• Palaeoenvironmental Investigations

      Taylor, Barry; Allison, Enid; University of Chester, Canterbury Archaeological Trust (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      The results of the palaeoenvironmental analyses
    • Paris, Arras et la Cour : Les tapissiers de Philippe le Hardi et Jean sans Peur. 1363-1419

      Wilson, Katherine A.; University of Chester (Cairn Info, 2011-01)
      The study of the delivery of tapestries at the court of Burgundy between 1363 and 1419 highlights a group of persons who mostly reside in Paris and Arras and are referred to as « tapestry-makers » or « merchants ». Among this group of professionals, one can make out those few who managed to carve themselves a position of regular suppliers of the dukes, some of whom being eventually granted the title of « valet de chamber » and occasionally carrying out the function of guardian of the prince’s tapestry, while the others remained occasional suppliers or experts in the repair, maintenance, conditioning and transport of the tapestries. They all shared the urge to seek the patronage of the duke of Burgundy, although the dukes’ orders were never sufficient to ensure their professional survival. And therefore this prince could not be their only customer : some of them worked for other courts (France, Anjou, Orléans, Berry) and all of them had clients among the urban elites. Besides, as can be consistently observed in Arras, the dukes of Burgundy’s tapestry suppliers diversified their activity, for example as cloth and wine merchants, sat on the échevins’ board and belonged to powerful social and professional networks. For them, supplying tapestries, even occasionally and at the risk of significant financial losses, was not an end in itself but a venture that could prove helpful in the pursuit of social and professional ambitions.
    • The Parliamentary war effort in Cheshire

      Gaunt, Peter; Chester College of Higher Education (Cheshire Community Council, 1993)
      This article discusses the efforts of the Parliamentarians, led by Sir William Brereton, to administer Cheshire during the English Civil War. It focuses on the action of the Cheshire County Committee - its membership, its power struggles, and how it raised money and soldiers for the war effort.
    • Philanthropy and the children of the streets: the Chester Ragged School Society, 1851-1870

      Swift, Roger; Chester College of Higher Education (University of Liverpool Press, 1996)
      This book chapter discusses the Chester Ragged School Society which was founded in 1851 to instruct poor children, especially those who had no other means of obtaining an education. The contribution this movement made to the education and welfare of street children within the context of philanthropic endeavour in mid-Victorian England is discussed.
    • A Place to Rest Your (Burnt) Bones? Mortuary Houses in Early Anglo-Saxon England

      Meyers Emery, Kathryn; Williams, Howard; George Eastman Museum; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-10-05)
      This article presents a fresh interpretation of square and rectangular mortuary structures found in association with deposits of cremated material and cremation burials in a range of early Anglo-Saxon (fifth-/sixth-century AD) cemeteries across southern and eastern England. Responding to a recent argument that they could be traces of pyre structures, a range of ethnographic analogies are drawn upon, and the full-range of archaeological evidence is synthesized, to re-affirm and extend their interpretation as unburned mortuary structures. Three interleaving significances are proposed: (i) demarcating the burial place of specific individuals or groups from the rest of the cemetery population, (ii) operating as ‘columbaria’ for the above-ground storage of the cremated dead (i.e. not just to demarcate cremation burials), and (iii) providing key nodes of commemoration between funerals as the structures were built, used, repaired and eventually decayed within cemeteries. The article proposes that timber ‘mortuary houses’ reveal that groups in early Anglo-Saxon England perceived their cemeteries in relation to contemporary settlement architectures, with some groups constructing and maintaining miniaturized canopied buildings to store and display the cremated remains of the dead.
    • Placing the Pillar of Eliseg: Movement, Visibility and Memory in the Early Medieval Landscape

      Murrieta-Flores, Patricia; Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis/Society for Medieval Archaeology, 2017-06-19)
      The landscape context of the early 9th-century monument known as the Pillar of Eliseg is interrogated here for the first time with GIS-based analysis and innovative spatial methodologies. Our interpretation aims to move beyond regarding the Pillar as a prominent example of early medieval monument reuse and a probable early medieval assembly site. We demonstrate that the location and topographical context of the cross and mound facilitated the monument’s significance as an early medieval locus of power, faith and commemoration in a contested frontier zone. The specific choice of location is shown to relate to patterns of movement and visibility that may have facilitated and enhanced the ceremonial and commemorative roles of the monument. By shedding new light on the interpretation of the Pillar of Eliseg as a node of social and religious aggregation and ideological power, our study has theoretical and methodological implications for studying the landscape contexts of early medieval stone monuments.
    • Policing Chartism, 1839-1848: The role of the 'specials' reconsidered

