• The Oratory of Jimmy Carter

      Jackson, Donna; Lehrman, Robert; University of Chester; American University, Washington DC (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016-01-06)
      Successful rhetoric, it has been argued, comes from an effective fusion of ethos, pathos and logos, combined with style and delivery (Foss: 2012). While Jimmy Carter may be respected for his post-presidential career, he is not renowned as a great president and this chapter will consider the extent to which his perceived failures can be attributed to his rhetorical style. In particular, we will focus upon three major speeches delivered by Carter during his administration: his inaugural address of January 1977, the Crisis of Confidence speech of 1979, and the State of the Union Address in 1980. Although the content of each speech accurately reflected the relevant context, the response of the American public was markedly different due to rhetoric. The pathos apparent in Carter's inaugural address, delivered with his genuine, personal and informal style, resonated with a nation traumatised by the tragedies and scandals associated with Vietnam and Watergate. However, as the context changed, Carter's informality and personal appeal no longer captivated public attention in the way that it once had. The content of Carter's speeches reflected the tougher approach to both the economy and foreign policy that the public demanded, but he was unable to deliver his message convincingly. Unable to adapt his style and delivery to the changing times, Carter's pathos appeared inappropriate and ethos and logos ineffective by the final year of his administration. Ultimately, Carter proved that successful rhetoric requires a combination of context, content and style, and his inability to consistently produce that fusion contributed to subsequent negative evaluations of his presidency.
    • The outcast Irish in the British Victorian city: Problems and perspectives

      Swift, Roger; Chester College of Higher Education (Irish Historical Society / The Ulster Society for Irish Historical Studies, 2012-06-13)
      This article discusses the experience of Irish migrants in British towns and cities, especially focusing on the concept of 'outcastness'.
    • Palaeoenvironmental Investigations

      Taylor, Barry; Allison, Enid; University of Chester, Canterbury Archaeological Trust (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      The results of the palaeoenvironmental analyses
    • Paris, Arras et la Cour : Les tapissiers de Philippe le Hardi et Jean sans Peur. 1363-1419

      Wilson, Katherine A.; University of Chester (Cairn Info, 2011-01)
      The study of the delivery of tapestries at the court of Burgundy between 1363 and 1419 highlights a group of persons who mostly reside in Paris and Arras and are referred to as « tapestry-makers » or « merchants ». Among this group of professionals, one can make out those few who managed to carve themselves a position of regular suppliers of the dukes, some of whom being eventually granted the title of « valet de chamber » and occasionally carrying out the function of guardian of the prince’s tapestry, while the others remained occasional suppliers or experts in the repair, maintenance, conditioning and transport of the tapestries. They all shared the urge to seek the patronage of the duke of Burgundy, although the dukes’ orders were never sufficient to ensure their professional survival. And therefore this prince could not be their only customer : some of them worked for other courts (France, Anjou, Orléans, Berry) and all of them had clients among the urban elites. Besides, as can be consistently observed in Arras, the dukes of Burgundy’s tapestry suppliers diversified their activity, for example as cloth and wine merchants, sat on the échevins’ board and belonged to powerful social and professional networks. For them, supplying tapestries, even occasionally and at the risk of significant financial losses, was not an end in itself but a venture that could prove helpful in the pursuit of social and professional ambitions.
    • The Parliamentary war effort in Cheshire

      Gaunt, Peter; Chester College of Higher Education (Cheshire Community Council, 1993)
      This article discusses the efforts of the Parliamentarians, led by Sir William Brereton, to administer Cheshire during the English Civil War. It focuses on the action of the Cheshire County Committee - its membership, its power struggles, and how it raised money and soldiers for the war effort.
    • Philanthropy and the children of the streets: the Chester Ragged School Society, 1851-1870

      Swift, Roger; Chester College of Higher Education (University of Liverpool Press, 1996-10-01)
      This book chapter discusses the Chester Ragged School Society which was founded in 1851 to instruct poor children, especially those who had no other means of obtaining an education. The contribution this movement made to the education and welfare of street children within the context of philanthropic endeavour in mid-Victorian England is discussed.
    • A Place to Rest Your (Burnt) Bones? Mortuary Houses in Early Anglo-Saxon England

