• The garden as a laboratory: the role of domestic gardens as places of scientific exploration in the long 18th century

      Hickman, Clare; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2014-06-24)
      Eighteenth-century gardens have traditionally been viewed as spaces designed for leisure, and as representations of political status, power and taste. In contrast, this paper will explore the concept that gardens in this period could be seen as dynamic spaces where scientific experiment and medical practice could occur. Two examples have been explored in the pilot study which has led to this paper — the designed landscapes associated with John Hunter’s Earl’s Court residence, in London, and the garden at Edward Jenner’s house in Berkeley, Gloucestershire. Garden history methodologies have been implemented in order to consider the extent to which these domestic gardens can be viewed as experimental spaces.
    • Geographical Information Systems as a Tool for Exploring the Spatial Humanities

      Murrieta-Flores, Patricia; Gregory, Ian; University of Chester; Lancaster University (Routledge, 2016-07-28)
      This chapter will introduce the basics of geographical information systems (GIS) for humanities scholarship. It will provide a brief overview of how using GIS software can help researchers understand the geographies within their sources. It will briefly introduce how GIS models features and places on the Earth’s surface so that the reader is gets a basic understanding of the core terminology associated with GIS. It will then talk through the basics of how a researcher gets their sources into GIS software; how they can query, integrate and analyse data within GIS; and how they can disseminate their results using maps and electronic outputs such as KML files that can be disseminated using Google Earth. The conclusion will look briefly at what a researcher can and cannot expect to gain from using GIS and stress that mapping is only a part of the research process – good at identifying and describing patterns but limited in its ability to explain them. The chapter will be include several diagrams and will be extensively referenced.
    • Geoparsing, GIS and textual analysis: current developments in spatial humanities research

      Gregory, Ian; Donaldson, Christopher; Murrieta-Flores, Patricia; Rayson, Paul; Lancaster University; University of Chester (Edinburgh University Press, 2015-03-01)
      The spatial humanities constitute a rapidly developing research field that has the potential to create a step-change in the ways in which the humanities deal with geography and geographical information. As yet, however, research in the spatial humanities is only just beginning to deliver the applied contributions to knowledge that will prove its significance. Demonstrating the potential of innovations in technical fields is, almost always, a lengthy process, as it takes time to create the required datasets and to design and implement appropriate techniques for engaging with the information those datasets contain. Beyond this, there is the need to define appropriate research questions and to set parameters for interpreting findings, both of which can involve prolonged discussion and debate. The spatial humanities are still in early phases of this process. Accordingly, the purpose of this special issue is to showcase a set of exemplary studies and research projects that not only demonstrate the field’s potential to contribute to knowledge across a range of humanities disciplines, but also to suggest pathways for future research. Our ambition is both to demonstrate how the application of exploratory techniques in the spatial humanities offers new insights about the geographies embedded in a diverse range of texts (including letters, works of literature, and official reports) and, at the same time, to encourage other scholars to integrate these techniques in their research.
    • The German-Jewish soldiers of the First World War in the history and memory

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester (Liverpool University Press, 2011)
      This book discusses they ways in which the role of German-Jewish soldiers who fought for Germany in World War I has been forgotten and remembered from 1914 to the late 1970s. German-Jewish soldiers were mourned after the end of the war and commemorated during the Weimar Republic. With the rise of Nazism, public commemoration of German-Jewish soldiers ceased as Germany's Jewish communities were persecuted. After World War II, the public memory of these soldiers was gradually subsumed into Holocaust remembrance.
    • Germany's Jewish soldiers

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester (History Today Ltd, 2011-11)
      This article discusses post-war Germany's attempts to remember Jewish participation in the German armed forces of World War I.
    • GIS and Literary History: Advancing Digital Humanities Research through the Spatial Analysis of Historical Travel Writing and Topographical Literature

      Murrieta-Flores, Patricia; Donaldson, Christopher; Gregory, Ian; University of Chester; University of Lancaster; University of Lancaster (The Alliance of Digital Humanities Organizations, 2017-03-06)
      Exploratory studies have demonstrated the benefits of implementing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology in literary and cultural-historical research. These studies have done much to affirm the power and flexibility of GIS technology as a resource for humanities scholarship. At the same time, however, these studies share a common limitation in that they tend to rely on the analysis of point-based cartographic representations. Such representations are suitable for modelling quantitative geographical phenomena, but they are inadequate for modelling qualitative human phenomena. This inadequacy constitutes a significant problem for researchers who aspire to analyse the geographical experiences and spatial relationships represented in works of literature, including works that contain accounts of travel. The present article proposes a solution to this problem by demonstrating how advanced spatial analyses within GIS such as Cost-Surface Analysis (CSA) and Least-Cost-Path Analysis (LCP) can be used to facilitate more nuanced interpretations of historical works of travel writing and topographical literature. Specifically, the article explains how GIS, CSA and LCP can be combined to build coherent spatial models of the journeys recorded in the works of three canonical eighteenth-century British travellers, each of whom composed influential accounts of their travels through the English Lake District: the poet Thomas Gray (1716–1771), the naturalist Thomas Pennant (1726–1798) and the agriculturist Arthur Young (1741–1820).
    • 'Hands across the tea': Renegotiating Jewish Identity and Belonging in Post-war Britain

      Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester (Routledge, 2015)
      In contemporary Britain, Jewish identity – what it means to be ‘Jewish’, how it is to be enacted and performed, and indeed the parameters and environments of Jewish life itself – have become more elastic. This chapter suggests that these changes can, in part, be understood as a consequence of Jewish suburbanisation across the twentieth century. As strangers became neighbours, the intimacies facilitated by spatial proximity and a shared investment in ‘place’ altered notions of ‘Jewishness’ and ‘Britishness’ in turn. However, as an examination of the period 1945-1966 suggests, the inter-play between and melding of minority and majority identity was rarely straight-forward.
    • Heroes or villains?: The Irish, crime, and disorder in Victorian England

      Swift, Roger; Chester College of Higher Education (North American Conference on British Studies, 1997)
      This article discusses Irish participation in crime in Victorian England, the deficiencies of contemporary qualitative and quantitative sources, and the relationship between Irish immigration and crime and disorder in Victorian England.
    • Hidden histories and cabinets of curiosities: Reconciling histories and values with exhibitions in a military museum context

      McKay, Ian S. H.; University of Cheter (2013-05-16)
      Military museums are recognised as one of the principal categories of ‘specialist interest museums’ in the sector, with 136 organisations in the UK registered with the Army Museums Ogilby Trust. In 2007, and more recently in 2012, the British Army was significantly restructured, seeing the disbandment and merging of old regiments with local ties into bigger converged regiments with regional associations. The residual military museums now occupy a unique space of the museum-scape, facing simultaneously an uncertain future and an identity crisis in their representation of regiments that no longer exist. This paper will outline the context of Ian’s research, examining a subtheme that discusses the reconciliation of the British Army history with those presented in museums. Specifically, it seeks to explore the relationship between military histories and values of visitors, museum staff and current and ex-military personnel with exhibition design and the museum narrative. In engaging with specific case studies, this paper will consider whether it is possible, given the content of such museums, to offer a holistic representation of military life and experience of war, when aspects of military history are not considered (hidden histories) and the significance of objects not always explained (cabinets of curiosities).
    • The historiography of the Anglo-Saxon conversion: the state of the art

      Pickles, Thomas; University of Chester (Brepols, 2016-11-29)
      This paper provides an overview and analysis of the current state of historical, archaeological and onomastic evidence for, and scholarship on, the conversion of the Anglo-Saxons to Christianity.
    • A History of the Site

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; Schadla-Hall, Tim; University of York, University of Chester, University of Manchester, University College London (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Chapter 2, a history of fieldwork at Star Carr
    • Hogbacks: the Materiality of Solid Spaces

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Boydell Press, 2015-10)
      The hogbacks of northern England and southern Scotland have long been seen as a distinctive category of tenth- and early eleventh-century early medieval stone monument resulting from Hiberno-Norse influence and settlement. This chapter reviews previous research and suggests a new foundation for their interpretation, arguing that hogbacks were an effective commemorative media because of the mnemonics of their materiality. Specifically, I focus upon the skeuomorphic allusions inherent in the ornamentation and form of hogbacks. Combined with their solidity and lithic weight, hogbacks cited a multi-scalar network of architectural material cultures and buildings already established within Britain and Ireland prior to, as well as during, the Viking Age. Rather than exclusive translations of secular halls into stone as often portrayed in both popular and scholarly research (e.g. Stocker 2000; Eriksen 2013), hogbacks cited a complex network of buildings (including secular halls but potentially also churches) and small-scale architectures (from biers and coffins to caskets and reliquaries) which were distilled into a solid lithic architectural form in various fashions. In this regard, hogbacks operated as elite commemorative monuments because their form connected to this shared elite network of architectural ‘things’ and implied the presence of the dead as inhabiting, or at least accessible through, the monument. Endbeasts and other themes of conflict were apotropaic in this context. The monstrous, sometimes ursine, beasts threaten to engulf some hogbacks – although sometimes they are demonstrably curtailed by their binding and muzzling. The emphasis upon bound beasts reveals the significance of sealing and fixing the tomb in place through its hogback design.
    • The household inventory as urban 'theatre' in late medieval Burgundy

