• Chester's role in the Civil War

      Gaunt, Peter; Chester College of Higher Education (The Cromwell Association, 1995)
      This article discusses the role Chester played in the English Civil War. Chester was a key royalist centre and a focul point for the royalist cause in much of north Wales and the northern Marches. Chester remained royalist until February 1646 and reasons for this are discussed.
    • Chester, Cavaliers and Cannons

      Chadwick, Sam (BBC History Magazine, 2019-10-26)
      This presentation looked at Chester’s role in the Civil War, the day-to-day activities of the siege of Chester, and the actions of the troops and commanders, supported by one of the key weapons of the time: artillery. Starting with an overview of the Civil War and its three parts, this lecture went on to look at 17th century siege warfare and its part in the civil war. It then drew out Chester’s place in the economy and the political landscape of the time, as well as the state of its defences. The presentation outlined the key figures in the siege of Chester, and broke down the siege into 4 key phases. Finally the presentation concluded with drawing the siege back to some of the original research on siege warfare and seeing how applicable they are in this case study.
    • Church Organisation and Pastoral Care

      Pickles, Thomas; University of Chester (Wiley Blackwell, 2009-03-31)
      This chapter in a Blackwell Companion reviews the evidence for Church organisation and pastoral care across Britain and Ireland, considering the networks of episcopal sees and monasteries and their respective roles in delivering pastoral care.
    • Citations in Stone: The Material World of Hogbacks

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2017-01-20)
      This article explores a meshwork of citations to other material cultures and architectures created by the form and ornament of house-shaped early medieval recumbent stone monuments popularly known in Britain as ‘hogbacks’. In addition to citing the form and ornament of contemporary buildings, shrines, and tombs, this article suggests recumbent mortuary monuments referenced a far broader range of contemporary portable artefacts and architectures. The approach takes attention away from identifying any single source of origin for hogbacks. Instead, considering multi-scalar and multi-media references within the form and ornament of different carved stones provides the basis for revisiting their inherent variability and their commemorative efficacy by creating the sense of an inhabited mortuary space in which the dead are in dialogue with the living. By alluding to an entangled material world spanning Norse and Insular, ecclesiastical and secular spheres, hogbacks were versatile technologies of mortuary remembrance in the Viking Age.
    • Climate, Environment and Lake Flixton

      Taylor, Barry; Blockley, Simon; Candy, Ian; Langdon, Pete; Palmer, Ian; Bayliss, Alex; Milner, Nicky; University of Chester; Royal Holloway (University of London); University of Southampton; Historic England; University of York (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Climatic and Environmental history of Lake Flixton
    • ‘Clumsy and Illogical’? Reconsidering the West Kirby Hogback

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2016-11-02)
      This paper presents a fresh reading of a significant early medieval recumbent stone monument from West Kirby, Merseyside (formerly Cheshire). Rather than being a single-phased hogback, later subject to damage, it is argued that West Kirby 4 might have been carved in successive phases, possibly by different hands. It is suggested that the carvers had different abilities and/or adapted their work in response to the time pressures of a funeral or a shift in the location or function of the stone. While a single explanation for the character of the West Kirby monument remains elusive, the article proposes that, rather than ‘clumsy and illogical’, the stone was more likely a coherent but experimental, distinctive and asymmetrical, multi-phased and/or multi-authored creation. Through a review of the monument’s historiography and a detailed reappraisal of the details and parallels of its form, ornament and material composition, the paper reconsiders the commemorative significance of this recumbent stone monument for the locality, region and understanding of Viking Age sculpture across the British Isles. As a result, West Kirby’s importance as an ecclesiastical locale in the Viking Age is reappraised.
    • Coins and Cosmologies in Iron Age Western Britain

