• ‘Clumsy and Illogical’? Reconsidering the West Kirby Hogback

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2016-11-02)
      This paper presents a fresh reading of a significant early medieval recumbent stone monument from West Kirby, Merseyside (formerly Cheshire). Rather than being a single-phased hogback, later subject to damage, it is argued that West Kirby 4 might have been carved in successive phases, possibly by different hands. It is suggested that the carvers had different abilities and/or adapted their work in response to the time pressures of a funeral or a shift in the location or function of the stone. While a single explanation for the character of the West Kirby monument remains elusive, the article proposes that, rather than ‘clumsy and illogical’, the stone was more likely a coherent but experimental, distinctive and asymmetrical, multi-phased and/or multi-authored creation. Through a review of the monument’s historiography and a detailed reappraisal of the details and parallels of its form, ornament and material composition, the paper reconsiders the commemorative significance of this recumbent stone monument for the locality, region and understanding of Viking Age sculpture across the British Isles. As a result, West Kirby’s importance as an ecclesiastical locale in the Viking Age is reappraised.
    • The correspondence of Henry Cromwell, 1655–1659

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2008-07-10)
      This edited volume of Henry Cromwell's correspondence includes an introductory chapter which outlines his life and career, explores his handling of Ireland, and highlights the principal and varied Irish and English issues covered within his correspondence. The majority of the letters cover the period between the summer of 1655 to spring 1659 when he governed Ireland for the Lord Protector, his father Oliver Cromwell, and his elder brother, Richard Cromwell.
    • Death and memory on the Home Front: Second World War commemoration in the South Hams, Devon

      Walls, Samuel; Williams, Howard; University of Exeter ; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2010-01-27)
      This article discusses two World War II monuments - the Slapton Sands Evacuation Memorial and the Torcross Tank Memorial - as commemorations of events and as a method of defining the identities of local people.
    • Depicting the dead: Commemoration through cists, cairns and symbols in early medieval Britain

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2007-06-01)
      This article argues that early medieval cairns and mounds served to commemorate concepts of gender and geneology. Excavations at Lundin Links in Fife are used as exemplar.
    • Landscapes of Internment: British Prisoner of War Camps and the Memory of the First World War

      Grady, Tim; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2019-07-26)
      During the First World War, all the belligerent powers interned both civilian and military prisoners. In Britain alone, over 100,000 people were held behind barbed wire. Despite the scale of this enterprise, interment barely features in Britain's First World War memory culture. By exploring the place of prisoner of war camps within the "militarized environment" of the home front, this article demonstrates the centrality of internment to local wartime experiences. Being forced to share the same environment meant that both British civilians and German prisoners clashed over access to resources, roads and the surrounding landscape. As the article contends, it was only when the British started to employ the prisoners on environmental improvement measures, such as land drainage or river clearance projects, that relations gradually improved. With the end of the war and closure of the camps, however, these deep entanglements were quickly forgotten. Instead of commemorating the complexities of the conflict, Britain's memory culture focused on more comfortable narratives; British military "sacrifice" on the Western Front quickly replaced any discussion of the internment of the "enemy" at home.
    • Monument and material reuse at the National Memorial Arboretum

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2014-05-16)
      Exploring the relocation and reuse of fragments and whole artefacts, materials and monuments in contemporary commemorative memorials in the United Kingdom (UK), this paper focuses on the National Memorial Arboretum (Alrewas, Staffordshire, hereafter NMA). Within this unique assemblage of memorial gardens, reuse constitutes a distinctive range of material commemoration. Through a detailed investigation of the NMA’s gardens, this paper shows how monument and material reuse, while used in very different memorial forms, tends to be reserved to commemorate specific historical subjects and themes. Monument and material reuse is identified as a form of commemorative rehabilitation for displaced memorials and provides powerful and direct mnemonic and emotional connections between past and present in the commemoration through peace memorials, of military disasters and defensive actions, the sufferings of prisoners of war, and atrocities inflicted upon civilian populations. In exploring monument and material reuse to create specific emotive and mnemonic fields and triggers, this paper engages with a hitherto neglected aspect of late 20th- and early 21st-century commemorative culture.
    • Restoration and reform, 1153-1165: Recovery from Civil War in England

      White, Graeme J.; Chester College of Higher Education (Cambridge University Press, 2000-04-06)
      This book discusses the processes by which effective royal government was restored in England following the Civil War during the reign of King Stephen.
    • St Pientia and the Château de la Roche-Guyon: Relic Translations and Sacred History in Seventeenth-Century France

      Hillman, Jennifer; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2017-05-26)
      This article seeks to explore the connections between the translation of an early Christian relic to the Château de la Roche-Guyon in the mid-seventeenth century and the writing of local sacred histories by the priest and prior Nicolas Davanne. It finds that the translation of a finger bone of St Pientia was the culmination of efforts by a local scholar to revive the sacred history of the Vexin and to celebrate the regional liturgical traditions associated with its early Christian martyrs. In doing so, it finds support for the recent historiography on local, sacred histories which emerged during the Counter-Reformation in response to liturgical standardization. The article also discusses the unstable nature of relics as material objects and explores the ways in which relics were continually reinvested with meaning. It is shown that Pientia’s relic was not only part of a defence of a local spiritual heritage in response to Trent, but also part of a claim to an early Christian spiritual heritage for a deviant and heretical movement within the Church.
    • Subsistence, environment and Mesolithic landscape archaeology

      Taylor, Barry; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2018-02-07)
      Since the 1970’s research into Mesolithic landscapes has been heavily influenced by economic models of human activity where patterns of settlement and mobility result from the relationship between subsistence practices and the environment. However, in reconstructing these patterns we have tended to generalise both the modes of subsistence and the temporal and spatial variability of the environment, and ignored the role that cultural practices played in the way subsistence tasks were organised. Whilst more recent research has emphasised the importance that cultural practices played in the way landscapes were perceived and understood, these have tended to underplay the role of subsistence and have continued to consider the environment in a very generalised manner. This paper argues that we can only develop detailed accounts of Mesolithic landscapes by looking at the specific forms of subsistence practice and the complex relationships they created with the environment. It will also show that the inhabitation of Mesolithic landscapes was structured around cultural attitudes to particular places and to the environment, and that this can be seen archaeologically through practices of deposition and recursive patterns of occupation at certain sites.