• St Pientia and the Château de la Roche-Guyon: Relic Translations and Sacred History in Seventeenth-Century France

      Hillman, Jennifer; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2017-05-26)
      This article seeks to explore the connections between the translation of an early Christian relic to the Château de la Roche-Guyon in the mid-seventeenth century and the writing of local sacred histories by the priest and prior Nicolas Davanne. It finds that the translation of a finger bone of St Pientia was the culmination of efforts by a local scholar to revive the sacred history of the Vexin and to celebrate the regional liturgical traditions associated with its early Christian martyrs. In doing so, it finds support for the recent historiography on local, sacred histories which emerged during the Counter-Reformation in response to liturgical standardization. The article also discusses the unstable nature of relics as material objects and explores the ways in which relics were continually reinvested with meaning. It is shown that Pientia’s relic was not only part of a defence of a local spiritual heritage in response to Trent, but also part of a claim to an early Christian spiritual heritage for a deviant and heretical movement within the Church.
    • Star Carr, Volume 1: a persistent place in a changing world

      Milner, Nicky; Conneller, Chantal; Taylor, Barry; University of York, University of Manchester, University of Chester (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      This first volume of the Star Carr work provides an interpretation of the Star Carr site, one of the most important Mesolithic sites in Europe. Discovered in the late 1940s, the site is famous in the archaeological world for the wealth of rare organic remains uncovered. The 2003-2015 excavations directed by Conneller, Milner and Taylor aimed to answer questions about how the site was used. Much larger and more complex than ever imagined, the Star Carr site was in use for around 800 years. The excavations show that Mesolithic groups were highly invested in this place and continued to occupy the site despite changes in climate over this period. The findings include the oldest evidence for ‘houses’ in Britain, three large wooden platforms along the edge of the lake, antler headdresses and a unique, engraved shale pendant which represents the earliest form of Mesolithic art in Britain. The artefactual material provides new insights into Mesolithic life. Significant wooden artefacts were found which greatly enhances our understanding of how important wood (a material rarely recovered) was for Mesolithic people. In the analysis of other findings it is possible to see evidence for activity areas, such as crafts and tool repair associated with structures, an axe factory, as well as a number of caches. New finds of antler frontlets have increased our understanding of the diversity of human interactions with animals. Overall, despite the degradation, these excavations have provided a new understanding of life in the Early Mesolithic that challenges many of the preconceived views of this period in terms of the character and scale of activity and the degree of investment in a particular place in the landscape.
    • Star Carr, Volume 2: studies in technology, subsistence and environment

      Milner, Nicky; Conneller, Chantal; Taylor, Barry; University of York, University of Manchester, University of Chester (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      The second volume of Star Carr provides detail on specific areas of research around the Star Carr site, one of the most important Mesolithic sites in Europe. Discovered in the late 1940s, the site is famous in the archaeological world for the wealth of rare organic remains uncovered. The 2003-2015 excavations directed by Conneller, Milner and Taylor aimed to answer questions about how the site was used. Much larger and more complex than ever imagined, the Star Carr site was in use for around 800 years. The excavations show that Mesolithic groups were highly invested in this place and continued to occupy the site despite changes in climate over this period. The findings include the oldest evidence for ‘houses’ in Britain, three large wooden platforms along the edge of the lake, antler headdresses and a unique, engraved shale pendant which represents the earliest form of Mesolithic art in Britain. This volume looks in detail at focused areas of research, including wooden artefacts, the antler headdresses, structures, environmental and climate change data, plant and animal remains found at the site, and sediment data.
    • A strange case of hero-worship: John Mitchel and Thomas Carlyle

      Huggins, Michael; University of Chester (Firenze University Press, 2013-03-07)
      The Scottish essayist Thomas Carlyle might be considered a surprising influence on the Young Ireland movement of the 1840s and its most militant leader, John Mitchel. Carlyle has become notorious for his anti-Irish sentiments, expressed most forcefully in his Reminiscences of my Irish journey in 1849. Yet his critique of the Benthamite and liberal Zeitgeist was a significant influence on Mitchel. This article examines what it was in Carlyle’s thought that appealed to Mitchel. Carlyle’s antagonism to liberal conceptions of progress informed Mitchel’s intellectual development and prompted specific political perspectives that can in some measure be viewed as a Carlylean response to Ireland’s crisis in the 1840s. Mitchel made many of the same historic and philosophical assumptions as Carlyle, legitimising the present struggle for Irish nationality via a critique of contemporary laissez-faire doctrine. Thus, Swift’s saeva indignatio was inflected in Mitchel by his encounter with Carlyle’s work, shaping Mitchel’s anger in terms of the spiritual-material polarity at the heart of Carlyle’s Signs of the Times (1829). This ‘sacred wrath’ helps explain why Mitchel is often seen as someone who hated England more than he loved Ireland.
    • Streanaehalch (Whitby), its satellite churches and lands

