• The Alien Jew in the British Imagination, 1881-1905: Space, Mobility and Territoriality

      Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester
      This book explores how fin de siècle Britain and Britons displaced spatially-charged apprehensions about imperial decline, urban decay and unpoliced borders onto Jews from Eastern Europe migrating westwards. The myriad of representations of the ‘alien Jew’ that emerged were the product of, but also a catalyst for, a decisive moment in Britain’s legal history: the fight for the 1905 Aliens Act. Drawing upon a richly diverse collection of social and political commentary, including fiction, political testimony, ethnography, travel writing, journalism and cartography, this volume traces the shifting rhetoric around alien Jews as they journeyed from the Russian Pale of Settlement to London’s East End. By employing a unique and innovative reading of both the aliens debate and racialized discourse concerned with ‘the Jew’, Hannah Ewence demonstrates that ideas about ‘space’ and 'place’ critically informed how migrants were viewed; an argument which remains valid in today’s world.
    • Bridging the Gap between 'War' and 'Peace': The Case of Belgian Refugees in Britain

      Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-06-17)
      Britain’s ‘hospitality’ towards 250,000 Belgian refugees now warrants a mention in most histories of the First World War. Yet the refugees’ rapid repatriation by the British state continues to be treated as little more than a bookend to their story, whilst the trauma of return and the challenges of reintegration for those who fled has been all but ignored. This chapter seeks to correct these oversights by exposing the contradictions of a state-sponsored repatriation scheme; presented as the final act of a ‘generous’ and ‘liberal’ nation but, in reality, one which served the British government’s own interests. Such a mercenary approach to repatriation curtailed state concern for the conditions facing returning Belgians as their nation emerged from four years of war into a fragile ‘peace’.
    • Introduction. Minority History: From War to Peace

      Grady, Tim; Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-06-17)
      Against the backdrop of the First World War centenary, the introduction considers the place of minority groups in Europe’s commemorative plans. It argues that the governments of Britain, France and Germany have largely stuck to conventional narratives of the conflict, which have for the most part ignored diversity. Within local communities, however, far more innovative work has taken place; some of which has uncovered the variety of spaces that minority soldiers and civilians occupied during the First World War. The introduction concludes by considering historical writing on minorities in conflict and by outlining the agenda for this current volume.
    • Minorities and the First World War: From War to Peace

      Grady, Tim; Ewence, Hannah; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-06-17)
      This book examines the particular experience of ethnic, religious and national minorities who participated in the First World War as members of the main belligerent powers: Britain, France, Germany and Russia. Individual chapters explore themes including contested loyalties, internment, refugees, racial violence, genocide and disputed memories from 1914 through into the interwar years to explore how minorities made the transition from war to peace at the end of the First World War. The first section discusses so-called 'friendly minorities', considering the way in which Jews, Muslims and refugees lived through the war and its aftermath. Section two looks at fears of 'enemy aliens', which prompted not only widespread internment, but also violence and genocide. The third section considers how the wartime experience of minorities played out in interwar Europe, exploring debates over political representation and remembrance, thereby bridging the gap between war and peace.
    • The Oratory of Jimmy Carter

      Jackson, Donna; Lehrman, Robert; University of Chester; American University, Washington DC (Palgrave Macmillan, 2016-01-06)
      Successful rhetoric, it has been argued, comes from an effective fusion of ethos, pathos and logos, combined with style and delivery (Foss: 2012). While Jimmy Carter may be respected for his post-presidential career, he is not renowned as a great president and this chapter will consider the extent to which his perceived failures can be attributed to his rhetorical style. In particular, we will focus upon three major speeches delivered by Carter during his administration: his inaugural address of January 1977, the Crisis of Confidence speech of 1979, and the State of the Union Address in 1980. Although the content of each speech accurately reflected the relevant context, the response of the American public was markedly different due to rhetoric. The pathos apparent in Carter's inaugural address, delivered with his genuine, personal and informal style, resonated with a nation traumatised by the tragedies and scandals associated with Vietnam and Watergate. However, as the context changed, Carter's informality and personal appeal no longer captivated public attention in the way that it once had. The content of Carter's speeches reflected the tougher approach to both the economy and foreign policy that the public demanded, but he was unable to deliver his message convincingly. Unable to adapt his style and delivery to the changing times, Carter's pathos appeared inappropriate and ethos and logos ineffective by the final year of his administration. Ultimately, Carter proved that successful rhetoric requires a combination of context, content and style, and his inability to consistently produce that fusion contributed to subsequent negative evaluations of his presidency.
    • Selective Remembering: Minorities and the Remembrance of the First World War in Britain and Germany

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017-06-17)
      Remembering the war dead, so historical writing suggests, was considerably easier for the victors than for the vanquished. Yet, as this essay suggests, this strict dichotomy was not quite as rigid as the historiography implies. In both Britain and Germany, ethnic, religious and national minorities did play some role in nascent memory cultures. However, while some groups were remembered, other minorities, such as Britain’s African troops or Germany’s Polish soldiers, were all too often missing from the commemorative landscape. The absence of minorities from the remembrance process, then, had less to do with the outcome of the war, but was rather contingent on place, time and the minority group in question.