.; University of Chester (Archaeopress, 2020-11-26)
      In response to the challenge set by one of us (Williams this volume), this chapter explores new avenues for a public archaeology of Wat’s Dyke. A host of digital and real-world initiatives for public and community engagement are suggested, but the focus is upon one new initiative: the What’s Wat’s Dyke? Heritage Trail which aims to envision Wat’s Dyke within the town and suburbs of Wrexham using a comic medium. From this basis, the potential is explored for using the linearity of Wat’s Dyke as a gateway to explore the complex historic and cultural landscapes of the Welsh Marches from prehistory to the present.
    • Ethnographies for early Anglo-Saxon cremation

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Éditions Mergoil, 2016-10-02)
      This chapter shows how archaeological investigations of early Anglo-Saxon cremation practices can be enhanced and extended by anthropological theory and ethnographic analogies. While the interactions between fire, material culture, architecture, space and the human body have been increasingly theorised for early Anglo-Saxon death rituals, this chapter illustrates how refined interpretations can be arrived at using two themes: (i) the significances of vessels and containers as pyre-goods and (ii) building timber-post structures associated with single and multiple cremation burials.
    • Excavations at Flixton Island

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; University of York; University of Chester; University of Manchester (Quarternary Research Association, 2017-09-30)
      This chapter outlines the results of fieldwork at Flixton Island