      Meyers Emery, Kathryn; Williams, Howard; George Eastman Museum; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-10-05)
      This article presents a fresh interpretation of square and rectangular mortuary structures found in association with deposits of cremated material and cremation burials in a range of early Anglo-Saxon (fifth-/sixth-century AD) cemeteries across southern and eastern England. Responding to a recent argument that they could be traces of pyre structures, a range of ethnographic analogies are drawn upon, and the full-range of archaeological evidence is synthesized, to re-affirm and extend their interpretation as unburned mortuary structures. Three interleaving significances are proposed: (i) demarcating the burial place of specific individuals or groups from the rest of the cemetery population, (ii) operating as ‘columbaria’ for the above-ground storage of the cremated dead (i.e. not just to demarcate cremation burials), and (iii) providing key nodes of commemoration between funerals as the structures were built, used, repaired and eventually decayed within cemeteries. The article proposes that timber ‘mortuary houses’ reveal that groups in early Anglo-Saxon England perceived their cemeteries in relation to contemporary settlement architectures, with some groups constructing and maintaining miniaturized canopied buildings to store and display the cremated remains of the dead.
    • Placing the Pillar of Eliseg: Movement, Visibility and Memory in the Early Medieval Landscape

      Murrieta-Flores, Patricia; Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis/Society for Medieval Archaeology, 2017-06-19)
      The landscape context of the early 9th-century monument known as the Pillar of Eliseg is interrogated here for the first time with GIS-based analysis and innovative spatial methodologies. Our interpretation aims to move beyond regarding the Pillar as a prominent example of early medieval monument reuse and a probable early medieval assembly site. We demonstrate that the location and topographical context of the cross and mound facilitated the monument’s significance as an early medieval locus of power, faith and commemoration in a contested frontier zone. The specific choice of location is shown to relate to patterns of movement and visibility that may have facilitated and enhanced the ceremonial and commemorative roles of the monument. By shedding new light on the interpretation of the Pillar of Eliseg as a node of social and religious aggregation and ideological power, our study has theoretical and methodological implications for studying the landscape contexts of early medieval stone monuments.
    • Plants as persons: perceptions of the natural world in the North European Mesolithic

      Taylor, Barry; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2020-09-08)
      Amongst many hunter-gatherer communities, plants, animals and other aspects of the ‘natural’ environment, are bound up in, and gain significance and meaning from, specific cultural traditions. These traditions intricately bind the natural world into broader ontological understandings, which include concepts of animacy, the origins of the world, its structure and composition, and the behaviour of supernatural beings. Through these traditions, elements of the environment are imbued with an ontological significance that informs the way people perceive them, and how they interact with them through economic or ritual practice. There is a growing body of evidence that comparable traditions also structured the ways that hunter-gatherers interacted with their environment during the European Mesolithic. Much of the research has focused on the significance of animals, but this paper argues that plants were perceived in a similar way. Through a series of case studies from the North European Mesolithic, it shows how trees in particular were understood as powerful forces, playing active roles in people’s lives, and how interactions with them were mediated through prescribed forms of social practice
    • Policing Chartism, 1839-1848: The role of the 'specials' reconsidered

      Swift, Roger; University of Chester (Oxford University Press, 2007-06-01)
    • Political tapestries of Philip the Bold and John the Fearless

      Wilson, Katherine A.; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars, 2012-08-01)
      This article challenges the idea of medieval tapestry as 'propaganda' and explores the multifaceted functions of tapestries that depicted political events during the rules of the dukes of Burgundy 1364-1477.
    • The Power of Textiles: Tapestries of the Burgundian Dominions (1363-1477)

      Wilson, Katherine A.; The University of Chester (Brepols, 2018-10-03)
      Textiles were of fundamental importance to medieval polities and princes across Europe, economically and culturally. Tapestry was at the top end of the luxury textile market but was used by urban inhabitants and nobles. The Burgundian Dominions were the foremost producer of tapestry in the Middle Ages. However, the documentary evidence for the supply and suppliers of the textiles to the Burgundian dynasty, its many functions, and its re-use and repair, is understudied. This monograph explores a range of documentary evidence (ducal accounts, ducal and household inventories) to examine the suppliers of the textile to the Burgundian dynasty, its forms, functions and users, its role in gift-giving strategies, and patterns of re-use and repair. Thus, the book offers a contribution to the historical understanding of textiles as objects that contributed to the projection of social status and the cultural construction of power in the Burgundian polity.
    • The progressive army: US army command and administration, 1870-1914

      Barr, Ronald; University College Chester (Macmillan, 1998-03-01)
      This book discusses the creation of a modern professional army in late nineteenth and early twentieth century America.
    • ‘Proud to be British; and proud to be Jewish’: The Holocaust and British values in the twenty-first century

