• Hogbacks: the Materiality of Solid Spaces

      Williams, Howard; University of Chester (Boydell Press, 2015-09-17)
      The hogbacks of northern England and southern Scotland have long been seen as a distinctive category of tenth- and early eleventh-century early medieval stone monument resulting from Hiberno-Norse influence and settlement. This chapter reviews previous research and suggests a new foundation for their interpretation, arguing that hogbacks were an effective commemorative media because of the mnemonics of their materiality. Specifically, I focus upon the skeuomorphic allusions inherent in the ornamentation and form of hogbacks. Combined with their solidity and lithic weight, hogbacks cited a multi-scalar network of architectural material cultures and buildings already established within Britain and Ireland prior to, as well as during, the Viking Age. Rather than exclusive translations of secular halls into stone as often portrayed in both popular and scholarly research (e.g. Stocker 2000; Eriksen 2013), hogbacks cited a complex network of buildings (including secular halls but potentially also churches) and small-scale architectures (from biers and coffins to caskets and reliquaries) which were distilled into a solid lithic architectural form in various fashions. In this regard, hogbacks operated as elite commemorative monuments because their form connected to this shared elite network of architectural ‘things’ and implied the presence of the dead as inhabiting, or at least accessible through, the monument. Endbeasts and other themes of conflict were apotropaic in this context. The monstrous, sometimes ursine, beasts threaten to engulf some hogbacks – although sometimes they are demonstrably curtailed by their binding and muzzling. The emphasis upon bound beasts reveals the significance of sealing and fixing the tomb in place through its hogback design.
    • Introduction: stones in substance, space and time

      Williams, Howard; Kirton, Joanne; Gondek, Meggen M.; University of Chester; Big Heritage (Boydell Press, 2015-09-17)
      A triad of research themes – materiality, biography and landscape – provide the distinctive foci and parameters of the contributions to this book. The chapters explore a range of early medieval inscribed and sculpted stone monuments from Ireland (Ní Ghrádaigh and O’Leary), Britain (Gondek, Hall, Kirton and Williams) and Scandinavia (Back Danielsson and Crouwers). The chapters together show how these themes enrich and expand the interdisciplinary study of early medieval stone monuments, in particular revealing how a range of different inscribed and sculpted stones were central to the creation and recreation of identities and memories for early medieval individuals, families, households, religious and secular communities and kingdoms.
    • Royal income and regional trends

      White, Graeme J.; University of Chester (Boydell Press, 2008-03-20)
      This book chapter compares figures from the King Henry I's extant pipe roll of 1130 with first full pipe roll of King Henry II (1156) to offer some conclusions about the state of the country and the fortunes of different regions during King Stephen's reign.
    • 'To create a little world out of chaos': The Protectoral ordinances of 1653-1654 reconsidered

      Gaunt, Peter; University of Chester (Boydell Press, 2007-01-18)
      This book chapter analyses 180 ordinances issued by Oliver Cromwell and the council between 1653 and 1654.