• C-FAR - Carbon footprinting of archaeological research: Data collection methodology and interim report

      Gondek, Meggen M.; University of Chester (University of Chester, 2012)
      Carbon Footprinting of Archaeology Research (C-FAR) focused on developing a method of determining the carbon footprint of university-led archaeological training expeditions.
    • Care in the countryside: the theory and practice of therapeutic landscapes in the early twentieth-century

      Hickman, Clare; University of Chester (University of Hertfordshire Press, 2018-05-01)
      In 1945 Jane Whitney, when writing her biography of Geraldine Cadbury visited the Cropwood Open-Air School in Blackwell and described how ‘the sleep-time garden might be the envy of princes, with its fountain in the midst of a green lawn, so that the children took their naps amid the soothing, somnolent plash of falling water’. This evocative description of a princely garden gives an indication of the attention and importance given to gardens associated with such institutions in the early decades of the twentieth-century (Figure 8.1). Cropwood (opened in 1922) was just one of a number of open-air schools and hospitals operating at this time in Blackwell, near Bromsgrove, in the West Midlands. The open-air approach to treating chronic diseases such as tuberculosis became popular in the late nineteenth and early twentieth-century in Britain. It encouraged inmates to spend as much time as possible in the fresh air and sunshine, as both were considered to have curative properties. The 1937 Ordnance Survey (OS) Map depicts a cluster of such institutions - along with Cropwood these were: Hunters Hill Open-Air School (opened 1933), The Uplands (Children’s Convalescent Home, opened 1923), Burcot Grange (annexe to Birmingham and Midland Eye Hospital, opened 1936) and the Birmingham and Midland Counties Sanatorium, which became known as the Blackwell Convalescent Home (opened on this site in 1873) (Figure 8.2, 8.3). This chapter will explore this cluster but focus in detail on the gardens associated with Cropwood and the Blackwell Convalescent Home. In particular it will aim to unpick the design and use of these gardens in relation to contemporary medical and social ideas. In so doing, it will illuminate the connections between garden history and histories of health care, which is a growing research area. Historians that have explored this connection in relation to designed green spaces include myself and Sarah Rutherford. Medical historians, particularly Andrew Scull and Linda Bryder, have discussed the hospital landscape in relation to issues such as economics and national efficiency. Similarly, cultural geographers have taken an interest in the concept of ‘therapeutic landscapes’, including the work of Chris Philo on asylums, Hester Parr on mental health and space, and Wil Gesler, who originally coined the term.
    • The Cheshire Regiment

      Barr, Ronald; Chester College of Higher Education (Tempus, 2000)
      This book provides a photographic history of the 22nd (Cheshire) Regiment.
    • Chester under siege: An old city under fire from a new technology

      Chadwick, Sam; University of Chester (University of Chester, 2014-10)
      The siege of Chester was a key example of the conflict that wracked the kingdom during the English Civil Wars. Early on the in the conflict, Chester was a significant location; it was a major port, considered strategically key to Ireland, Wales and the North. Both sides attempted to recruit it to their side of the conflict, in the end the Royalists were successful and it took a long time for the Parliamentarians to finally take the city. During a particularly intense siege, Chester was bombared by the relatively new, more efficient pieces of artillery. During this conflict, not only were solid cannon shots fired into the walls, but also at the City itself along with mortars firing shells called 'Grenadoes.' By the end of the fighting Chester's place in society was somewhat lower, the city's silver plate had been used up, its populace reduced and starved, becomming vulnerable to society' other great foe - disease.
    • Chester's role in the Civil War

      Gaunt, Peter; Chester College of Higher Education (The Cromwell Association, 1995)
      This article discusses the role Chester played in the English Civil War. Chester was a key royalist centre and a focul point for the royalist cause in much of north Wales and the northern Marches. Chester remained royalist until February 1646 and reasons for this are discussed.
    • Church Organisation and Pastoral Care

