• A shared environment: German-German relations along the border, 1945-1972

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester (SAGE, 2015-03-20)
      The division of Germany into two militarised blocs during the Cold War fundamentally shaped the lives of people living in both East and West. Yet, as recent scholarship has increasingly highlighted, there were also numerous areas of contact and interaction, whether in the cultural, political or social sphere. One largely overlooked aspect of these Cold War relations, which this article explores, is the environment. Focusing on the history of the shared German environment from the end of the Second World War through until the early 1970s, the article argues that on a local level, environmental problems helped to ensure the survival of cross-border relations. Despite their repeated efforts, the two states failed to divide the German landscape in half. Rivers, lakes and forests continually crossed the fortified border, while animals and plant life traversed from one side to the other too. In attempting to maintain this shared border landscape, both East and West Germans were repeatedly forced into dialogue. Although relations gradually faded as the border regime was strengthened, it proved impossible for either side to escape fully the entangled German environment.
    • Sir Francis Wheler's Caribbean and North American expedition, 1693: A case study in combined operational command during the reign of William III

      McLay, Keith A. J.; University of Chester (SAGE, 2007-11-01)
      This article uses the evidence of an amphibious campaign undertaken first in the Caribbean and then off the north-eastern American seaboard during the Nine Years War, 1688—97 to rejuvenate an understanding of combined operational command, which harks back to the views of the principal eighteenth-century author on amphibious warfare, Thomas More Molyneaux. In this analysis, combined operational command is shown to be a negotiated operational construct between the service commanders and the government, as a result of which disagreements related to the command structure and the subsequent dilution of authority through an executive council of war significantly impacted upon operational success.
    • 'They died for Germany': Jewish soldiers, the German Army and conservative debates about the Nazi past in the 1960s

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester (SAGE, 2009-01-01)
      There has been an increasing recognition in recent historical writing that the late 1950s and early 1960s marked a significant shift in West German society's relationship to the Nazi past. Yet the older more conservative generation that dominated West Germany's politics of confronting the past in the immediate post-war years are largely absent from these narratives. Focusing on the actions of the Federal Republic's staunchly conservative Defence Minister, Franz Josef Strauß, this article argues that even the conservative establishment played a significant role in West Germany's evolving memory culture. In the early 1960s, Strauß promoted the republication of a book of German-Jewish soldiers' war letters from the First World War. The collection enabled him to portray a different side of West Germany at a time when attention had focused back onto the crimes of the Nazi era. Despite this opportunism, the article contends that Strauß's support for the new book encouraged other conservative institutions to engage more fully with the recent past.