• Together as one: The landscape of the symbol stones at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire

      Gondek, Meggen M.; Noble, Gordon; University of Chester ; University of Aberdeen (Brill, 2010-11-11)
      This book chapter discusses the Rhynie Environs Archaeological Project (REAP) which explored a group of Pictish monuments in the village of Rhynie in Aberdeenshire.
    • Toponym matching through deep neural networks

      Santos, Rui; Murrieta-Flores, Patricia; Calado, Pável; Martins, Bruno (Informa UK Limited, 2017-10-31)
    • Touching, feeling, smelling and sensing history through objects. New Opportunities from the 'material turn'

      Bird, Michael; Wilson, Katherine Anne; Egan-Simon, Daryn; Jackson, Alannah; Kirkup, Richard; University of Chester
      Lots has been written in recent years about how history teachers can bring academic scholarship into the classroom. Here, this interest in academic practice a step further, examining how pupils can engage directly with the kinds of sources to which historians are increasingly turning their attention is highlighted. Building on a funded research network that brought together academic history and art history departments, Michael Bird and his co-authors worked with museum curators and trainee teachers to bring artefacts from the rich (but often overlooked) collections of their local museum into schools.
    • Towards an archaeology of cremation

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Academic Press, 2015-06-25)
      How can we begin to understand and explain the changing significance of cremation in past societies? From many parts of the world and for many periods of human history from as early as the Upper Palaeolithic (Bowler et al., 1980) to recent centuries, archaeologists have uncovered and investigated material evidence for the use of fire as a means of transforming and disposing of the dead. This chapter argues that in contrast to the rich and widespread evidence for cremation in the archaeological record, theoretical approaches in the archaeology of cremation have been relatively thin on the ground until very recently. This relative failure to adequately engage with the complexity and the variability of cremation practices across cultures seems connected to the fact that most of the theoretical debates and developments in mortuary archaeology have, until quite recently, been primarily geared to the investigation of unburned human remains. Therefore, alongside increasingly refined methodologies for investigating burnt bones, it is argued that archaeologists need to redress this imbalance by developing explicit theoretical approaches to the phenomenon of cremation. Such theories need to engage with broad cross-cultural themes and also remain sensitive to the considerable variety of mortuary procedures involving fire used at different times and in different places.
    • Translational Public Archaeology? Archaeology, social benefit, and working with offenders in Wales (Part 2)

      Pudney, Caroline; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-06-05)
      This article reports on a second case study in the relationship between archaeology and social benefit through working with young offenders in Wales. Whereas a previous article (Pudney 2018), focused on the MORTARIA Project - an archaeological education project engaging adult offenders in South Wales - this study explores the distinctive methods and challenges faced by the subsequent Heritage Graffiti Project (HGP). This project faced similar, but also different, experiences to MORTARIA, involving different skills and technologies, as well as specific artistic engagement with place. The article considers the effectiveness of the HGP before reflecting on the two projects’ shared implications for future, translational public archaeology projects that wish to work with offenders.
    • Undead Divides: An Archaeology of Walls in The Walking Dead

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Archaeopress, 2020-11-26)
      In 2010, the zombie horror genre gained even greater popularity than the huge following it had previously enjoyed when AMC’s The Walking Dead (TWD) first aired. The chapter surveys the archaeology of this fictional post-apocalyptic material world in the show’s seasons 1–9, focusing on its mural practices and environments which draw upon ancient, biblical, medieval and colonial motifs. The study identifies the moralities and socialities of wall-building, dividing not only survivors aspiring to re-found civilization from the wilderness and manifesting the distinctive identities of each mural community, but also distinguishing the living from the undead. The roles of the dead and the undead in mural iterations are also explored. As such, dimensions of past and present wall-building practices are reflected and inverted in this fictional world. As part of a broader ‘archaeology of The Walking Dead’, the chapter identifies the potentials of exploring the show’s physical barriers within the context of the public archaeology of frontiers and borderlands.
    • A unique engraved shale pendant from the site of Star Carr

      Milner, Nicky; Bamforth, Michael; Beale, Gareth; Carty, Julian C.; Chatzipanagis, Konstantinos; Croft, Shannon; Elliott, Ben; Fitton, Laura C.; Knight, Becky; Kröger, Roland; et al. (Internet Archaeology, 2016-02-26)
      In 2015 an engraved shale pendant was found during excavations at the Early Mesolithic site of Star Carr, UK. Engraved motifs on Mesolithic pendants are extremely rare, with the exception of amber pendants from southern Scandinavia. The artwork on the pendant is the earliest known Mesolithic art in Britain; the 'barbed line' motif is comparable to styles on the Continent, particularly in Denmark. When it was first uncovered the lines were barely visible but using a range of digital imaging techniques it has been possible to examine them in detail and determine the style of engraving as well as the order in which the lines might have been made. In addition, microwear and residue analyses were applied to examine whether the pendant showed signs that it had been strung or worn, and whether the lines had been made more visible through the application of pigments, as has been suggested for some Danish amber pendants. This approach of using multiple scientific and analytical techniques has not been used previously and provides a methodology for the examination of similar artefacts in the future.
    • US Foreign Policy in the Horn of Africa: From Colonialism to Terrorism