      Swift, Roger; University of Chester (Oxford University Press, 2007)
    • Political tapestries of Philip the Bold and John the Fearless

      Wilson, Katherine A.; University of Chester (Cambridge Scholars, 2012-08-01)
      This article challenges the idea of medieval tapestry as 'propaganda' and explores the multifaceted functions of tapestries that depicted political events during the rules of the dukes of Burgundy 1364-1477.
    • The Power of Textiles. Tapestries of the Burgundian Dominions (1363-1477)

      Wilson, Katherine A.; The University of Chester (Brepols, 2018-10-03)
      Textiles were of fundamental importance to medieval polities and princes across Europe, economically and culturally. Tapestry was at the top end of the luxury textile market but was used by urban inhabitants and nobles. The Burgundian Dominions were the foremost producer of tapestry in the Middle Ages. However, the documentary evidence for the supply and suppliers of the textiles to the Burgundian dynasty, its many functions, and its re-use and repair, is understudied. This monograph explores a range of documentary evidence (ducal accounts, ducal and household inventories) to examine the suppliers of the textile to the Burgundian dynasty, its forms, functions and users, its role in gift-giving strategies, and patterns of re-use and repair. Thus, the book offers a contribution to the historical understanding of textiles as objects that contributed to the projection of social status and the cultural construction of power in the Burgundian polity.
    • The progressive army: US army command and administration, 1870-1914

      Barr, Ronald; University College Chester (Macmillan, 1998)
      This book discusses the creation of a modern professional army in late nineteenth and early twentieth century America.
    • ‘Proud to be British; and proud to be Jewish’: The Holocaust and British values in the twenty-first century

      Critchell, Kara; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-10-05)
      As we approach the post-witness era this paper investigates the changing role of the Holocaust and Holocaust survivors in twenty-first century British politics and culture. In the first part, the article discusses the ways in which, through their role in educational initiatives and commemorative culture, survivors have acquired an increased visibility in British understandings of the Holocaust. For a significant period of time, this process was characterized by a tendency to abstract survivors from their Jewish identities to ensure that they could more easily act as mediators of a universalized, yet highly domesticated, Holocaust narrative with meanings for contemporary British society. However, in the second part the article will argue that, starting from the second decade of the twenty-first century, it is also possible to discern an increasing acknowledgement of British Holocaust survivors’ ‘difference.’ It will be suggested that British politicians have attempted to mobilize survivors, the Anglo-Jewish community they are seen to represent, and the Holocaust more in general, in Britain’s domestic battle against Islamic extremism and in the pursuit of the rather elusive concept of ‘British values.’
    • Putting Faith to the Test: Anne de Gonzague and the Incombustible Relic

      Hillman, Jennifer; University of Chester (2014-01-01)
      This article explores the cognitive struggle against ‘doubt’ which impeded the conversion of a female aristocrat Anne de Gonzague, princesse Palatine, in seventeenth-century France. Anne’s conversion came only after a life-long intellectual battle which climaxed when she held a fragment of the True Cross in the fire to test whether it could withstand the flames. This article contends that the intellectual premise for her experiment with the holy relic can be found in her ‘conversion narrative.’ It offers a reading of the text which argues that it was Anne’s application of philosophical scepticism and the Cartesian method – to which she was exposed in the Scientific Academy of her physician Pierre Michon Bourdelot - to her own irreligion which actually brought about her conversion to orthodoxy. Anne’s ‘test’ of faith therefore compels us to rethink the relationship between the New Philosophy and faith in the seventeenth century.
    • The queen at war: The role of Margaret of Anjou in the Wars of the Roses

      Dunn, Diana; Chester College of Higher Education (University of Liverpool Press, 2000)
      This chatper discusses the role of Margaret of Anjou during the War of the Roses. It examines what political position the queen held and what real power she was able to exercise.
    • The rebirth of Conservatism in North-East Wales: The Denbigh Boroughs in the general election of 1910

