• The rebirth of Conservatism in North-East Wales: The Denbigh Boroughs in the general election of 1910

      Williams, Thomas W.; University College Chester (Bridge Books, 2006)
      This article discusses the two general elections of 1910 in the Denbigh Boroughs which were won by the Conservative the Hon. William Ormsby-Gore with very small minorities.
    • The reputation of Oliver Cromwell in the 19th century

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (Wiley, 2009)
    • The Resettlement of the British Landscape: Towards a chronology of Early Mesolithic lithic assemblage types

      Conneller, Chantal; Bayliss, Alex; Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; University of Manchester; Historic England; University of York; University of Chester (Internet Archaeology, 2016-12-13)
      During the Upper Palaeolithic Britain was visited intermittently, perhaps only on a seasonal basis, by groups often operating at the margins of their range. The Early Mesolithic, by contrast, witnessed the start of the permanent occupation of the British landscape, with certain key sites showing evidence for long-lasting occupation from the very start of the period. However, currently our understanding of the timing and tempo of the Mesolithic colonisation and infilling of the landscape is limited because of the paucity of precise radiocarbon measurements. In this article we assess and model existing radiocarbon measurements to refine current typochronological models for the first two millennia of the Holocene. This is a necessary first step towards understanding the Mesolithic resettlement of the British Isles. Our results throw new light on the relationship between the last Upper Palaeolithic 'Long Blade' industries and early Mesolithic assemblages, as well as refining our understanding of the chronology of early Mesolithic assemblage types. Our data also suggest regional patterning to the timing of Mesolithic settlement and throw new light on issues of population movement and adoption of new technologies.
    • The resilience of postglacial hunter-gatherers to abrupt climate change

      Blockley, Simon; Candy, Ian; Matthews, Ian; Langdon, Pete; Langdon, Cath; Palmer, Adrian; Lincoln, Paul; Abrook, Ashley; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-03-23)
      Understanding the resilience of early societies to climate change is an essential part of exploring the environmental sensitivity of human populations. There is significant interest in the role of abrupt climate events as a driver of early Holocene human activity, but there are very few well-dated records directly compared with local climate archives. Here, we present evidence from the internationally important Mesolithic site of Star Carr showing occupation during the early Holocene, which is directly compared with a high-resolution palaeoclimate record from neighbouring lake beds. We show that, once established, there was intensive human activity at the site for several hundred years when the community was subject to multiple, severe, abrupt climate events that impacted air temperatures, the landscape and the ecosystem of the region. However, these results show that occupation and activity at the site persisted regardless of the environmental stresses experienced by this society. The Star Carr population displayed a high level of resilience to climate change, suggesting that postglacial populations were not necessarily held hostage to the flickering switch of climate change. Instead, we show that local, intrinsic changes in the wetland environment were more significant in determining human activity than the large-scale abrupt early Holocene climate events.
    • Resolving the issue of artefact deposition at Star Carr

      Taylor, Barry; Elliott, Ben; Conneller, Chantal; Milner, Nicky; Bayliss, Alex; Knight, Becky; Bamforth, Michael; University of Chester; University of York; University of Manchester; University of York; Historic England; University of York; University of York (Prehistoric Society, 2017-10-24)
      Since its publication in 1954 Star Carr has held an iconic status in British Mesolithic archaeology. The original excavations at the site recorded a large assemblage of bone and antler tools from a sequence of peat deposits at the edge of the Lake Flixton. Over 60 years later this remains the largest assemblage of bone and antler artefacts of its date in Britain and has been an invaluable source of information for life in the early Mesolithic. However, the interpretation of this material has been the subject of intense debate, and the assemblage has been variously described as the remains of an in situ settlement, a refuse dump, and the result of culturally prescribed acts of deposition. Fundamentally, these very different ideas of the nature of the site depend on differing interpretations of the environmental context into which the majority of the organic artefacts were deposited. This paper presents the results of recent work at Star Carr that helps to resolve the debate surrounding both the context of the assemblage and the motivations that lay behind its deposition.
    • Restoration and reform, 1153-1165: Recovery from Civil War in England

      White, Graeme J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Cambridge University Press, 1999)
      This book discusses the processes by which effective royal government was restored in England following the Civil War during the reign of King Stephen.
    • The Restoration and the Glorious Revolution, 1660-1702

      McLay, Keith A. J.; University of Chester (Edinburgh University Press, 2012)
      This book chapter examines the role of the very modest Scottish standing force from the restoration of King Charles II in 1660 through to the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession in in 1702.
    • Rhynie: New Perspectives on Settlement in Pictland in the 5th and 6th centuries AD and the Context of Pictish Symbol Stones