      Critchell, Kara; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-05)
      As we approach the post-witness era this paper investigates the changing role of the Holocaust and Holocaust survivors in twenty-first century British politics and culture. In the first part, the article discusses the ways in which, through their role in educational initiatives and commemorative culture, survivors have acquired an increased visibility in British understandings of the Holocaust. For a significant period of time, this process was characterized by a tendency to abstract survivors from their Jewish identities to ensure that they could more easily act as mediators of a universalized, yet highly domesticated, Holocaust narrative with meanings for contemporary British society. However, in the second part the article will argue that, starting from the second decade of the twenty-first century, it is also possible to discern an increasing acknowledgement of British Holocaust survivors’ ‘difference.’ It will be suggested that British politicians have attempted to mobilize survivors, the Anglo-Jewish community they are seen to represent, and the Holocaust more in general, in Britain’s domestic battle against Islamic extremism and in the pursuit of the rather elusive concept of ‘British values.’
    • Public Archaeology for the Dark Ages

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Archaeopress, 2020-03-02)
      This introductory chapter identifies the principal issues and themes in the public archaeology of the Early Middle Ages, exploring the specific and compelling challenges of investigating and evaluating the early medieval past in contemporary society mediated by archaeology. In doing so, we review and contextualise the contributions to the 3rd University of Chester Archaeology Student conference: ‘Digging into the Dark Ages’, which took place at the Grosvenor Museum, Chester, 13 December 2017. The resulting book comprises a selection of the student contributions and a range of additional chapters by heritage professionals and academics. The book’s structure and contents are then outlined: the first-ever collection dedicated to ‘Dark Age’ public archaeology. It is argued that for future research, critical public archaeologies are essential for ethical and engaging early medieval archaeology in both theory and practice.
    • Public Archaeology: Arts of Engagement

      Williams, Howard; Ezzeldin, Afnan; Pudney, Caroline; University of Chester (Archaeopress, 2019-11-21)
      How should communities be engaged with archaeological research and how are new projects targeting distinctive groups and deploying innovative methods and media? In particular, how are art/archaeological interactions key to public archaeology today? This collection provides original perspectives on public archaeology’s current practices and future potentials focusing on art/archaeological media, strategies and subjects. It stems from the 2nd University of Chester Archaeology Student Conference, held on 5 April 2017 at the Grosvenor Museum, Chester: Archaeo-Engage: Engaging Communities in Archaeology.
    • Putting Faith to the Test: Anne de Gonzague and the Incombustible Relic

      Hillman, Jennifer; University of Chester (2014-01-01)
      This article explores the cognitive struggle against ‘doubt’ which impeded the conversion of a female aristocrat Anne de Gonzague, princesse Palatine, in seventeenth-century France. Anne’s conversion came only after a life-long intellectual battle which climaxed when she held a fragment of the True Cross in the fire to test whether it could withstand the flames. This article contends that the intellectual premise for her experiment with the holy relic can be found in her ‘conversion narrative.’ It offers a reading of the text which argues that it was Anne’s application of philosophical scepticism and the Cartesian method – to which she was exposed in the Scientific Academy of her physician Pierre Michon Bourdelot - to her own irreligion which actually brought about her conversion to orthodoxy. Anne’s ‘test’ of faith therefore compels us to rethink the relationship between the New Philosophy and faith in the seventeenth century.
    • The queen at war: The role of Margaret of Anjou in the Wars of the Roses

      Dunn, Diana; Chester College of Higher Education (University of Liverpool Press, 2000-09-08)
      This chatper discusses the role of Margaret of Anjou during the War of the Roses. It examines what political position the queen held and what real power she was able to exercise.
    • The rebirth of Conservatism in North-East Wales: The Denbigh Boroughs in the general election of 1910

      Williams, Thomas W.; University College Chester (Bridge Books, 2006)
      This article discusses the two general elections of 1910 in the Denbigh Boroughs which were won by the Conservative the Hon. William Ormsby-Gore with very small minorities.
    • Remembering and Forgetting: The Holocaust in 21st Century Britain

      Critchell, Kara; University of Chester (Fondazione Centro di Documentazione Ebraica Contemporanea, 2016-12-06)
      This article explores the politics of Holocaust memorialization by examining the intersection of education, commemoration and national identity in 21st -century Britain since the inaugural Holocaust Memorial Day in 2001. The article shows how institutionalized spheres have intersected with contemporary cultural discourse surrounding questions of civic morality, immigration and the memory of other genocides. The main argument put forward is that the way in which the Holocaust has been indelibly associated with these issues has both implicitly and explicitly connected Holocaust discourse to contemporary debates on what constitutes British identity in the 21st century. The article also suggests that highly domesticated narratives of the period are often used to promote a self-congratulatory notion of British identity and supposed British exceptionalism.