      Wilson, Katherine A.; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2015-03-31)
      In 1413 at the death of his wife Guillemot, Jean Aubert, a group of witnesses and a clerk of the local mayoralty met to value the possessions of their residence, resulting in an inventory full of notes and values on rooms and their objects. Within the existing historiography of the Burgundian Netherlands and its Northern European neighbours, inventories and their objects tend to be analysed from two perspectives: the Burgundian court and the ‘consumer revolution’. Applying insights from Erving Goffman and Bruno Latour, this article suggests a third perspective should have priority: the urban ‘theatre’ within which objects were documented and placed. Therefore it sets up an alternate methodology which begins with the inventory to build a picture of the theatre (the urban context and residence), the actors (the Aubert family) and the audience (the witnesses of the inventory) to establish new insights on the operation of Burgundian power and the dynamics of the ‘consumer revolution’.
    • Human Lifeways

      Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; Milner, Nicky; Elliott, Ben; Little, Aimee; Knight, Becky; Bamforth, Michael; University of Chester, University of Manchester, University of York, University of York, University of York, University of York, University of York (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Forms of human practice at Star Carr
    • Humans in the Environment: Plants, Animals and Landscapes in Mesolithic Britain and Ireland

      Overton, Nick J.; Taylor, Barry; University of Manchester; University of Chester (Springer, 2018-05-29)
      Environmental archaeology has historically been central to Mesolithic studies in Britain and Ireland. Whilst processual archaeology was concerned with the economic significance of the environment, post-processual archaeology later rejected economically driven narratives, resulting in a turn away from plant and animal remains. Post-processual narratives focused instead on enigmatic ‘ritual’ items that economic accounts struggled to suitably explain. Processual accounts of landscapes, grounded in economic determinism, were also rejected in favour of explorations of their sociocultural aspects. However, in moving away from plant and animal remains, such accounts lacked the ability to rigorously explore the specificities of particular landscapes and humans actions within them. This paper will bridge this gap by considering how palaeoecological and zooarchaeological analyses can be used to explore human interactions with plants and animals, which were key in developing understandings and relationships that ultimately structured landscapes, influenced past human actions and shaped archaeological assemblages.
    • Hywel Dda, Laws

      Roberts, Sara Elin (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2017-08-03)
    • The Impact of Post-Writer Histories on the Significance of UK Literary Houses

      Pardoe, James; University of Chester (Common Ground, 2014)
      By exploring case studies from the UK, this paper investigates how post-writer histories of literary houses impact on the understanding of the lives and works of associated writers. The boundaries of this paper have been dictated by its place within twenty-first century manifestations of the survival, conservation and reproduction of literary houses associated with three writers active in the early nineteenth century: Lord Byron, John Keats and Sir Walter Scott. Many of the works within the literary house genre highlight the significance of the link between writers and their audiences. These links are created through the establishment of houses as sites of remembrance, as memorials, and as sensory markers. However, whereas commentators concentrate on the links being direct, this paper shows that the association is based on narratives filtered through those who were subsequently responsible for the houses. Consequently, the interpretation prevalent in the houses in the twenty-first century are the result of a long history based on the writers, and what was considered their significance by others over approximately two hundred years
    • In the chamber, in the grade robe, in the chapel, in a chest': The Possession and Uses of Luxury Textiles. The Case of Later Medieval Dijon

      Wilson, Katherine A.; University of Chester (Ashgate, 2015-12-28)
      Throughout human history luxury textiles have been used as a marker of importance, power and distinction. Yet, as the essays in this collection make clear, the term ‘luxury’ is one that can be fraught with difficulties for historians. Focusing upon the consumption, commercialisation and production of luxury textiles in Italy and the Low Countries during the late medieval and early modern period, this volume offers a fascinating exploration of the varied and subtle ways that luxury could be interpreted and understood in the past. Beginning with the consumption of luxury textiles, it takes the reader on a journey back from the market place, to the commercialisation of rich fabrics by an international network of traders, before arriving at the workshop to explore the Italian and Burgundian world of production of damasks, silks and tapestries. The first part of the volume deals with the consumption of luxury textiles, through an investigation of courtly purchases, as well as urban and clerical markets, before the chapters in part two move on to explore the commercialisation of luxury textiles by merchants who facilitated their trade from the cities of Lucca, Florence and Venice. The third part then focusses upon manufacture, encouraging consideration of the concept of luxury during this period through the Italian silk industry and the production of high-quality woollens in the Low Countries. Graeme Small draws the various themes of the volume together in a conclusion that suggests profitable future avenues of research into this important subject.
    • Inhabited Spaces: Anglo-Saxon Constructions of Place, by Nicole Guenther Discenza

      Pickles, Thomas (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2019-03-25)
    • Interpretative narrative of the history of occupation

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; Bayliss, Alex; University of York, University of Chester, University of Manchester, Historic England (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-16)
      A chronological narrative of the early Mesolithic occupation at Star Carr