      Pickles, Thomas; University of Chester (Wiley Blackwell, 2009-03-31)
      This chapter in a Blackwell Companion reviews the evidence for Church organisation and pastoral care across Britain and Ireland, considering the networks of episcopal sees and monasteries and their respective roles in delivering pastoral care.
    • Citations in Stone: The Material World of Hogbacks

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Taylor and Francis, 2016-08-07)
      This article explores a meshwork of citations to other material cultures and architectures created by the form and ornament of house-shaped early medieval recumbent stone monuments popularly known in Britain as ‘hogbacks’. In addition to citing the form and ornament of contemporary buildings, shrines, and tombs, this article suggests recumbent mortuary monuments referenced a far broader range of contemporary portable artefacts and architectures. The approach takes attention away from identifying any single source of origin for hogbacks. Instead, considering multi-scalar and multi-media references within the form and ornament of different carved stones provides the basis for revisiting their inherent variability and their commemorative efficacy by creating the sense of an inhabited mortuary space in which the dead are in dialogue with the living. By alluding to an entangled material world spanning Norse and Insular, ecclesiastical and secular spheres, hogbacks were versatile technologies of mortuary remembrance in the Viking Age.
    • Climate, Environment and Lake Flixton

      Taylor, Barry; Blockley, Simon; Candy, Ian; Langdon, Pete; Palmer, Ian; Bayliss, Alex; Milner, Nicky; University of Chester, Royal Holloway (University of London), Royal Holloway (University of London), University of Southampton, Royal Holloway (University of London), Historic England, University of York (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Climatic and Environmental history of Lake Flixton
    • ‘Clumsy and Illogical’? Reconsidering the West Kirby Hogback

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2016-11-02)
      This paper presents a fresh reading of a significant early medieval recumbent stone monument from West Kirby, Merseyside (formerly Cheshire). Rather than being a single-phased hogback, later subject to damage, it is argued that West Kirby 4 might have been carved in successive phases, possibly by different hands. It is suggested that the carvers had different abilities and/or adapted their work in response to the time pressures of a funeral or a shift in the location or function of the stone. While a single explanation for the character of the West Kirby monument remains elusive, the article proposes that, rather than ‘clumsy and illogical’, the stone was more likely a coherent but experimental, distinctive and asymmetrical, multi-phased and/or multi-authored creation. Through a review of the monument’s historiography and a detailed reappraisal of the details and parallels of its form, ornament and material composition, the paper reconsiders the commemorative significance of this recumbent stone monument for the locality, region and understanding of Viking Age sculpture across the British Isles. As a result, West Kirby’s importance as an ecclesiastical locale in the Viking Age is reappraised.
    • Coins and Cosmologies in Iron Age Western Britain

      Pudney, Caroline; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2018-06-27)
      Using an approach derived from material culture studies and semiotics, this speculative paper addresses possible relationships between humans and horses in the British Iron Age. Through a study of dominance of horse imagery found on Iron Age British coinage, specifically the Western coins traditionally attributed to the ‘Dobunni’, the author explores what these coins may be able to inform us regarding the possible relationships between humans and horses and their personhood therein. Drawing on wider evidence including faunal remains and other horse-related metalwork, it is argued that these coins could be interpreted as a manifestation of the complex perspectives surrounding a symbiotic relationship between humans and horses.
    • The College buildings

      Seaborne, Malcolm (Governors of Chester College, 1989)
      This book chapter discusses the buildings at Chester College. The buildings date back to the 1840s, and demonstrate historical continuity on a single site and the development of teacher training and higher education. The College's building history is discussed in four phases - the pioneer period 1839-1869, the period of consolidation 1870-1900, new beginnings 1901-1939, and the period of expansion 1945-1987.
    • Combined operations and the European theatre during the Nine Years' War, 1688-97