      Williams, Thomas W.; University College Chester (Bridge Books, 2006)
      This article discusses the two general elections of 1910 in the Denbigh Boroughs which were won by the Conservative the Hon. William Ormsby-Gore with very small minorities.
    • The reputation of Oliver Cromwell in the 19th century

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (Wiley, 2009)
    • The Resettlement of the British Landscape: Towards a chronology of Early Mesolithic lithic assemblage types

      Conneller, Chantal; Bayliss, Alex; Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; University of Manchester; Historic England; University of York; University of Chester (Internet Archaeology, 2016-12-13)
      During the Upper Palaeolithic Britain was visited intermittently, perhaps only on a seasonal basis, by groups often operating at the margins of their range. The Early Mesolithic, by contrast, witnessed the start of the permanent occupation of the British landscape, with certain key sites showing evidence for long-lasting occupation from the very start of the period. However, currently our understanding of the timing and tempo of the Mesolithic colonisation and infilling of the landscape is limited because of the paucity of precise radiocarbon measurements. In this article we assess and model existing radiocarbon measurements to refine current typochronological models for the first two millennia of the Holocene. This is a necessary first step towards understanding the Mesolithic resettlement of the British Isles. Our results throw new light on the relationship between the last Upper Palaeolithic 'Long Blade' industries and early Mesolithic assemblages, as well as refining our understanding of the chronology of early Mesolithic assemblage types. Our data also suggest regional patterning to the timing of Mesolithic settlement and throw new light on issues of population movement and adoption of new technologies.
    • The resilience of postglacial hunter-gatherers to abrupt climate change

      Blockley, Simon; Candy, Ian; Matthews, Ian; Langdon, Pete; Langdon, Cath; Palmer, Adrian; Lincoln, Paul; Abrook, Ashley; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2018-03-23)
      Understanding the resilience of early societies to climate change is an essential part of exploring the environmental sensitivity of human populations. There is significant interest in the role of abrupt climate events as a driver of early Holocene human activity, but there are very few well-dated records directly compared with local climate archives. Here, we present evidence from the internationally important Mesolithic site of Star Carr showing occupation during the early Holocene, which is directly compared with a high-resolution palaeoclimate record from neighbouring lake beds. We show that, once established, there was intensive human activity at the site for several hundred years when the community was subject to multiple, severe, abrupt climate events that impacted air temperatures, the landscape and the ecosystem of the region. However, these results show that occupation and activity at the site persisted regardless of the environmental stresses experienced by this society. The Star Carr population displayed a high level of resilience to climate change, suggesting that postglacial populations were not necessarily held hostage to the flickering switch of climate change. Instead, we show that local, intrinsic changes in the wetland environment were more significant in determining human activity than the large-scale abrupt early Holocene climate events.
    • Resolving the issue of artefact deposition at Star Carr

      Taylor, Barry; Elliott, Ben; Conneller, Chantal; Milner, Nicky; Bayliss, Alex; Knight, Becky; Bamforth, Michael; University of Chester; University of York; University of Manchester; University of York; Historic England; University of York; University of York (Prehistoric Society, 2017-10-24)
      Since its publication in 1954 Star Carr has held an iconic status in British Mesolithic archaeology. The original excavations at the site recorded a large assemblage of bone and antler tools from a sequence of peat deposits at the edge of the Lake Flixton. Over 60 years later this remains the largest assemblage of bone and antler artefacts of its date in Britain and has been an invaluable source of information for life in the early Mesolithic. However, the interpretation of this material has been the subject of intense debate, and the assemblage has been variously described as the remains of an in situ settlement, a refuse dump, and the result of culturally prescribed acts of deposition. Fundamentally, these very different ideas of the nature of the site depend on differing interpretations of the environmental context into which the majority of the organic artefacts were deposited. This paper presents the results of recent work at Star Carr that helps to resolve the debate surrounding both the context of the assemblage and the motivations that lay behind its deposition.
    • Restoration and reform, 1153-1165: Recovery from Civil War in England

      White, Graeme J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Cambridge University Press, 1999)
      This book discusses the processes by which effective royal government was restored in England following the Civil War during the reign of King Stephen.
    • The Restoration and the Glorious Revolution, 1660-1702

      McLay, Keith A. J.; University of Chester (Edinburgh University Press, 2012)
      This book chapter examines the role of the very modest Scottish standing force from the restoration of King Charles II in 1660 through to the outbreak of the War of the Spanish Succession in in 1702.