      Gondek, Meggen M.; Noble, Gordon; University of Chester, University of Aberdeen (Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum, 2018-01-10)
      This paper offers and update on work at the important high status Pictish site at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. It highlights the excavation results and puts these into context and examines how the Pictish symbol stones on site may have been key features of this high status secular and ritual complex.
    • The Roman villa of Sa Mesquida: A rural settlement on the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Spain)

      Murrieta-Flores, Patricia; Mas Florit, Catalina; Vallori Márquez, Bartomeu; Rivas Antequera, Maria J.; Cau Ontiveros, Miguel A.; University of Chester; University of Barcelona (British Archaeological Reports Publishing, 2015)
      This contribution provides a short introduction to the Roman settlement of Sa Mesquida in Majorca, in the Balearic Islands and a summary of the results of the last fieldwork season.
    • Romans and reducing recidivism: Archaeology, social benefit, and working with offenders in Wales (Part 1)

      Pudney, Caroline; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-01-30)
      Claims that public and community archaeology can help ‘change lives’ have recently come under criticism. Challenging these critiques, this article explores how archaeology can be socially beneficial in the rehabilitation of offenders. Using a case study from South Wales, the article demonstrates how a prison-based outreach project can offer an innovative trajectory for public archaeology, highlighting the links between archaeology and political agendas. The article challenges the concept of ‘archaeologist-as-social-worker’ and considers the successes and limitations of such an approach, including the challenges of measuring impact. Ultimately, it demonstrates that archaeology-based activities can provide positive life experiences for offenders but only through a successful partnership between heritage and offender management specialists, as part of a wider programme of support and intervention.
    • Royal income and regional trends

      White, Graeme J.; University of Chester (Boydell Press, 2008)
      This book chapter compares figures from the King Henry I's extant pipe roll of 1130 with first full pipe roll of King Henry II (1156) to offer some conclusions about the state of the country and the fortunes of different regions during King Stephen's reign.
    • Saxon obsequies: The early medieval archaeology of Richard Cornwallis Neville

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Ubiquity Press, 2013-04)
      This paper investigates the origins of British Anglo-Saxon archaeology by focusing on the work of one early Victorian archaeologist: Richard Cornwallis Neville. The seemingly descriptive and parochial nature of Neville’s archaeological pursuits, together with the attention he afforded to Romano-British remains, has impeded due recognition, and critical scrutiny, of his contributions to the development of early Medieval burial archaeology. Using his archaeological publications as source material, I will show how Neville’s interpretations of Saxon graves were a form of memory work, defining his personal, familial and martial identity in relation to the landscape and locality of his aristocratic home at Audley End, near Saffron Walden, Essex. Subsequently, I argue that Neville’s prehistoric and Romano-British discoveries reveal his repeated concern with the end of Roman Britain and its barbarian successors. Finally, embodied within Neville’s descriptions of early Medieval graves and their location we can identify a pervasive Anglo-Saxonism. Together these strands of argument combine to reveal how, for Neville, Saxon graves constituted a hitherto unwritten first chapter of English history that could be elucidated through material culture and landscape.
    • Scales of analysis: evidence of fish and fish processing at Star Carr.

      Robson, Harry K.; Little, Aimee; Jones, Andrew K. G.; Blockley, Simon; Candy, Ian; Matthews, Ian; Palmer, Adrian; Schreve, Danielle; Tong, Emma; Pomstra, Diederik; et al. (Elsevier, 2016-02-17)
      This contribution directly relates to the paper published by Wheeler in 1978 entitled ‘Why were there no fish remains at Star Carr?’. Star Carr is arguably the richest, most studied and re-interpreted Mesolithic site in Europe but the lack of fish remains has continued to vex scholars. Judging from other materials, the preservation conditions at the site in the late 1940s/early 1950s should have been good enough to permit the survival of fish remains, and particularly dentaries of the northern pike (Esox lucius L., 1758) as found on other European sites of this age. The lack of evidence has therefore been attributed to a paucity of fish in the lake. However, new research has provided multiple lines of evidence, which not only demonstrate the presence of fish, but also provide evidence for the species present, data on how and where fish were being processed on site, and interpretations for the fishing methods that might have been used. This study demonstrates that an integrated approach using a range of methods at landscape, site and microscopic scales of analysis can elucidate such questions. In addition, it demonstrates that in future studies, even in cases where physical remains are lacking, forensic techniques hold significant potential.
    • Sediments and stratigraphy

