• A Certain Romance: Style shifting in the language of Alex Turner in Arctic Monkeys songs 2006-2018

      Flanagan, Paul; University of Chester (Sage, 2019-03-15)
      This paper reports on a diachronic study of the language employed by Arctic Monkeys frontman Alex Turner in his songs over a 13-year period. The analysis adapts Simpson’s (1999) USA- 5 model for studying accent in vocal performance, and focuses on the realisation of three phonological variables and two dialect variables in a 16,000-word corpus of 69 songs across all six albums released by the band. Hailing from High Green, Sheffield, Turner speaks with a vernacular Yorkshire accent, and the band’s early appeal (particularly in northern England) is often accredited partially to their authentic down-to-earth image, content and performance. Throughout their career, the band have evolved in terms of their musical genre and style, and, having recorded their first two albums in England, later albums were recorded and produced mostly in Los Angeles. Simpson’s model is modified in order to analyse trends in usage of five linguistic variables with non-standard variants iconic of northern British identity, with a view to analysing how Turner’s changing linguistic practice relates to his affiliation with vernacular and institutional norms, and thus his performance of different identities within songs. Keywords: Accent, Arctic Monkeys, dialect, identity, northern English, non-standard, vernacular
    • Charlotte Brontë and the Politics of Cloth: The ‘vile rumbling mills’ of Yorkshire

      Wynne, Deborah; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2017-12-18)
      This essay examines Charlotte Brontë’s engagement with the textile industry from her earliest writings to her 1849 Condition of England novel Shirley in order to emphasise the role that Yorkshire and its staple industry played in her writing. Critics have discussed Brontë’s interest in textile production largely in relation to Shirley. However, her fascination with cloth manufacturing is evident in many of her Angrian tales and some of her unfinished novels. This essay argues that through her early representations of mills and mill owners Brontë formulated an understanding of political conflict and masculine power which helped to shape her mature writing. This culminates in Shirley with her critique of the taboo against educated women entering careers in trade and manufacturing.
    • Charlotte Brontë's Gothic Fragment: 'The Story of Willie Ellin'

      Wynne, Deborah; University of Chester
      Charlotte Brontë’s eighteen-page fragment, ‘The Story of Willie Ellin’, written shortly after the publication of Villette in 1853, combines the gothic and realism and uses multiple narrators to tell a disturbing story of cruelty towards a child. The generic instability and disordered temporal framework of this fragment make it unlike anything Brontë had previously written, yet it has attracted the attention of few scholars. Those who have discussed it have condemned it as a failure; the later fragment ‘Emma’, also left incomplete by the author’s premature death, has been seen as the more likely beginning of a successor to Villette. ‘The Story of Willie Ellin’ reveals Brontë at her most experimental as she explores the use of different narrative voices, including that of an unnamed genderless ‘ghost’, to tell a story from different perspectives. It also shows Brontë representing a child’s experience of extreme physical abuse which goes far beyond the depictions of chastisement in Jane Eyre (1847). This essay argues that ‘The Story of Willie Ellin’ affords rich insights into Brontë’s ideas and working practices in her final years, suggesting that it should be more widely acknowledged as a unique aspect of Brontë’s oeuvre, revealing the new directions she may have taken had she lived to complete another novel.
    • Charlotte Brontë: Legacies and Afterlives

      Wynne, Deborah; Regis, Amber K.; University of Chester; University of Sheffield
      This edited collection offers a timely reflection on Charlotte Brontë's life and work in the context of the bicentenary of her birth in 2016. Brontë's legacy continues to evolve and the new essays in this volume, covering the period from her first publication to the present day, explain why she has remained at the forefront of global literary cultures. Taking a fresh look at over 150 years of engagement with one of the best-loved novelists of the Victorian period, the volume examines areas such as genre, narrative style, national and regional identities, sexuality, literary tourism, adaptation theories, cultural studies, postcolonial and transnational readings. The contributors to this volume offer innovative interpretations of the rich variety of afterlives enjoyed by characters such as Jane Eyre and Rochester in neo-Victorian fiction, cinema and television, on the stage and on the web. Bringing the story of Charlotte's legacy up to date, the essays analyse obituaries, vlogs, stage and screen adaptations, fan fiction and erotic makeovers, showing that Charlotte Brontë's influence has been manifold and an enduring feature of the feminist movement.
    • Charlotte Brontë’s Frocks and Shirley’s Queer Textiles