      Pickles, Thomas; University of Chester (Cork University Press, 2017-01-03)
      This paper argues in favour of the identifying the early medieval monastery of Straenaeshalch with Whitby, North Yorkshire, and proceeds to argue for a network of neighbouring satellite churches and lands on the north eastern coastal plain of Yorkshire, before considering the relationship between monasteries and the early medieval landscape.
    • Subsistence, environment and Mesolithic landscape archaeology

      Taylor, Barry; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2018-02-07)
      Since the 1970’s research into Mesolithic landscapes has been heavily influenced by economic models of human activity where patterns of settlement and mobility result from the relationship between subsistence practices and the environment. However, in reconstructing these patterns we have tended to generalise both the modes of subsistence and the temporal and spatial variability of the environment, and ignored the role that cultural practices played in the way subsistence tasks were organised. Whilst more recent research has emphasised the importance that cultural practices played in the way landscapes were perceived and understood, these have tended to underplay the role of subsistence and have continued to consider the environment in a very generalised manner. This paper argues that we can only develop detailed accounts of Mesolithic landscapes by looking at the specific forms of subsistence practice and the complex relationships they created with the environment. It will also show that the inhabitation of Mesolithic landscapes was structured around cultural attitudes to particular places and to the environment, and that this can be seen archaeologically through practices of deposition and recursive patterns of occupation at certain sites.
    • A survey of Pulford Castle

      Reynolds, Susan; White, Graeme J. (Cheshire Community Council / Chester College, 1997)
      This article discusses a survey of Pulford Castle which was made by sudents of Chester College as part of a continuing project to investigate the castles of west Cheshire.
    • Symbol stones in context: Excavations at Rhynie, an undocumented Pictish power centre of the 6th-7th centuries AD?

      Noble, Gordon; Gondek, Meggen M.; University of Aberdeen ; University of Chester (Maney, 2011)
      This article discusses an evaluative excavation at Rhynie in Aberdeenshire, on a Pictish Class I symbol stone and findspot of two further early medieval carved stones.
    • Tapestry of the Burgundian Dominions. A complex object

      Wilson, Katherine A.; University of Chester (Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 2013-01-17)
      A consideration of tapestry as an object, part of a wider collection of material culture in the later Middle Ages.
    • Textiles: 1400-1700

      Wilson, Katherine Anne; University of Chester
      A summary of Textiles 1400-1700.
    • ‘That factious City’: Exeter during the Civil War,a city with two identities?