      Jackson, Donna; University of Chester (Routledge, 2017-10-31)
      Examining American foreign policy towards the Horn of Africa between 1945 and 1991, this book uses Ethiopia and Somalia as case studies to offer an evaluation of the decision-making process during the Cold War, and consider the impact that these decisions had upon subsequent developments both within the Horn of Africa and in the wider international context. The decision-making process is studied, including the role of the president, the input of his advisers and lower level officials within agencies such as the State Department and National Security Council, and the parts played by Congress, bureaucracies, public opinion, and other actors within the international environment, especially the Soviet Union, Ethiopia and Somalia. Jackson examines the extent to which influences exerted by forces other than the president affected foreign policy, and provides the first comprehensive analysis of American foreign policy towards Ethiopia and Somalia throughout the Cold War. This book offers a fresh perspective on issues such as globalism, regionalism, proxy wars, American aid programmes, anti-communism and human rights. It will be of great interest to students and academics in various fields, including American foreign policy, American Studies and Politics, the history of the Cold War, and the history of the Horn of Africa during the modern era.
    • Viking Mortuary Citations

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2016-07-06)
      Introducing the European Journal of Archaeology’s special issue ‘Mortuary Citations: Death and Memory in the Viking World’, this article outlines the justification and theoretical framework underpinning a new set of studies on Viking-age mortuary and commemorative practice as strategies of mortuary citation. The contributions to the collection are reviewed in relation to strengths and weaknesses in existing research and broader themes in mortuary archaeological research into memory work in past societies.
    • Virtually dead: digital public mortuary archaeology

      Williams, Howard; Atkin, Alison; University of Chester; University of Sheffield (Internet Archaeology, 2015-11-18)
      Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA) as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.
    • Visualizing Jews: An Introduction to Literary and Material Representations of Jewishness and Judaism Through the Ages

      Ewence, Hannah; Spurling, Helen; University of Chester; University of Southampton (Routledge, 2015-04-24)
      A wide-ranging introduction that offers a new approach for examining the relationship between Jews, Judaism, Jewishness and visual culture. The editors suggest that debates surrounding literary and material images within Judaism and Jewish life are part of an on-going strategy of image management; that is, the urge to shape, direct, authorise and contain Jewish literary and material images and encounters with those images.
    • Vizualising Jews through the Ages: Literary and Material Representations of Jewishness and Judaism

      Ewence, Hannah; Spurling, Helen; University of Chester; University of Southampton (Routledge, 2015-04-24)
      This volume explores literary and material representations of Jews, Jewishness and Judaism from antiquity to the twenty-first century. Gathering leading scholars from within the field of Jewish Studies, it investigates how the debates surrounding literary and material images within Judaism and in Jewish life are part of an on-going strategy of image management - the urge to shape, direct, authorize and contain Jewish literary and material images and encounters with those images - a strategy both consciously and unconsciously undertaken within multifarious arenas of Jewish life from early modern German lands to late twentieth-century North London, late Antique Byzantium to the curation of contemporary Holocaust exhibitions.
    • Vlog to death: Project Eliseg's video-blogging

      Tong, Joe; Evans, Suzanne; Williams, Howard; Edwards, Nancy; Robinson, Gary; University of Chester (2015-05-31)
      Project Eliseg involved three field seasons (2010–12) of survey and excavation at the multi-period mortuary and commemorative monument known as the Pillar of Eliseg, near Llangollen, Denbighshire, Wales. Each season incorporated an evolving range of media and public engagement activities, with digital media employed to disseminate ongoing work both globally and locally, including to those unable to access the site during the excavation seasons. One of the key strategies employed via digital media in seasons 2 and 3 was a daily video-blog (hereafter: vlog). This article presents and appraises the rationale, design, content and reception of the Project Eliseg vlog revealing key lessons in the use of digital media in archaeological fieldwork, particularly for those engaged with the archaeology of death, burial and commemoration.
    • A well-urned rest: Cremation and inhumation in early Anglo-Saxon England

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (University of Arizona Press, 2014-11-30)
    • Wellsprings of a 'World War': An early English attempt to conquer Canada during King William's war, 1688-97

      McLay, Keith A. J.; University of Chester (2006-06-10)
      This article discusses the military history of the early years of King William's War, 1688-97, including an early attempt to conquer French Canada in 1690 by Sir William Phips. The article places this within differeing interpretations of the military historiography of early modern colonial America.
    • Were Early Medieval Lists Bureaucratic? The Whitby Abbot's Book, Folios 1r-4v

      Pickles, Thomas; University of Chester
      Since the Enlightenment, early medieval lists have been removed from their original manuscript contexts and sometimes interpreted as artefacts of royal and ecclesiastical bureaucracy. Despite critical engagement with the idea of early medieval bureaucracy and recent emphasis on the material and literary characteristics of lists, the idea of bureaucratic origins remains. This paper focuses on the Whitby Abbot’s Book, folios 1r-4v, a perhaps incomplete quire written after 1176, comprising a book list, a story of refoundation with accompanying property lists, an abbatial oath, and a story of abbatial elections including a list of monks. It uses approaches to bureaucracy, administrative history, and memory to reflect on this case study and on cultures of listing.
    • When They Get to the Border

      Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester
      The Aliens Act of 1905 was the culmination of decades of anxiety about migrants – some of whom attempted to reach Britain by clandestine means.
    • Why should we write about Anglo-Saxon farms and farming?

      Pickles, Thomas; University of Chester
      A review of four recent works on Anglo-Saxon farms, farming, and food.
    • William Caxton and Commemorative Culture in Fifteenth-Century England

      Harry, David; University of Chester (Boydell and Brewer, 2014-09-18)
      This piece explores Caxton's use of the language of the 'common profit' as a means of ensuring that his publishing endeavors offered both spiritual nourishment for his readers, and reciprocal benefit for the printer.
    • The Wooden Structures

      Bamforth, Michael; Taylor, Maisie; Taylor, Barry; Robson, Harry K.; Radini, Anita; Milner, Nicky; University of Chester; University of York (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      The wooden structures at Star Carr