      Wynne, Deborah; University of Chester (Ashgate, 2013-04-23)
      This chapter discusses the role of textiles and fashion in Charlotte Brontë’s novel, Shirley (1849). It argues that Brontë uses sewing and fashion as a way of representing female bonds. This is contrasted with her representations of the 'male' world of the mill-owner.
    • 'The "Charlotte" Cult: Writing the Literary Pilgrimage from Gaskell to Woolf

      Wynne, Deborah; University of Chester (Manchester University Press, 2017-07-24)
      This chapter analyses how writers and literary tourists imagined Charlotte Brontë during the fifty years after her death. It is framed by the accounts of Elizabeth Gaskell and Virginia Woolf, both of whom travelled to Yorkshire to find evidence of Charlotte Brontë’s life and to assess her legacy as an author. While Gaskell's biography unleashed the 'Charlotte cult' of devoted followers, Woolf questioned the value of the literary pilgrimage and the myths of authorship surrounding Charlotte Brontë’s legacy.
    • Choices over time: Methodological issues in investigating current change

      Aarts, Bas; Close, Joanne; Wallis, Sean; University College London ; University College London ; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2013-02-16)
      This book chapter explores the diachrinic corpus of present-day spoken English, focusing on true alternation: the progressive. The chapter includes a case study on the alteration - shall versus will.
    • Circulation and Stasis: Feminine Property in the Novels of Charles Dickens

      Wynne, Deborah; University of Chester (Ashgate, 2012-07-16)
      This chapter explores the figure of Miss Havisham, and other female characters, in Charles Dickens's Great Expectations (1860). It argues that the novel's exploration of portable property, usually discussed in terms of Wemmick, is particularly focused on the museal qualities of Miss Havisham's Satis House and the objects it contains.
    • The Commitment to Truth in the Early Resistance Short Fiction of Beppe Fenoglio

      Seed, Ian; University of Chester (Italica, 2017-11-30)
      This essay considers the Resistance short stories in Beppe Fenoglio’s collection I ventitre giorni della città di Alba, published in 1952. Setting these stories within the historical and culture context of post-war Italy, it investigates their author’s commitment to expressing the “truth” of the experience of the Resistance through fiction. It argues that Fenoglio goes further than his neorealist contemporaries in attempting to do so in the manner in which he depicts a civil war rather than a war of liberation, and in his unsparingly harsh description of certain aspects of partisan behavior. The essay examines the relationship between Fenoglio’s life and his fiction, putting the case that we should draw clear distinctions between the two, without detracting from the truth of the latter. In conclusion, it draws comparsions between the early stories and Fenoglio’s later novel, Il partigiano Johnny, where the author was able to capture the heroic qualties of the Resistance alongside his depiction of all its contradictory aspects.
    • Contents May Settle

      Stephenson, William; University of Chester (The Interpreter's House, 2016-10-01)
      Poem
    • Cordelia's can't: Rhetorics of reticence and (dis)ease in King Lear

      Rees, Emma L. E.; University of Chester (Ashgate, 2010-12-01)
      Susan Sontag in "Illness as Metaphor and AIDS and Its Metaphors" points to the vital connection between metaphors and bodily illnesses, and though her analyses deals mainly with modern literary works. This collection of essays examines the vast extent to which rhetorical figures related to sickness and health - metaphor, simile, pun, analogy, symbol, personification, allegory, oxymoron, and metonymy - inform medieval and early modern literature, religion, science, and medicine in England and its surrounding European context. In keeping with the critical trend over the past decade to foreground the matter of the body and the emotions, these essays track the development of sustained, nuanced rhetorics of bodily disease and health-physical, emotional, and spiritual. The contributors to this collection approach their intriguing subjects from a wide range of timely, theoretical, and interdisciplinary perspectives, including the philosophy of language, semiotics, and linguistics; ecology; women's and gender studies; religion; and, the history of medicine. The essays focus on works by Dante, Chaucer, Spenser, Shakespeare, Donne, and Milton among others; the genres of epic, lyric, satire, drama, and the sermon; and cultural history artifacts such as medieval anatomies, the arithmetic of plague bills of mortality, meteorology, and medical guides for healthy regimens.
    • Critical Responses to Sensation

      Wynne, Deborah; University of Chester (Blackwell, 2011-07-01)
      This chapter discusses the reception of the 1860s sensation novel in the Victorian period, and charts the critical responses to the genre throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
    • Critical Writing on William Cowper, 2013-2014

      Chantler, Ashley; University of Chester (Cowper and Newton Museum, 2015)
      Bibliography of critical writing on William Cowper, 2013-2014
    • A Cross-linguistic Analysis of the Ordering of Attributive Adjectives