      Pudney, Caroline; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-06-27)
      Using an approach derived from material culture studies and semiotics, this speculative paper addresses possible relationships between humans and horses in the British Iron Age. Through a study of dominance of horse imagery found on Iron Age British coinage, specifically the Western coins traditionally attributed to the ‘Dobunni’, the author explores what these coins may be able to inform us regarding the possible relationships between humans and horses and their personhood therein. Drawing on wider evidence including faunal remains and other horse-related metalwork, it is argued that these coins could be interpreted as a manifestation of the complex perspectives surrounding a symbiotic relationship between humans and horses.
    • The College buildings

      Seaborne, Malcolm (Governors of Chester College, 1989-01-01)
      This book chapter discusses the buildings at Chester College. The buildings date back to the 1840s, and demonstrate historical continuity on a single site and the development of teacher training and higher education. The College's building history is discussed in four phases - the pioneer period 1839-1869, the period of consolidation 1870-1900, new beginnings 1901-1939, and the period of expansion 1945-1987.
    • Combined operations and the European theatre during the Nine Years' War, 1688-97

      McLay, Keith A. J.; University College Chester (Blackwell, 2005-06-28)
      This article discusses the strategic and operational purpose of England's combined army-navy operations within the European theatre during the Nine Years' War, 1688-97. Specifically, the historical consensus that these operations were simply a compromise product of the contemporary political discourse, and consistently suffered from poor preparation and implementation, is reassessed. In so doing, the article considers the combined service descents planned and executed against the northern French coastline between 1691 and 1694, including in particular the renowned operation at Brest in June 1694, and also those operations undertaken by Admiral Russell's Mediterranean fleet in 1695.
    • Commerce and Consumers: The Ubiquitous Chest of the Late Middle Ages

      Wilson, Katherine Anne; University of Chester
      Contrary to their ubiquity within written, visual, and material sources, chests have largely remained overlooked in studies of the late Middle Ages. Bill Brown’s “thing theory” helps to explain the ways in which chests can transform from unnoticed “things” in the background to meaningful “objects” when viewed through their entanglements with commercial, consumer, political, and moral concerns. The interdisciplinary study of chests in the late Middle Ages brings together a range of evidence including inventories, guild accounts, court pleas, contemporary writings, images, and material culture from Burgundy, France, and England.
    • Conclusions

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; University of York, University of Chester, University of Manchester (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Conclusions arising from the Star Carr project
    • Constructing a Civic Community in Late Medieval London: the Common Profit, Charity and Commemoration

      Harry, David; University of Chester (Boydell and Brewer, 2019-02-15)
      In the late fourteenth century, London’s government, through mismanagement and negligence, experienced a series of crises. Relationships with the crown were tested; competing factions sought to wrest power from the hands of the once all-powerful victualling guilds; revolt in the streets in 1381 targeted the institutions of royal as well as civic power; and, between 1392 and 1397, King Richard removed the liberties of the city and appointed his own wardens to govern in place of the mayor of London. This book examines the strategies employed by the generation of London aldermen who governed after 1397 to regain control of their city. By examining a range of interdisciplinary sources, including manuscript and printed books, administrative records, accounts of civic ritual and epitaphs, this book explores how, by carefully constructing the idea of a civic community united by shared political concerns and spiritual ambitions, a small number of men virtually monopolised power in the capital. More generally, this is an exploration of the mentalities of those who sought civic power in the late Middle Ages and provokes the question: why govern, and for whom?
    • The Contemporary Archaeology of Urban Cremation

      Williams, Howard; Wessman, Anna; University of Chester; University of Helsinki (Oxford University Press, 2017-04-27)
      The Contemporary Archaeology of Urban Cremation
    • Conversion, Ritual, and Landscape: Streoneshalh (Whitby), Osingadun, and the Anglo-Saxon Cemetery at Street House, North Yorkshire