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; Boreham, Steve; Rowley, Charlotte C. A.; French, Charlie; Williams, Helen; University of York, University of Chester, University of Manchester, Independent, University of York, University of Cambridge, University of York (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      The sedimentary and stratigraphic record
    • Selective Remembering: Minorities and the Remembrance of the First World War in Britain and Germany

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-06-17)
      Remembering the war dead, so historical writing suggests, was considerably easier for the victors than for the vanquished. Yet, as this essay suggests, this strict dichotomy was not quite as rigid as the historiography implies. In both Britain and Germany, ethnic, religious and national minorities did play some role in nascent memory cultures. However, while some groups were remembered, other minorities, such as Britain’s African troops or Germany’s Polish soldiers, were all too often missing from the commemorative landscape. The absence of minorities from the remembrance process, then, had less to do with the outcome of the war, but was rather contingent on place, time and the minority group in question.
    • A shared environment: German-German relations along the border, 1945-1972

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester (SAGE, 2015-03-20)
      The division of Germany into two militarised blocs during the Cold War fundamentally shaped the lives of people living in both East and West. Yet, as recent scholarship has increasingly highlighted, there were also numerous areas of contact and interaction, whether in the cultural, political or social sphere. One largely overlooked aspect of these Cold War relations, which this article explores, is the environment. Focusing on the history of the shared German environment from the end of the Second World War through until the early 1970s, the article argues that on a local level, environmental problems helped to ensure the survival of cross-border relations. Despite their repeated efforts, the two states failed to divide the German landscape in half. Rivers, lakes and forests continually crossed the fortified border, while animals and plant life traversed from one side to the other too. In attempting to maintain this shared border landscape, both East and West Germans were repeatedly forced into dialogue. Although relations gradually faded as the border regime was strengthened, it proved impossible for either side to escape fully the entangled German environment.
    • Sir Francis Wheler's Caribbean and North American expedition, 1693: A case study in combined operational command during the reign of William III

      McLay, Keith A. J.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2007-11)
      This article uses the evidence of an amphibious campaign undertaken first in the Caribbean and then off the north-eastern American seaboard during the Nine Years War, 1688—97 to rejuvenate an understanding of combined operational command, which harks back to the views of the principal eighteenth-century author on amphibious warfare, Thomas More Molyneaux. In this analysis, combined operational command is shown to be a negotiated operational construct between the service commanders and the government, as a result of which disagreements related to the command structure and the subsequent dilution of authority through an executive council of war significantly impacted upon operational success.
    • The Smiling Abbot: Rediscovering a Unique Medieval Effigial Slab

      Williams, Howard; Smith, Gillian; Crane, David; Watson, Aaron; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-11-06)
      The article reports on a newly re-discovered fragment of a recumbent effigial slab commemorating Abbot Hywel (‘Howel’), most likely an abbot of the Cistercian house of Valle Crucis, near Llangollen (Denbighs.). The slab was probably carved very early in the fourteenth century, and could have covered the abbot’s burial place. The stone was dislocated and fragmented at an unknown point in the abbey’s history, and most likely removed from the site during the nineteenth-century clearance of the abbey ruins. It was briefly reported on in 1895 and has been lost to scholarship subsequently. If indeed from Valle Crucis, the stone is the only known effigial slab commemorating a Cistercian abbot from Wales, and a rare example from Britain. Given that few similar Cistercian abbatial monuments have been identified from elsewhere, the ‘Smiling Abbot’, although only a fragment, is a significant addition to the known corpus of later medieval mortuary monuments. The article discusses the provenance, dating, identification and significance of the monument, including the abbot’s distinctive smile. The stone sheds new light on mortuary and commemorative practice at Valle Crucis Abbey in the early fourteenth century.
    • Social conflict in pre-famine Ireland: The case of County Roscommon

      Huggins, Michael; University of Chester (Four Courts Press, 2007)
      This book investigates the social conflict in Roscommon that existed before the Famine. Traditional nationalist historiography is considered but the author concludes that pre-Famine unrest originated from a more complex set of beliefs, influences and objectives.
    • Socio-semiotics and the symbiosis of humans, horses, and objects in later Iron Age Britain

      Pudney, Caroline; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-03-14)
      Using an approach derived from material culture studies and semiotics, this paper addresses possible relationships between humans and horses in the British Iron Age.Through a study of the dominance of horse imagery found on Iron Age British coinage, specifically the Western coinage traditionally attributed to the 'Dobunni', the author explores how it may reflect possible relationships between humans and horses and their personhood therein. Drawing on wider faunal and metalwork evidence it is argued that these coins could be interpreted as a manifestation of the complex perspectives surrounding a symbiotic relationship between humans and horses.