      Flanagan, Paul; University of Chester (Edge Hill University, 2014-05)
      This thesis examines the order in which attributive adjectives are placed when appearing in a string modifying the same head noun. Noun phrases featuring more than one adjective are examined in six languages, all of which have modification patterns which exhibit distinctive patterns of syntax and morphology. Northern Sotho is a Bantu language with postnominal adjectives, agglutinative morphology and qualificative particles which link modifier and head; Welsh also has predominantly postnominal adjectives but less complex adjectival morphology. Polish and English adjectives typically appear before the noun, and the order in which they are sequenced is compared with Chinese, in which all modification appears before the noun, including relative clauses. I also examine the syntax of adjective strings in Tagalog, an Austronesian language in which adjectives can appear both before and after the noun, and in which the nature of lexical categories is particularly complex. The universality of the adjective class has generated considerable debate among linguists, with much discussion in the last decade with regard to whether adjectives constitute a independent lexical category across all languages. Chinese, Tagalog and Northern Sotho are all languages in which the nature of the adjectival category has been questioned, and this comparative analysis of a syntactic phenomenon which is an essential characteristic of adjectives adds a new dimension to the debate surrounding the universality of the adjective class. Based on a combination of corpus data and field-based methods, I analyse the patterns which appear across the languages in my sample. I evaluate the various explanations of the different factors which affect the order in which English adjectives are placed ahead of a noun, and relate my findings to equivalent structures in each of my focus languages, before proposing some conventions which appear to be consistent across a representative sample of languages.
    • Crossing borders in Victorian travel: spaces, nations and empires

      Fegan, Melissa (Informa UK Limited, 2019-09-26)
    • Cultural Representations: Hair as the Abundant Signifier

      West, Sally; University of Chester (Bloomsbury, 2018-12-13)
      This contribution to A Cultural History of Hair: The Age of Empire considers a variety of representations of hair in literature and wider culture. It argues that such representations exhibit a complex array of significations, including moral judgements and cultural anxieties of the age.
    • A Cyborg Observes Oxford Circus

      Stephenson, William; University of Chester (Ink Sweat and Tears Press, 2015-07-31)
      Poem
    • Dark marks, curse scars and corporal punishment: Criminality and the function of bodily marks in the Harry Potter series

      Andrew, Lucy; University of Chester; University Centre Shrewsbury (Manchester University Press, 2019-06-21)
      This essay explores the function of tattoos and scars in J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series and considers the contribution of these marks to the series’ overarching crime narrative. Focusing primarily on the final four books, the essay addresses three major instances of tattooing and scarring: the Dark Mark – the brand of Voldemort’s Death Eaters; Harry’s lightning-bolt scar – the product of Voldemort’s failed killing curse; and the message imprinted on Harry’s arm through his use of Professor Umbridge’s ‘special’ quill to write lines during detention. This essay considers the various conscious functions of these bodily marks – as a signifier of gang membership, a means of intimidation, a statement of possession and a punitive measure to control and modify behaviour through pain. It also examines the subconscious role of bodily marks in constructing the identities of and relationships between criminal, victim and seeker of justice. This essay explores how the analysis of scars and tattoos illuminates the series’ treatment of crucial issues within crime literature, such as morality, criminal origins, the process of detection and the possibility of redemption.
    • A Day in the Life of Steve

      Chantler, Ashley; University of Chester (Outpost19, 2018-06)
      Flash fiction.
    • Decoding Desire: From Kirk and Spock to K/S

      Woledge, Elizabeth; University of Chester (Routledge, 2005-08)
      This paper uses the example of 'slash fiction' (fan fiction which appropriates media heroes to form homoerotic pairings) to offer an investigation which broadens the concept of decoding. Slash fiction provides a particularly suitable starting point for considering the decoding process, as it is one of the few cases in which we have the evidence of decoding readily available for analysis in the form of fanzines. Many academics have considered Kirk and Spock's relationship as it was represented in Star Trek and the homoerotic 'K/S' fiction which it inspired, however no one has effectively considered the interpretive processes which connect them. The author questions the implicit belief that K/S fiction is an 'oppositional' decoding of Star Trek and demonstrate its more negotiated nature through a detailed consideration of the decoding process. To this end the author borrows an idea of David Morley's who has suggested that 'Hall's original model [of decoding] tends to blur together questions of recognition, comprehension, interpretation and response' (Morley 1994, 21). This paper will take up Morley's four process model of decoding and answer Jenkins' call for a closer analysis of the links between audience reception and texts (Jenkins 1996, 275).