      Pickles, Thomas; University of Chester (Boydell & Brewer, 2019-06-21)
      This paper considers the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons as a social process through the improvised mortuary rituals of one local community. It argues that the royal monastery of Streoneshalh (Whitby) had an estate at Osingadun (modern Easington), which should be connected to a seventh-century cemetery at nearby Street House. It interprets the cemetery as an engine for negotiating and producing social and religious change.
    • The correspondence of Henry Cromwell, 1655–1659

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2008-07-10)
      This edited volume of Henry Cromwell's correspondence includes an introductory chapter which outlines his life and career, explores his handling of Ireland, and highlights the principal and varied Irish and English issues covered within his correspondence. The majority of the letters cover the period between the summer of 1655 to spring 1659 when he governed Ireland for the Lord Protector, his father Oliver Cromwell, and his elder brother, Richard Cromwell.
    • Cremation and contemporary churchyards

      Williams, Howard; Williams, Elizabeth; University of Chester (Routledge, 2019-07-05)
      A contemporary archaeological investigation of cremation memorials in English and Welsh churchyards.
    • Cremation and the Use of Fire in Mesolithic Mortuary Practices in North-West Europe

      Gray Jones, Amy; University of Chester (Oxford University Press, 2017-04-27)
      Cremation is not widely recognized as a form of mortuary treatment amongst the hunter-gatherer communities of Mesolithic north-west Europe (broadly defined as c.9300 cal. BC to c.4000 cal. BC). However, discoveries within the last two decades have increased the evidence for the practice of cremation (as well as other forms of treatment, such as secondary burial) amongst the hunter-gatherers of the Mesolithic, both in terms of the geographic distribution of the practice and its temporal spread throughout the period. Although rare in comparison to inhumation, cremation can now be seen to have been practiced throughout both the early and late Mesolithic and, whilst evidence is currently sparse within the modern areas of Germany and the British Isles, examples are known across Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, and the Republic of Ireland. The aim of this chapter is not to present a comprehensive catalogue of cremations in the Mesolithic, but rather to draw on a number of case studies to provide an overview of cremation practices, and the variety of post-cremation treatment of cremated remains, and to place this within the context of other forms of Mesolithic mortuary practice.
    • A Cromwellian landscape: Oliver Cromwell and the urban and rural environments of Britain

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (Manchester University Press, 2012-02-22)
      This book chapter discusses Oliver Cromwell's links with various parts of the Britain and Ireland.
    • Crossing Boundaries: Using GIS in Literary Studies, History and Beyond

      Gregory, Ian; Baron, Alistair; Cooper, David; Hardie, Andrew; Murrieta-Flores, Patricia; Rayson, Paul; Lancaster University; Lancaster University; MMU; Lancaster University; University of Chester; Lancaster University (Institut National d'Histoire de l'Art, 2014-09-05)
      Geographical Information Systems (GIS) have become widely accepted in historical research and there are increasing calls for them to be used more widely in humanities disciplines. The difficulty is, however, that GIS comes from a quantitative, social science paradigm that is frequently not well suited to the kinds of sources that are widely used in the humanities. The challenge for GIS, if it is to become a widely used tool within the humanities, is thus two-fold. First, approaches need to be developed that allow humanities sources to be exploited within a data model that is usable by GIS. Second, and more importantly, researchers need to demonstrate that by adopting GIS they can make significant new and substantive contributions to knowledge across humanities disciplines. This paper explores both of these questions focussing primarily on examples from literary studies, in the form of representations of the English Lake District and history, looking at nineteenth century public health reports.
    • Curiosity and Instruction: British and Irish Botanic Gardens and their Audiences, 1760–1800

      Hickman, Clare; University of Chester (White Horse Press, 2018-02-01)
      The physic garden, associated with medical institutions and predominantly for the purpose of training medical students, or for the growing of commercial drugs by apothecaries, was transformed across Europe in the late-eighteenth century. New botanic gardens were created that were organised for the benefit of new audiences extending beyond medical students to those interested in botanical science, agricultural improvements and seeing at first-hand new botanic introductions from around the globe.