      Chadwick, Sam
      The 17th century was a period of turmoil for Britain. Tensions had arisen between Protestant and Catholic beliefs, between the emerging merchant class and the old land‐owning gentry, between the king’s wish to rule by Divine Right and Parliament’s attempt to limit this, and between the English core and Britain’s other identities, those of Wales, Cornwall and Scotland. Ireland’s relations with the hub, too, were being re‐shaped. These tensions merged into a series of wars, starting with the first ‘Bishop’s War’ or ‘Scots’ War’ in 1639, which were not resolved until the 1688 ‘Glorious Revolution’. The wars brought about substantial changes to the identity of Britain. They are classically represented as one grand war with three phases, 1641‐1646, 1648 and 1649‐1652. Many different areas were caught up in the fighting. In England and Wales a total of around 150 towns were affected, with around 10,000 houses being destroyed. Many castles were slighted, so that they no longer could be used as a fortification or hold the weight of large cannon. Several fortifications were damaged to the point of ruination. The war is often represented as just two sides, Cavaliers and Roundheads; in fact the true identity of the war was one of several disparate factions all attempting to gain their own objectives. Histories of the Civil War have often tended to focus upon major national campaigns and principal armies occasionally clashing in glorious and decisive battles. However, these wars were shaped more by the gaining and holding of territory through skirmishes and sieges rather than these grandiose battles. Indeed the war’s duration and its repercussions for the civilian population make sieges a much better representation of how the Civil War was experienced. This paper looked at Exeter in the Civil War. Study of its alignment not only reveal details about itself, but also themes and trends that run throughout the Civil War. Exeter’s location on the river Exe –a major artery that allowed trade and communication with Europe –and its position between Royalist Cornwall and the Parliamentarian counties of Somerset, Wiltshire and Dorset made it a heavily contested prize. It had stonewalls, originally built by the Romans but reinforced several times. It had already been besieged during the medieval and early modern periods, during an 18-day Norman siege of 1068 and a five-week siege during the Prayer Book rebellion in 1549. The city was one of only a handful of walled towns situated in Devon and Cornwall during this period and was situated on a ridge of high ground near the river, functioning as the county town. It was also was fourth or fifth in size and wealth in the country. Despite its wealth, before the Civil War its economic fortunes had declined. War time tax increases and a movement of its trade hub from France and Spain to Holland were causing hardship to the city.
    • The Cheshire Magna Carta: distinctive or derivative?

      White, Graeme J. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2017-12-12)
    • 'They died for Germany': Jewish soldiers, the German Army and conservative debates about the Nazi past in the 1960s

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester (SAGE, 2009-01-01)
      There has been an increasing recognition in recent historical writing that the late 1950s and early 1960s marked a significant shift in West German society's relationship to the Nazi past. Yet the older more conservative generation that dominated West Germany's politics of confronting the past in the immediate post-war years are largely absent from these narratives. Focusing on the actions of the Federal Republic's staunchly conservative Defence Minister, Franz Josef Strauß, this article argues that even the conservative establishment played a significant role in West Germany's evolving memory culture. In the early 1960s, Strauß promoted the republication of a book of German-Jewish soldiers' war letters from the First World War. The collection enabled him to portray a different side of West Germany at a time when attention had focused back onto the crimes of the Nazi era. Despite this opportunism, the article contends that Strauß's support for the new book encouraged other conservative institutions to engage more fully with the recent past.
    • Things in Vikings

      Sanmark, Alexandra; Williams, Howard; University of Highlands and Islands; University of Chester (McFarland, 2019-11-30)
      In popular imagery, Vikings are often depicted as the ultimate lawless barbarians. Yet, as with all early medieval “barbarians” inspired by the writings of Tacitus, they have long been romanticized in Western popular culture for their supposed inherent equality and fairness, within which the roots of Nordic democracy are perceived.1 At the fulcrum of these stereotypes of nobility and savagery are Norse legal practices and assembly places. This chapter reviews the assembly places and practices depicted in the television show 'Vikings'.
    • Thomas Caryle and Ireland

      Swift, Roger; Chester College of Higher Education (Four Courts Press, 2004-01-01)
      This book chapter discusses Thomas Caryle's statement in his pamphlet - Chartism, that "crowds of miserable Irish darken all our towns".
    • Three great tutors: Lovell, Ardern, Morrell

      White, Graeme J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Governors of Chester College, 1989-01-01)
      This book chapter discusses three long-serving tutors at Chester College, Albert Lovell (Master of Method and lecturer in Education), Theodore Ardern (music tutor), and Herbert Morrell (Master of Method and lecturer in Education), focusing on the influence they had on their students.
    • "To create a little world out of chaos": The establishment of the Protectorate, 1653-4

      Gaunt, Peter; University College Chester (The Cromwell Association, 2004)
      This article discusses the first phase of Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate from its establishment in mid December 1653 through to the the first Protectorate Parliament in September 1654. It focuses on the structure of the regime and who held power, the priorities and policies of the regime, and the failings of the first Protectorate Parliament.
    • 'To create a little world out of chaos': The Protectoral ordinances of 1653-1654 reconsidered

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (Boydell Press, 2007-01-18)
      This book chapter analyses 180 ordinances issued by Oliver Cromwell and the council between 1653 and 1654.
    • ‘To our big boy’. Zoos and animal sanctuaries as deathscapes

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Nordic Academic Press, 2019-06-01)
      n/a