      McLay, Keith A. J.; University College Chester (Blackwell, 2005-11)
      This article discusses the strategic and operational purpose of England's combined army-navy operations within the European theatre during the Nine Years' War, 1688-97. Specifically, the historical consensus that these operations were simply a compromise product of the contemporary political discourse, and consistently suffered from poor preparation and implementation, is reassessed. In so doing, the article considers the combined service descents planned and executed against the northern French coastline between 1691 and 1694, including in particular the renowned operation at Brest in June 1694, and also those operations undertaken by Admiral Russell's Mediterranean fleet in 1695.
    • Conclusions

      Milner, Nicky; Taylor, Barry; Conneller, Chantal; University of York, University of Chester, University of Manchester (White Rose University Press, 2018-04-12)
      Conclusions arising from the Star Carr project
    • Constructing a Civic Community in Late Medieval London: the Common Profit, Charity and Commemoration

      Harry, David; University of Chester (Boydell and Brewer, 2019-02-15)
      In the late fourteenth century, London’s government, through mismanagement and negligence, experienced a series of crises. Relationships with the crown were tested; competing factions sought to wrest power from the hands of the once all-powerful victualling guilds; revolt in the streets in 1381 targeted the institutions of royal as well as civic power; and, between 1392 and 1397, King Richard removed the liberties of the city and appointed his own wardens to govern in place of the mayor of London. This book examines the strategies employed by the generation of London aldermen who governed after 1397 to regain control of their city. By examining a range of interdisciplinary sources, including manuscript and printed books, administrative records, accounts of civic ritual and epitaphs, this book explores how, by carefully constructing the idea of a civic community united by shared political concerns and spiritual ambitions, a small number of men virtually monopolised power in the capital. More generally, this is an exploration of the mentalities of those who sought civic power in the late Middle Ages and provokes the question: why govern, and for whom?
    • The Contemporary Archaeology of Urban Cremation

      Williams, Howard; Wessman, Anna; University of Chester; University of Helsinki (Oxford University Press, 2017-04-27)
      The Contemporary Archaeology of Urban Cremation
    • The correspondence of Henry Cromwell, 1655–1659

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2008-07)
      This edited volume of Henry Cromwell's correspondence includes an introductory chapter which outlines his life and career, explores his handling of Ireland, and highlights the principal and varied Irish and English issues covered within his correspondence. The majority of the letters cover the period between the summer of 1655 to spring 1659 when he governed Ireland for the Lord Protector, his father Oliver Cromwell, and his elder brother, Richard Cromwell.
    • Cremation and contemporary churchyards

      Williams, Howard; Williams, Elizabeth; University of Chester
      A contemporary archaeological investigation of cremation memorials in English and Welsh churchyards.
    • Cremation and the Use of Fire in Mesolithic Mortuary Practices in North-West Europe

      Gray Jones, Amy; University of Chester (Oxford University Press, 2017-04-27)
      Cremation is not widely recognized as a form of mortuary treatment amongst the hunter-gatherer communities of Mesolithic north-west Europe (broadly defined as c.9300 cal. BC to c.4000 cal. BC). However, discoveries within the last two decades have increased the evidence for the practice of cremation (as well as other forms of treatment, such as secondary burial) amongst the hunter-gatherers of the Mesolithic, both in terms of the geographic distribution of the practice and its temporal spread throughout the period. Although rare in comparison to inhumation, cremation can now be seen to have been practiced throughout both the early and late Mesolithic and, whilst evidence is currently sparse within the modern areas of Germany and the British Isles, examples are known across Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, and the Republic of Ireland. The aim of this chapter is not to present a comprehensive catalogue of cremations in the Mesolithic, but rather to draw on a number of case studies to provide an overview of cremation practices, and the variety of post-cremation treatment of cremated remains, and to place this within the context of other forms of Mesolithic mortuary practice.
    • A Cromwellian landscape: Oliver Cromwell and the urban and rural environments of Britain

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (Manchester University Press, 2012)
      This book chapter discusses Oliver Cromwell's links with various parts of the Britain and Ireland.